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Incident Handling on Cloud Computing

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Published: Thu, 08 Feb 2018

Introduction

Cloud Computing

Cloud computing provides people the way to share distributed resources and services that belong to different organizations or sites.As cloud computing allocate the divided possessions by means of the systems in the released surroundings. That’s why it creates the safety issues for us to expand the cloud computing application.

Cloud computing is explained by NIST as the representation for allow suitable, on demand arrangements for right to entry to a collective pool of settings the calculative

Possessions. All these like networks, servers, storage, application and services is continuously planned and free with less supervisory activities or cloud supplier communication. Cloud computing is taken as a innovative calculating concept up to now. It permitted the use of calculating communication with more than one stage of thoughts. The spot requirement of these services is offered online at fewer prices. Reason is that the insinuation for the high elasticity and accessibility. Cloud computing is the main topic which will be getting the good manner of concentration recently.

Cloud computing services gives advantages from financial systems of all range accomplished. With this the flexible utilization of possessions, occupation and others work competency.

However, cloud computing is an emerging forming of distributed computing that is still in its infancy.

The concept uses of its own all the levels of explanations and analysis. Most of the concepts has been written regarding cloud computing, its explanation. Its main aim is to search the major paradigm of the utilization and given that common classification for

Concepts and significant details of the services.

A public cloud is the major one which has the communication and other calculative possessions. This consists of making obtainable to the common people online. This is known by all the cloud servicer who is doing the marketing. It’s by giving explanation of the outsider industries. On the other hand of the range is the confidential cloud. The confidential cloud is the one in which the calculating surroundings is generated completely for the industry. This can handled by industry or by the third party. This can be hosted under the industries information centre which is within or outside of it. The private cloud provides the industry a good control on the communication and calculative sources as compared to public cloud.

There is other operational models which lies between the private and public cloud. These are community cloud and hybrid cloud. The community cloud is mainly related to private cloud. On the other hand the communication and calculative sources will be mutual by various industries that are having a similar confidentiality and regulatory thoughts. Instead they are exclusively checking the one industry.

The hybrid cloud is mainly the blend of two or more than two clouds i.e. (private, community, or public) this

Become the uncommon bodies which are stringed to each other by harmonized or proprietary technology which allows interoperability. Same as the various operational models which impacts to the industrial range and organized surroundings. That’s why this model gives assistance to the cloud which impacts it.

Three well-known and frequently-used service models are the following:

Software-as-a-Service. Software-as-a-Service (SaaS) is an on demand software services in which user gets access to the required software thorough some intermediate client like browser using internet. Software platform and relevant files are stored centrally. It drastically reduces the total cost of software for the user as it does not require user to incur any infrastructure cost which include hardware installation cost, maintenance cost and operating cost. Subscribers of these services are only given limited control related to the desired software including any preference selection and administrative setting. They do not have any control over the underlying cloud infrastructure.

Platform-as-a-Service. Platform-as-a-Service (PaaS) is an on demand platform delivery model. In this user is provided with the complete software platform which is used by the subscriber to develop and deploy software. It also result in considerable saving for the subscriber as he does not have to incur costs related to buying and managing of complicated hardware and software components required to support the software development platform. The special purpose development environment is tailored to the specific needs of the subscriber by the cloud service provider. Good enough controls are given to the subscriber to aid in smooth development of software.

Infrastructure-as-a-Service. Infrastructure-as-a-Service (IaaS) is an on demand infrastructure delivery services. In this host of computing servers, softwares, and network equipments are provided. This infrastructure is used to establish platform to develop and execute software. Subscriber can cut down his cost to bare minimum by avoiding any purchase of hardware and software components. Subscribers is given quite a lot of flexibility to choose various infrastructural components as per the requirements. Cloud subscriber controls the maximum security features.

Figure illustrates the differences in scope and control between the cloud subscriber and cloud provider.

Given central diagram shows the five conceptual layers of a cloud environment which apply to public clouds and other deployments models

The arrows at the left and right of the diagram denote the approximate range of the cloud provider’s and user’s scope and control over the cloud environment for each service model.

Cloud subscriber’s extent of control over the system is determined by the level of support provided by the cloud provider. Higher the support by cloud provider lower is the scope and control of the subscriber. Physical elements of cloud environment are shown by two lower layers of the diagram. These physical elements are completely controlled by cloud provider irrespective of the service model.

The facility layer which is the lowest layer comprises of Heating, ventilation, air conditioning (HVAC), power, communications, and other aspects of the physical plant whereas hardware layers comprises of network , storage and other physical computing infrastructure elements

The logical elements of a cloud environment is denoted by other layers

The virtualized infrastructure layer lead to software components, such as hypervisors, virtual machines, virtual data storage, and supporting middleware elements required to setup a capable infrastructure to establish efficient computing platform

While virtual machine technology is commonly used at this layer, other means of providing the necessary software abstractions are not precluded. Similarly, the platform architecture layer entails compilers, libraries, utilities, and other software tools and development environments needed to implement applications. The application layer represents deployed software applications targeted towards end-user software clients or other programs, and made available via the cloud.

Iaas ans Paas as services are very close and difference between them is quite vague. Basically these are distinguished by the kind of support environment, level of support and control allocation between cloud subscriber and cloud provider.

Main thrust of cloud computing is not only limited to single organization but also extends as a vehicle for outsourcing various components as public cloud.

been to provide a vehicle for outsourcing parts of that environment to an outside party as a public cloud.

Through any outsource of information technology services, relates survived in relation to any connotation for system safety and isolation.

The main issue centres on the risks associated with moving important applications or data from within the confines of the Industries calculating centre which is of different other company (i.e. a public cloud). That is easily available to the normal people

Decreasing prise and increasing proficiency is the main concerns. These two are the chief inspirations for stepping towards the public cloud. On the other hand deceasing accountability for the safety should not depend on it. Finally the industry is responsible for all safety issues of the outsourced services. Observing and addressing the safety problems which go increase will be at the sight of industry. Some of the major issue like performances and accessibility. Because cloud computing brings with it new security challenges, it is essential for an organization to oversee and Administer in which manner the cloud servicer handles and prevent the computing environment and provides guarantee of safety.

Incidents

an event is any observable occurrence in a system or network. Events include a user connecting to a file, a server receiving a request for a Web page, a user sending electronic mail, and a firewall blocking a connection attempt. Unfavorable occasion are the one which has unhelpful results. For instance: crashes, network packet floods and unauthorized utilization. of system privileges, unauthorized access to sensitive data, and execution of malicious code that destroys data. A system safety occasion is actually a contravention or forthcoming danger of breach of system safety strategy, suitable utilization policies and modeled safety policies. The terminology for these incidents is helpful to the small business owner for understanding service and product offerings

Denial of Service- An attacker directs hundreds of external compromised workstations to send as many ping requests as possible to a business network, swamping the system.

Malicious Code- A worm is able to quickly infect several hundred workstations within an organization by taking advantage of a vulnerability that is present in many of the company’s unpatched computers.

Unauthorized Access- An attacker runs a piece of “evil” software to gain access to a server’s password file. The attacker then obtains unauthorized administrator-level access to a system and the sensitive data it contains, either stealing the data for future use or blackmailing the firm for its return.

Inappropriate Usage- An employee provides illegal copies of software to others through peer-to-peer file sharing services, accesses pornographic or hate-based websites or threatens another person through email.

Incident Handling:

Incident handling can be divided into six phases: preparation, identification, containment, eradication, recovery, and follow-up.

Step 1: Preparation: In the heat of the moment, when an incident has been discovered, decision-making may be haphazard. Software-as-a-Service (SaaS) is an on demand software services in which user gets access to the required software thorough some intermediate client like browser using internet. Software platform and relevant files are stored centrally. It drastically reduces the total cost of software for the user as it does not require user to incur any infrastructure cost which include hardware installation cost, maintenance cost and operating cost. Subscribers of these services are only given limited control related to the desired software including any preference selection and administrative setting. They do not have any control over the underlying cloud infrastructure.

Platform-as-a-Service.

Platform-as-a-Service (PaaS) is an on demand platform delivery model. In this user is provided with the complete software platform which is used by the subscriber to develop and deploy software. It also result in considerable saving for the subscriber as he does not have to incur costs related to buying and managing of complicated hardware and software components required to support the software development platform. The special purpose development environment is tailored to the specific needs of the subscriber by the cloud service provider. Good enough controls are given to the subscriber to aid in smooth development of software.

Infrastructure-as-a-Service.

Infrastructure-as-a-Service (IaaS) is an on demand infrastructure delivery services. In this host of computing servers, softwares, and network equipments are provided. This infrastructure is used to establish platform to develop and execute software. Subscriber can cut down his cost to bare minimum by avoiding any purchase of hardware and software components. Subscribers is given quite a lot of flexibility to choose various infrastructural components as per the requirements. Cloud subscriber controls the maximum security features.

Figure illustrates the differences in scope and control between the cloud subscriber and cloud provider.

Given central diagram shows the five conceptual layers of a cloud environment which apply to public clouds and other deployments models

The arrows at the left and right of the diagram denote the approximate range of the cloud provider’s and user’s scope and control over the cloud environment for each service model.

Cloud subscriber’s extent of control over the system is determined by the level of support provided by the cloud provider. Higher the support by cloud provider lower is the scope and control of the subscriber. Physical elements of cloud environment are shown by two lower layers of the diagram. These physical elements are completely controlled by cloud provider irrespective of the service model. The facility layer which is the lowest layer comprises of Heating, ventilation, air conditioning (HVAC), power, communications, and other aspects of the physical plant whereas hardware layers comprises of network , storage and other physical computing infrastructure elements

The logical elements of a cloud environment is denoted by other layers

The virtualized infrastructure layer lead to software components, such as hypervisors, virtual machines, virtual data storage, and supporting middleware elements required to setup a capable infrastructure to establish efficient computing platform

While virtual machine technology is commonly used at this layer, other means of providing the necessary software abstractions are not precluded. Similarly, the platform architecture layer entails compilers, libraries, utilities, and other software tools and development environments needed to implement applications. The application layer represents deployed software applications targeted towards end-user software clients or other programs, and made available via the cloud.

Iaas ans Paas as services are very close and difference between them is quite vague. Basically these are distinguished by the kind of support environment, level of support and control allocation between cloud subscriber and cloud provider. Main thrust of cloud computing is not only limited to single organization but also extends as a vehicle for outsourcing various components as public cloud.

Delete the reason of the event. Position the latest clean back up (to prepare for the computer mending)

Step 5: Recovery: This phase ensures that the system is returned to a fully operational status. The following steps should be taken in the recovery phase: Restore the system.

Authenticate the machine

The machine will be re-established then there should be the process of verification of the operations. After this the machine should be reverse to its normal behaviour. Organisation can take decision on leaving the monitor offline when the system is operating and patches installation.

Watch the computer.

When the monitor is reverse to online, it start the system for backdoors which avoids findings.

Step 6: Follow-Up: This stage is significant for recognizing the message delivered and it will reduce the future happenings.

Build the explained event report and gives the duplicates to the management. The operating unit’s IT security Officer and the Department of Commerce’s IT Security Program Manager. Provide the optional alteration to the management.

Execute the accepted activities.

Post-Incident

If the organization has a post-incident lessons learned process, they may want the cloud vendor to be involved in this process. What agreements will the organization need with the cloud provider for the lessons learned process? If the cloud provider has a lessons learned process, does management have concerns regarding information reported or shared relating to the organization? The cloud vendor will not be able to see much of the company’s processes, capabilities or maturity. The company may have concerns regarding how much of its internal foibles to share. If there are concerns, get agreement internally first, then negotiate them, if possible, and have them written into the contract. If the vendor will not or cannot meet the customer’s process requirements, what steps will the organization need to take?

An IH team collects and analyzes incident process metrics for trend and process improvement purposes. Like any other organization, the cloud provider will be collecting objective and subjective information regarding IH processes. As NIST points out, the useof this data is for a variety of purposes, including justifying additional funding of the incident response team. Will the organization need this IH process metric data from the provider to enable a complete understanding of the integration area in case the organization ever has a need to bring the cloud function back in-house? Will the organization need this data for reporting and process improvement in general? The use of this data is also for understanding trends related to attacks targeting the organization. Would the lack of this attack trend data leave the organization unacceptably exposed to risk? Determine what IH process metric data is required by the team and write it into the contract.

The organization will need to decide if they require provisions with the cloud provider regarding their evidence retention policies. Will the vendor keep the evidence long enough to meet the organization’s requirements? If not, will the organization need to bring the cloud vendor’s evidence in-house? Will the vendor allow the customer to take custody of the evidence? If the vendor retains the evidence longer than the customer policies dictate does this work create risk for the customer? If so, what recourse does the customer have? Legal counsel will need to provide direction in this area in order to ensure compliance with laws for all jurisdictions.

Background:

Cloud computing has built on industry developments dating from the 1980s by leveraging outsourced infrastructure services, hosted applications and software as a service (Owens, 2010). In the all parts, the techniques used are not original.

Yet, in aggregate, it is something very different. The differences provide both benefits and problems for the organization integrating with the cloud. The addition of elasticity and pay-as-you-go to this collection of technologies makes cloud computing compelling to CIOs in companies of all sizes.

Cloud integration presents unique challenges to incident handlers as well as to those responsible for preparing and negotiating the contract for cloud services. The challenges are further complicated when there is a prevailing perception that the cloud integration is “inside the security Edge or the organisation has been stated in written that a agreement needed the supplier to be safe, this must be sufficient.

This sort of thinking may be naïve but, unfortunately, it is not rare. The cloud provider may have a great deal of built in security or they may not. Whether they do or not, incident handling (IH) teams will eventually face incidents related to the integration, necessitating planning for handling incidents in this new environment.

The impacts of cloud integration warrant a careful analysis by an organization before implementation. An introduction of a disruptive technology such as cloud computing can make both definition and documentation of services, policies, and procedures unclear in a given environment. The IH team may find that it is helpful to go through the same process that the team initially followed when establishing their IH capability.

Security Incident

The term ‘security incident’ used in this guideline refers to any incident related to information security. It refers to information leakage that will be undesirable to the interests of the Government or an adverse event in an information system and/or network that poses a threat to computer or network security in respect of availability, integrity and confidentiality. On the other hand, the worse incidents like natural calamity, power cuts and data line failure. . are not within the scope of this guideline, and should be addressed by the system maintenance and disaster recovery plan.

Examples of security incidents include: unauthorized access, unauthorized utilization of services, denial of resources, disruption of services, compromise of protected data / program / network system privileges, leaks of classified data in electronic form, malicious destruction or modification of data / information, penetration and intrusion, misuse of system resources, computer viruses and hoaxes, and malicious codes or scripts affecting networked systems.

Security Incident Handling

Security incident handlingis a set of continuous processes governing the activities before, during and after a security incident occurs. Security incident handling begins with the planning and preparing for the resources, and developing proper procedures to be followed, such as the escalation and security incident response procedures.

When a security incident is detected, security incident response is made by the responsible parties following the predefined procedures The safety events gave the response which is representing the actions accepted out to handle the safety events. These are mainly helpful to re-establish the common operations.

Specific incident response teams are usually established to perform the tasks of making security incident response.

When the incident is over, follow up actions will be taken to evaluate the incident and to strengthen security protection to prevent recurrence. The planning and preparation tasks will be reviewed and revised accordingly to ensure that there are sufficient resources (including manpower, equipment and technical knowledge) and properly defined procedures to deal with similar incidents in future.

Cloud Service

The outlook on cloud computing services can vary significantly among organizations, because of inherent differences These events as its main aim, assets held and open to the domestic risks faced and risk bearable.

For example, a government organization that mainly handles data about individual citizens of the country has different security objectives than a government organization that does not. Similarly, the security objectives of a government organization that prepares and disseminates information for public consumption are different from one that deals mainly with classified information for its own internal use. From a risk perspective, determining the suitability of cloud services for an organization is not possible without understanding the context in which the organization operates and the consequences from the plausible threats it faces.

The set of security objectives of an organization, therefore, is a key factor for decisions about outsourcing information technology services and, In specific, in order to make genuine decisions related to industries sources about the public cloud. The cloud calculating particular servicer and the service arrangements for the organization.

There are lot of things which works for one industry but not for other.

Not only this some pragmatic thoughtfulness. Many industries will not afford economically to save all calculative sources and possessions at all

highest degree possible and must prioritize available options based on cost as well as criticality and sensitivity.

When keeping the strong advantages of public cloud computing, it is indispensable to focus of safety. Significantly the safety of industry security goals is of major concern, so that the future decisions can be made accordingly. Finally the conclusion on the cloud computing rely on the risk analysis of the trade included.

Service Agreements

Specifications for public cloud services and service arrangements are generally called Service Level Agreements (SLAs). The SLA presents the thoughtfulness among the cloud subscriber and cloud provider related to the known range of services. This is to be delivered in the range that the servicer is not able to provide at different range defined. There are typical forms of a part of the different levels of services. The specific is the overall services contract or the services agreement.

The terms of service cover other important details such as licensing of services, criteria for acceptable use,

Provisional procrastination, boundaries of all responsibility, security policies and alterations in that period of service.

The main aim of this report is the period of SLA which is utilize for the services agreement in its entity. There are two types of SLAs exists: i.e. which is non defined and non negotiable contract the other is negotiated agreement.

Non-variable contracts is the many ways on the basis for the financial level which is enjoyed by the public cloud computing. The terms which are agreed fully by cloud provider but with some offerings, the service provider has also the capability to do the changes. Negotiated SLAs are more like traditional information technology outsourcing contracts.

These SLAs can be employed to deal with corporation’s apprehension about technical controls, procedures, security procedures and privacy policy such as the vetting of employees,data ownership and exit rights, isolation of tenant applications, data encryption and segregation, tracking and reporting service effectiveness, compliance with laws and regulations (e.g., Federal

Information Security Management Act), and the deployment of appropriate products following international or national standards (e.g., Federal Information Processing Standard 140-2 for cryptographic modules).

A negotiated SLA for critical data and application might require an agency

A negotiated SLA is less cost effective because of the inherent cost of negotiation which can significantly disturb and have a negative impact on the economies of scale, which is main asset a non-negotiable SLA bring to the public cloud computing. Result of a negotiation is based on the size of the corporation and the magnitude of influence it can exert.

Irrespective of the type of SLA, it is very necessary to obtain pertinent legal and technical advice to make sure terms of service meets the need of the organization.

The Security Upside

While the biggest obstacle facing public cloud computing is security, the cloud computing paradigm provides opportunities for thinking out of the box solutions to improve overall security of the corporation. Small corporations are going to have the biggest advantage from the cloud computing services as small companies have limited staff and infrastructure support to compete with bigger organization on fronts of technology and economies of scale.

Potential areas of improvement where organizations may derive security benefits from transitioning to a public cloud computing environment include the following:

Staff Specialization.

Just like corporations with large-scale computing facilities, cloud providers provides an break to staff toto specialize in security, privacy, and other areas of high interest and concern to the organization. Increases in the scale of computing induce specialization, which in turn allows security staff to shed other duties and concentrate exclusively on security issues. Through increased specialization, there is an opportunity for staff members gain in-depth experience, take remedial actions, and make security improvements more readily than otherwise would be possible with a diverse set of duties.

Platform Strength. The structure of cloud computing platforms is typically more uniform than that of most traditional computing centers. Greater uniformity and homogeneity facilitate platform hardening and enable better automation of security management activities like configuration control, vulnerability testing, security audits, and security patching of platform components. Information assurance and security response activities also profit from a uniform, homogeneous cloud infrastructure, as do system management activities, such as fault management, load balancing, and system maintenance. Many cloud providers meet standards for operational compliance and certification in areas like healthcare (e.g., Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA)), finance (e.g., Payment Card Industry Data Security Standard (PCI DSS)) and audit (e.g., Statement on Auditing Standards No. 70

Resource Availability. The scalability of the cloud computing facilities permits the greatest consideration. Unemployment and calamity healing capability is building into the cloud computing surroundings. The different sources ability would be utilizing for better flexibility while facing higher demands or divided rejection of servicer and for faster improvement from Severe events

When any event happens, the occasion survived again to collect the data. The large data is easily available with good explanation and less effect on construction. On the other hand the pliability might be having different results. For Instance: a non successful person divided the rejection of service attackers which can consume fast.

Support and Improvement.

The encouragement and revival strategy and processes of a cloud services might be better than that of the industry. In case the different duplicates are maintained in the assorted natural features can be healthier. Information stored within the cloud would be easily available which is easy to store and highly reliable. In different situation it proved to be maintained in a traditional information centre. In such situation, cloud services could means for offsite encouragement data collection. Mainly the network performance on the net and the usage of the data involved are preventing the issue which impacted the re-establishment. The structure of a cloud solution spreads to the consumer at the service endpoints. This utilizes to access the hosted submission. Cloud consumer is based on browser and on application. However the main calculative sources need to be held by the cloud provider. Consumer is normally low weight calculation and easily handled. The laptops, notebook and net books are well embedded devices like smart mobile phones, tablets and personal digital help.

Information Awareness.

Information prepared and developed in the cloud would be able to show low risk to the industry. There are lot of risk involved in the industry, different information are transferring on various systems. Portable systems or transferrable media is out in the field, where the loss of devices and theft occurs frequently. Many industries have made the evolution to handle the availability to the industry. So many industries have already made the evolution to hold the availability to the organizational information.

In addition to calculating the stage or alternative for domestic submission and public cloud services like target on providing security and safety to other calculating surroundings.

Information Midpoint Familiarize.

Cloud services would be able to utilize the safety information centres. For instance: e-mail can be t


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