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Chapter 1: Introduction
Research is defined as search for new knowledge or an art of scientific and careful investigation of new facts. Research method is referred as a systematic methodology of defining and re-defining the problems, suggest solutions, formulate hypothesis, evaluate the data, make deductions and then reach conclusions. At last, test the conclusions to determine whether they are suitable for the formulating hypothesis or not (KOTHARI, C. R., 2005). The research method chosen for the present study are case studies. Case study research is used because of its capability to bring a clear idea on any complicated issue and thereby strengthening the previously developed research works. A key characteristic of case study research method is its ability to provide multiple sources of evidence each with its strengths and weaknesses (Bill Gillham, 2000).
The steps involved in case study research method are as follows:
Getting Started - The research work started with the collection of data on Wireless Sensor Networks. Sensor networks are referred as secured networks if they can provide end to end security with authenticity and confidentiality. The present research work emphasizes the importance of providing data security in sensor networks through Location-Aware End-to-end Data Security system.
Selecting Cases - Selection of cases is an important aspect of building theory from case studies. The earlier stages of the research work focused on various security systems and then identified Location-Aware End-to-end Data Security system for providing data security in sensor networks. Literature review section of this research work will explain all these aspects very clearly. Case study research method is quiet difficult as it provides multiple sources of evidence in its research. So to develop this research work, data was collected from various sources like books, journals, articles and online websites.
Crafting Instruments and Protocols - After the collection of data related to sensor networks and its importance in the field of providing security for networks it was analyzed that efficient steps must be followed by the organizations to provide security for sensor networks. In order to provide an efficient data security system for sensor networks, the research work was customized a number of times. All the design principles were considered for improving the security in sensor networks so to implement better communication networks.
Entering the field - After gathering the information related to wireless sensor networks from various sources like websites, journals, articles and books. The information gathered gave a better understanding on Location-Aware End-to-end Data Security system for providing data security in sensor networks.
Analyzing data - The case study research method primarily concentrated on Location-Aware End-to-end Data Security system for providing data security in sensor networks. The data collected for this research work was analyzed using various methods and techniques. This analysis helps to find the link between the research objects and outcomes with respect to the present study thereby providing an opportunity to strengthen the research findings and conclusions.
Shaping hypotheses - The task of shaping hypotheses is mainly applied for the alteration or modification of models applied for the research work previously. The new models applied in the research depend upon the data analysis.
Enfolding literature - After the analysis stage which was helpful in assessing the proposed solutions related to the problems occurred by disasters then a detailed critical analysis will be presented in literature review section that will evaluate the existing security designs so as to improve the performance of sensor networks.
Reaching closure - From the start of the research work to the analysis stage it was analyzed that providing efficient security for sensor networks is very important as it increases the life of networks and improves the efficiency of networks.
Background study of Wireless Sensor Networks
Wireless Sensor networks will fall under the category of modern networking systems. It has emerged in the past and caters the needs of real world applications. These networks are the preferred choice for the design and development of monitoring and control systems. In the year of 1940's and 50's wireless sensing technology was developed. To discover and chase enemy craft this was used by military (Shimmer, 2006). The technology formulated to let in radio frequency identification and real time location system but the real force behind wireless sensor network was the power to place detectors in remote or in the environment without wired lines. This allows in turn for capture and analysis of information to transmit warnings and to identify the approaching phenomenon. The quality of life by allowing real time information was developed by WSN's. WSN's supply real world information in a perceive manner rather than a virtual world (Shimmer, 2006). As the health of the people is becoming worse and the global population is getting older, with the ability to sense and perform direct measurements biometric solutions can be created which will improve the healthcare and improves the quality of life. As one of the key drivers for wireless sensor networks data will be captured and analyzed for detecting and predicting the phenomena like falls and warnings to develop intelligent solutions for industry.
Chapter 2: Literature Review
Providing security for data in Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) is a difficult task because of complexity in managing the critical resource. Data security in sensor networks can be achieved by Location-Aware End-to-end Data Security system. A sensor network can called as secured if it can provide end-to-end security through data confidentiality, authenticity and availability. Applications like wildlife monitoring, manufacturing performance monitoring and military operations use wireless sensor networks. Security is the most important requirement for all these WSNs applications. Providing security in wireless sensor networks is different from traditional approaches because of resource limitations and computation restrictions. Node compromise attacks, DoS attacks and resource consumption attacks are the most general attacks in the wireless sensor networks while providing security to the data. This research concentrates on wireless sensor networks, data security in sensor networks, Location-Aware End-to-end Data Security (LEDS) systems and its performance in providing data security.
2.2 Wireless Sensor Network
Wireless Sensor Network is a fast growing technology and has exciting research area. Military and civilian activities can be operated successfully using this network. Interconnection between thousands of sensor nodes in large sensor networks can create technical issues (LEWIS, F. L., 2004). To offer a high quality sensing in terms of space and time the sensing nodes are closely arranged and are made to work together. This technology is responsible for sensing and also for the first stages of the processing hierarchy. Computations, communication capacities, memory, low cost devices which have limited energy resources are included in the network. One of the major applications of sensor networks is actuators. This type of sensor networks is widely used in many sectors like military applications, environmental applications and commercial applications (RAGHAVENDRA, C. S., Krishna M. Sivalingam and Taieb F. Znati, 2004). Networks can be organized in multi-hop wireless paths and large landscapes in order to recognize the events of interest. Industries attain security and safety by making use of wireless sensor networks. This network uses sensors for the detection of toxic, harmful and unsafe materials and also provides a way for the identification of leakages which may cause dangerous results. These networks are best suitable for monitoring and help in controlling rotations in moving machinery (Edgar h. Callaway, 2003). Wide usage of sensor networks in large applications forces the network to provide security for data in order to operate the applications effectively. Security is the major issue faced by wireless sensor networks. The main reason for security problems in sensor networks is hold of data by attackers.
If number of nodes increased in communication then there may be chance for tampering the data which may create the problem of data loss (CHAN, H. and PERRIG, A., 2003). This sensor network helps in expanding the internet into physical space. Compared to customary approaches wireless sensor networks provide many advantages. Information in sensors networks is available only at runtime. Sensors networking is done by contribution from signal processing, database and information management, embedded systems and architecture and distributed algorithms. Much number of sensors is already in use for monitoring the traffic in networks (Feng Zhao and leonidas J. Guibas, 2004) The organization growth reduces internally by loss of important data and due to false data introduced by hackers in network.However, the lack of end-to-end security guarantee makes the WSN weak due to the attacks. Functions in the networks are injured by internal attacks which lead to breakdown of mission-critical appliances (Elaine Shi and PERRIG, A., 2004). Hence from the above discussion it can be understood that wireless networks leads to a new trend as the way of interchanging of data through internet service like e-mail and data file transfers is increasing tremendously. WSN is used in many martial appliances. As these networks provide many benefit for organizations and users it lacks in providing security to data while transferring. Wireless sensor networks play a vital role in transferring the data from one network to another without any delays or disturbances. The functionality and behavior of the WSN are completely dissimilar from the other wireless network devices present in WSN.WSN are not assured by the users. In terms of battery and power these devices are much more restrained. The WSN can be separated into two parts Data acquisition and data dissemination network. Data acquisition network consists of sensor nodes and base stations. Sensor nodes are the accumulation of small devices with the charge of assessing the physical information of its setting, and base stations are influential devices in case of gathering information of its surroundings. Sensor networks are mainly projected for real-time collection and analysis of low level data in aggressive environments (Javier Lopez and Jianying Zhou, 2008). For this reason they are well fitted to a significant amount of monitoring and observation applications. Famous wireless sensor network applications involve wildlife monitoring, bushfire response, military command, intelligent communications, industrial quality control, infrastructures, smart buildings, traffic monitoring and examining human heart rates etc. greater part of the sensor network are spread in aggressive environments with active intelligent resistance (Feng Zhao and Leonidas J. Guibas, 2004). Hence security is a crucial issue. One obvious example is battlefield applications where there is a pressing need for secrecy of location and resistance to subversion and destruction of the network.
2.3. Evaluating the existing security designs in WSNs
Evaluation of existing systems can be done with the help of data security requirements like data authentication, availability and authentication. Security is not provided efficiently by the existing systems due to weak security strengths and is exposed to many different attacks. Security authentication tools such as authentication and key management. These tools provide various security mechanisms for sensor network. Routing and localization are supports sensor network
(Donggang Liu and Peng Ning, 2007). Similar to the traditional networks most of the sensor network applications need security against introduction, and modification of packets. Cryptography is the standard defense. Interesting system tradeoffs grow while comparing cryptography into sensor networks. For point-to-point communication, continues cryptography attains a high level of protection but involves those keys to be set up among all end points and be in companionable with passive participation and local broadcast (C. S. Ragahavendhra, Krishna M. Sivalingam, Taieb F. znati, 2004). Link layer cryptography with a network wide shared key simplifies key setup and supports passive participation and local broadcast but intermediate nodes might alter messages. The earliest sensor networks are likely to use link layer cryptography because this approach supplies the greatest ease of deployment among presently available network cryptographic approaches. Subsequent systems may react to demand for more security with more advanced use of cryptography. Cryptography implies a performance cost for extra computation that frequently gains packet size. Cryptographic hardware support increases efficiency and also increases the financial cost of implementing a network.
Limitations of existing key management schemes
From many past years many different pre-distribution schemes have been proposed. Hop-by-hop is one of the techniques which don't provide end-to-end security in a proper manner. This hop-by-hop not only involves the end points but also have the intermediate components for data forwarding. Hop-by-hop header carries information which should be examined by each and every node along the packet path. As this technique involves each node referencing and processing it becomes complex in analysis of networks (Alberto Leon Garcia and Indra Widjaja, 2004). Data authentication and confidentiality is very much vulnerable to inside attacks and the multi hopping makes a worse while transmitting the messages. The problem of distributing and updating cryptographic is to valid member is known as Key Management. The key management is one of the most important tasks in the cryptographic mechanisms for networks. However the sensor networks, the key management is one of the more challenging network because there may be no central authority, trusted third party, or server to manage security keys. The key management performed in the distributed way. The self organization scheme to distribute and manage the security keys proposed (Yang Xiao, 2006). This system certificates are stored and distributed to the user by themselves.
False data filtering and their analysis
This helps in protecting data from validation in WSNs. Data that is not authorized will be filtered out by the transitional nodes. Location Based Resilient Secrecy (LBRS) is the proposed scheme that identifies the problems and errors in Statistical En-route Filtering (SEF) and Interleaved Hop-by–Hop Authentication (IHA). All these methods are highly exposed to interference attacks and selective forwarding attacks (kui Ren, Wenjing Lou and Yanchao Zhang, 2008). SEF helps in detecting and dropping the false reports during the forwarding process that contains Message Authentication Codes (MAC) generated by multiple nodes (Anne-Marie Kermarrec, Luc Bouge and Thierry Priol, 2007). IHA identifies the fake reports by using interleaved authentication
2.4. Data Security Requirements in Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs)
As wireless sensor networks usage is increasing in organizations, security should be provided for data in order operate organizations successfully. Data security in wireless sensor networks includes data authentication, data availability and data confidentiality. Data should be available for authenticated users only in order to provide security. Various data security requirements for wireless sensor networks are (Kui Ren, Wenjing Lou and Yanchao Zhang, 2008):
* Data availability
* Data Confidentiality
* Data authentication
* Data integrity
* Time synchronization
* Secure Localization
Data availability – To ensure availability of message protection in sensor network it should protect the resources or sensor nodes. Nodes in sensor networks should be guarded from unnecessary processing of messages. Avoiding unnecessary processing can reduce the energy usage so that the life time of sensor network increases. Wireless sensors are influenced by many factors like limited communication capabilities and computation. Wireless sensor networks are vulnerable to various attacks like Denial of Service attacks, node compromise attack and resource consumption attack (Shinqun Li, Tieyan Li and Xinkai Wang, 2002). Hence, in order to provide availability and security resources should be maintained effectively.
Data Confidentiality – In wireless sensor networks confidentiality can be achieved by allowing only authenticated users to access the data. In sensor networks data can be secured by using cryptographic methods. Using encryption and decryption for data allows only authenticated users to access the data. Unauthorized or third parties cannot read the original data if confidentiality is provided effectively (Chris Karlof, Naveen sastry and David Wagner, 2004). Hence to have confidentiality for data wireless sensor networks should make of encryption methods.
Data authentication – Authentication is necessary for controlling the sensor networks effectively. Data authentication in sensor networks allows the users to verify whether the data is sent from authorized resources or not. It also protects the original data from alterations. Digital signatures can be used for authentication in sensor networks (Mona Sharifnejad, Mohsen Sharifi and Mansoureh, 2007). Hence, authentication in sensor networks can be achieved with digital signature which helps in authenticating the senders.
Hence from the discussion it can be given in order to provide security data availability, authentication and confidentiality should be sustained in sensor networks.
Data integrity in sensor networks is required to check the dependability of the information and concerns to the capability, to support that message has not been corrupted, altered or changed. Even if the network has confidentiality measures, there is still a possibility that the data integrity has been compromised by alterations (Richard Zurawski, 2006). The integrity of the network will be in trouble when the malicious node present in the network throws fake data. Wireless channel cause damage or loss of data due to unstable conditions. Hence from the above it can be given the information provided by the sensor network is easily corrupted which can leads to loss of data.
Most of the sensor network applications trust on some form of time synchronization. Moreover, sensors may wish to calculate the continuous delay of a packet as it moves among two pair wise sensors. For tracking the applications a more collaborative sensor network may involve group synchronization.
The usefulness of a sensor network will trust on its ability of each sensor to accurately and mechanically locate in the network (G. Padmavathi and D. Shanmugapriya, 2009). A sensor network planned to locate faults and it need accurate fixed information in order to identify the location of a fault. In this an attacker can easily misrepresent non secured location information by giving false signal strengths and playing back signals. Hence from the above content it has discussed about the security goals that are widely available for wireless sensor networks.
2.5. Proposing Location-Aware End-to-end Data Security (LEDS)
LEDS helps in providing safety to data in a well-organized way. Security to data is provided through confidentiality, authentication and availability in LEDS. This mechanism has the ability to provide en-route filtering and end to end authentication. It makes use of key management for achieving data security. LEDS can be used either in small networks or large networks (Ed Dawson and Duncan S. Wong, 2007). LEDS splits the whole network into small cell regions and sends keys for each cell in order to provide security. Cell size of LEDS depends on the number of keys distribute and it does not support dynamic topology. Sensors helps in finding events that are occurring in network. Encryption of events is happened in networks by sensor nodes which are participating in the network. In order to encrypt the events LEDS uses the pre distributed cell keys (Abu Shohel Ahmed, 2009). Sensor nodes calculates unique share key for sensors after encrypting the data, where this is demonstrated using different sinks. Sensor nodes use authentication keys for calculating MACs. To avoid duplicate reporting each and every report is given with different MACs. A report or data validity will be checked at each and every node while broadcasting through networks in order to provide data security (Fan Ye, Hao Yang and Starsky H.Y. Wong, 2006). Hence from the above discussion it can be understood that, LEDS mechanism helps wireless sensor networks in providing end to end security. This mechanism makes use of key management in order to provide data authentication, confidentiality and availability.
The main aim of designing LEDS is to provide end to end data security through data confidentiality, authenticity and availability. LEDS has the capability of preventing false data report attacks. Brief description of the goals of designing LEDS:
Provide end-to-end data confidentiality and authenticity:
Event reports in wireless sensor networks can maintain authenticity and confidentiality if the sending nodes themselves are not compromised for data corruption. Compromised nodes may affect the neighbor node performance. Cryptographic methods are used to protect data from attackers which is collected from compromised nodes. Key management assists in providing data authenticity and confidentiality by LEDS (Jun Luo, Panos Papadimitratos and Jean-Pierre Hubaux, 2007). In LEDS key management mechanism the nodes use keys for applying cryptographic methods on data in order to provide security.
Achieve high level of assurance on data availability:
If any attack occurs on data in wireless sensor network, then it should be flexible in selecting alternative ways for forwarding the data. In order to ensure availability, networks should be able to detect and drop the duplicate reports in an efficient and deterministic manner (Kui Ren, Wenjing Lou and Yanchao Zhang, 2008). LEDS assures data availability in the networks by identifying the duplicate reports early in the networks.
Hence from the discussion it can be understood that, LEDS was designed for providing security in the wireless sensor networks. False information reports can be eliminated by using some LEDS mechanisms in networks.
2.6. Components of Location-Aware End-to-end Data Security
To provide data security, LEDS makes use of two major components:
* Location-aware key management framework.
* End-to-end data security mechanism.
LEDS provides end to end security by providing data authentication, confidentiality and availability.
2.6.1. Location-aware key management framework
As wireless sensor networks are used in wide range of applications it should be deployed correctly in order to collect data. Network planners should give a framework before organizing in order to have security to data. LEDS makes use of key management in providing framework for the sensor networks. Using Key management in LEDS exploits the static and location-aware nature of wireless sensor networks (Reihanah Safavi Naini, 2008). Key management adopts a grid structure for redistributing and examining specific properties related to designing process. For providing a light-weight and robust location aware key management framework for sensor nodes in network preloaded keys are distributed in networks. This framework can be understood through embedding location information into the keys. Framework using key management should be derived in such a way that it should provide data authentication, confidentiality and availability (Yan Zhang, Honglin Hu and Masayuki Fujise, 2006). In LEDS every sensor node computes three different types of location-aware keys for distributing purpose. A sensor node computes two unique secret keys which can be shared between a node and sink. These keys help in providing node to sink authentication. A cell key will be distributed between two nodes in the same cell. Confidentiality to data in Wireless Sensor Networks is given by distribution cell keys among network elements. A set of authentication keys can be distributed among the nodes in the network in order to provide authentication to the nodes. This distributing of keys can help sensor networks in data filtering. A Sensor node in the network computes the location-aware key independently. Key management provides basis for end to end data security (Kui Ren, Wenjing Lou and Yanchao Zhang, 2008). Key management strategies for wireless sensor network have proposed recently existing keys which are based on pre-distribution where a probabilistic access for fixing up session keys among adjacent nodes. Random key Pre-distribution schemes are dangerous to selective nodes and node replication attacks. These frequent attacks can be prohibited by the location aware key management. More challenges are to be taken by the location aware key management such as connectivity within the groups, deployment flexibility and security resilience (Xiaofang Zhou, 2006). Existing strategies need the deployment data as a priority before the deployment. This makes it very hard in major applications. Hence from the above discussion it can be concluded that, for developing a structure for WSN LEDS uses the key management technique. In this framework the safety to data is given by the distribution of keys between sensor nodes. Different location-aware keys computed from sensor nodes can provide data confidentiality, authentication and data filtering.
2.6.2 End-to-end data security mechanism
Security is the main issue in transformation of data over internet or any wired or wireless communication. Several encryption methods are implemented and deployed in organization for providing security to data. Network smart cards supports networking mainstream standards and secured protocols. Private data can be sent from smart cards to remote server by establishing a secured connection between network smart cards and trusted remote internet server. This mechanism helps in avoiding manual type for confidential information. End-to-end mechanism struggle in identifying threat mechanism that will capture the data before it is encrypted (Yuliang Zhenq, 2004). Specificdevices and protocols can be installed at the end point connection for offering end to end security. Hyper text Transfer Protocol (HTTP) connection is an example of end-to-end connection to web server where an IP security is used as end-to-end security. There is an opinion that end-to-end security mechanism provides solutions in providing security to network based systems. Wireless sensor networks usually consist of a prominent number of resource constraint sensor nodes which are distributed in neglected uncongenial surroundings, and therefore are displayed to more characters of serious insider approaches due to node cooperation. Existing security designs generally supply a step by step security prototype and are exposed to such attacks (Claude Castelluccia, 2005). Moreover, existing security designs are also exposed to several DOS attacks such as report disruption attacks and selective forwarding attacks and thus put information accessibility at stake. To overcome these exposures for major static WSNs come up with a location-aware end-to-end security framework in which secret keys are bound to geographic locations (frank Stajano , Catherine Meadows, Srdjan Capkun and Tyler more, 2007). This location alert property successfully limits the impact of settled nodes only to their locality without involving end-to-end data security. The suggested multi functional key management framework checks both node to sink and node to node authentication along with the report forwarding routes and the suggested data delivery access assures effective en-route fake data filtering, and is highly influential against DOS attacks. In end-to-end security the end points refers to connection between client and server. Providing security is the major constraint for transferring data in a secured manner. For providing end-to-end secure communication constrains components like (Michael H. Behringer, 2009)
* Identity- which helps in identification of entities at both the ends
* Protocols- to provide required security functions protocols are implemented with the help of algorithms.
* Security- the end points used by network should be provided with secured protocols and the operations implemented on the end points should be in a secured manner.
Thus from the above context it can be given that networks which uses end-to-end security mechanism provides a great security. In spite of having some potential problems end –to-end security many of the organizations are deploying this type of mechanism. End-to-end security protocols and their clarification acts as keystone in having security for the networks.
2.7. Security and performance analysis of LEDS
Location aware End to end Data security design (LEDS) function is to anticipate the security and analyze in diverse etiquette. Digital systems afford the sanctuary by means of sundry techniques. In providing the security features researchers generate innovative services for improving the recital and trustworthiness of single technique algorithm (Sam Brown, 2002). Along with security the performance, hardware and software implementations are focused, transparency of the requirements as well as performance and productivity. The factors that involves in escalating this technology are Viability, power consumption, area, complexity, Flexibility. Security analysis can be explained in three dissimilar ways (Kui Ren, Wenjing Lou and Yanchao Zhang, 2008):
1. Data Confidentiality as the security strength
2. Data Authenticity
3. Data Availability
Data Confidentiality as the security strength:
The requirement of provide data confidentiality within the internal network can be met using the same deployment and management approaches used. Using of the data encryption standard the confidentiality of encryption could be obtained. Data Confidentiality is also used in the Marketing and Sales (John W. Ritting House and James F. Ransome, 2004). In LEDS every report is encrypted by the corresponding cell key and therefore no nodes out of the event cell could obtain its content. Node from the event cell is compromised as the attacker obtains the contents of the corresponding reports because of the data confidentiality. Scheming total network cells number of compromised nodes and portion of compromised cell were utilized. There are two ways for calculating they are Random node capture attack and selective node capture attack.
The above figure shows the data confidentiality in LEDS. One has to be clear that in compromising 40% of total cells at least 5% of the total nodes are to be compromised. Along with random node capture attacks accessible defense designs in which compromising a few hundred nodes usually compromise even in all the network communication, which specifies the dominance of the altitude in litheness.
By using diverse online techniques authenticity of data is accomplished. Significance of the data generation determines the position of the obligation (Chris Mann and Fiona Stewart, 2000). Security strength of LEDS regarding the data Authenticity is obtained by the content of legitimate reports. Attackers Tries to produce the false reports which makes the non existing event to sink. In LEDS for passing out the fake reports en-route filtering and sink verification is processed by the attacker (Paul R. Prucnal, 2005). For this the attacker has to follow the t node of event cell because of the data authenticity.
Number of the compromised nodes is increased by the effect of the data authenticity which is represented in the figure. Percentage of the compromised nodes increases with the increase of compromised nodes. As the number of compromised nodes increases quick increase in the percentage of the affected cells is also observed (Kui Ren, Wenjing Lou and Yanchao Zhang, 2008). Compromised nodes from one cell in LEDS can't be used to compromise data authenticity of other cells. Hence LEDS make increase in cost for the attacker so one has to think of the expenses in the launching attacks (Peter Stavroulakis, 2007). By being more flexible to such attacks LEDS make a momentous enhancement in stipulations of data availability, this could be obtained by the endorsement mechanism and its forwarding mechanism.
Integration of all the enforcement and monitoring data facility which is a beginning to make facility level data freely available to the public is specified as Data Availability. Data compliance and enforcement are often impossible to obtain (Henk Folmer and Tom Tietenberg, 2000). The data availability in WSN is severely affected mainly by two methods like disruption attack and selective forwarding. Security designs are highly susceptible for attacks.
Other existing security designs which compares the data availability protection is explained in the above figure about LEDS. This shows about the stretchiness of LEDS in dislocation of attacks. A compromised node can always drop all the reports going through itself in existing security designs (Kui Ren, Wenjing Lou and Yanchao Zhang, 2008). Data availability can also is explained in other terms like LEDS under selective forwarding attack and Data availability against selective forwarding attack. In LEDS it is impossible in compromising the node in preventing the report from being forwarded since every report in LEDS is forwarded to all nodes in the next cell, as they function in the same manner (Peter Stavroulakis, 2007). Hence the proposed one-to-many forwarding approach in LEDS greatly enhances data availability.
LEDS Performance analysis
Performance analysis of LEDS is evaluated by the proposed terms of storage overhead and computation and communication over heads. The systems features are divided into two categories like high performance functions and low performance functions. This evaluation makes out the best performances which are preferable (Marina Gavrilova, Edward David Moreno and C.J. Kenneth Tan, 2009).The performance analysis is divided into two types they are:
1. Key storage overhead
2. Computation and Communication Overheads
Key storage overhead:
Each node is stored in the form of a unique secret key which are recognized by it; as one cell key shared with all other nodes in its home cell in LEDS. Since both keys are identified by the sink, further nodes stores authentication key for each of its report auth cell (Ritu Chadha and Latha Kant, 2007). From this it could be defined that any node upstream report-auth area is a subset of the two cell wide band area. In this two cell wide band area all the possible routes extending monotonically toward the sink have at most two different choices at each step.
Computation and Communication Overheads:
During the bootstrapping period the key establishment involved efficient hash operations. The authentication keys share in cell to cell manner they will be reused for en-route filtering during the whole network. Because of restitution feature it saves superfluous working out (Kui Ren, Wenjing Lou and Yanchao Zhang, 2008). Hence it can be understood that the multi functional key management framework ensures both node to sink and node to node authentication along with report forwarding routes. By this data delivery approach guarantees efficient en-route bogus data filtering and is highly robust against DoS attacks. So by this one can estimate the LEDS Performance and security analysis by the detailed study of its procedures. Wireless sensor networks encompass edgy lot of consideration lately due to their wide applications in both military and civilian operations. WSN usually consists of a large number of ultra small but of lower cost devices. Thus they have a limited energy resources, computation, memory and communication capacities. Most security threats in this are by the sensor nodes. Attacker has to conciliation with multiple nodes to obtain their carried keying materials. Hence this type of attacks leads to severe data confidentiality compromise of WSN's.
Wireless Sensor Networks uses large number of sensors for providing security to data in the networks. These networks are very much used in many social and military applications. Wireless networks consist of small and inexpensive sensors with limited resources. Providing data confidentiality, availability and authentication helps in providing security to data. In wireless sensor networks providing end-to-end data security is very difficult task as there are different constraints for sensor networks. LEDS can offer efficient security for the networks. Problems with are identified in the traditional schemes Statistical En-route Filtering (SEF) and Interleaved Hop-by-hop Authentication (IHA) can be solved by using LEDS. LEDS is one of the major improvements over SEF and IHA. This LEDS is almost divided into several cells with the help of the concept called virtual geographic grid. By this multiple cells can efficiently connects the cell information of different sensors into all kind of symmetric secret keys possessed by the node. LEDS is very effective in providing data confidentiality and encryption. It provides a high degree of security in expense of communication and computational cost. In this project the static and location-aware nature of WSNs is exploited and LEDS framework is given to deal with vulnerabilities in existing security design. LEDS deals with end points security without disturbing the elements in network. Thus, it can be given that by using LEDS in wireless sensors network provides an efficient end-to-end data security without disturbing the other elements in the network.
Java is an object oriented programming language that allows the language designers to make the java language more powerful. It is not an operating system but java language provides APIs (Application Programming Interfaces) in depth those defined by an operating system (David Flanagan, 2005). Whenever a java program or an application is complied, it is converted into byte code which is the portable machine language of a CPU (Central Processing Unit) architecture referred as Java Virtual Machine (JVM). JVM is implemented usually in the form of software program that will interpret and execute byte codes. Java platform is a predefined set of java classes that will exist on every java installation and these classes will be available for use by all the java programs (James Gosling and Bill Joy, 2000). Hence from the above it can be stated that java platform is referred as java run time environment or core java APIs which can be further extended with optional packages called as standard extensions. Java is a portable, platform independent and interpreted language that runs almost as fast as non portable C and C++ programs. It is a robust language with built-in exception handling, strong type checking and memory management handled by JVM.
Java programmers feel that java is efficiently useful for deploying applications in java because of its features like ease of programming, built in network awareness and cross platform nature. Java's cross platform capabilities deliver audio to java enabled browsers without making use of any additional plug-in. Java based software suite brings legacy applications and information to the world wide web instead of building web integration into the existing applications and legacy systems (David Flanagan,2005). Hence it can be stated that the most important reason to use java is that most of the programmers feel it is an elegant language that is combined with well designed Application Programming Interfaces and most of the programmers enjoy programming with java. Applications in java platform can be written efficiently without sacrificing the advanced features that are useful for the programmers to write native applications that are targeted on a particular underlying operating system (Alliance, 1997). Java is widely used since the applications written in java platform can be run on any operating system that supports java platform. The java language reduces the burden for programmers relying on a particular operating system and thereby allows the programs to run on top of any operating system (James Gosling and Bill Joy, 2000). Java language allows the programmers to download the un-trusted code over the network and then run it in a secure manner so that the un-trusted code does not infect the host system with a virus and cannot read or write the files from the hard drive thereby making the java platform unique (Sun Developer Network, 2005). Hence from the above it can be understood that java programming language is a general purpose, concurrent and object oriented language that is simply designed so that most of the programmers can achieve fluency in this language. Java programming language is strongly typed and this specification will clearly distinguish compile time errors detected at compile time and those that occur at run time. It is a relatively high level language that includes automatic storage management by making use of a garbage collector for avoiding the safety problems like explicit de-allocation. Java language does not include any unsafe constructs like array accesses without index checking because such unsafe constructs will make the programs behave in an unspecified way (James Gosling and Bill Joy, 2000). Thus, it can be stated that features like platform independent, strongly typed language, monitoring and management make java a powerful tool for programming. To make the java platform more observable and supportable developers are focusing on improving the interfaces that are required by the development time tools such as debuggers and profilers as well as the interfaces that are required for production time instrumentation and monitoring (James Gosling and Bill Joy, 2000). Cross platform compatibility feature is the major part of java's appeal and this language is widely accepted since it makes the programming easier and safer. Java will squash many bugs before they occur and also languages like C# will borrow the safety features of java related to memory management (John Phillips, 2001). The features like eliminating memory pointers and checking the array limits will be essentially helpful in removing the program bugs. Garbage collector feature will relieve the programmers from maintaining the memory management and many other features will speed up the programming in java when compared to C or C++ programming (Java, 2003). Thus it can be analyzed from the above discussion that Java is essentially designed with networking in mind that comes out with many classes for developing sophisticated internet communications. Java's extensible features make java great as a language and platform.
Chapter 3 [System Requirement]
Security Using Wireless Sensor Networks
The wireless sensor network is a technology which is made from wireless communication and embedded micro-sensing technologies. This network will have many inexpensive wireless nodes, each capable of collecting, storing and processing environmental information and also communicating with the neighboring nodes. The actual wireless sensor network combines sensors, radios, and CPU's which is requires a detailed understanding of the both capabilities. The individual node must be designed to provide the set of primitives necessary to synthesize the interconnected web that will emerge as they are deployed, while meeting strict requirements of size, cost and power consumption. To map the overall system requirements down to individual device capabilities, requirements and actions this system can be used (Raghavendra C. S., Krishna M. Sivalingam and Taieb F. Znati, 2004). To make the wireless sensor network vision a reality, architecture must be developed that synthesizes the envisioned applications out of the underlying hardware capabilities.
Security needs to be critical for networks which are deployed in hostile environments, and security concerns remain a serious hurdle to widespread acceptance of these wireless networks. The wireless mobile ad hoc networks are a topology which is used in the wireless sensor networks. In mobile ad hoc networks the security issues are more challenging than those in traditional wired computer networks and the Internet. Providing security in sensor networks is even more difficult than in mobile ad hoc networks due to the resource limitations of sensor nodes (Donggang Liu and Peng Ning, 2007). The sensor networks will monitor its surrounding actives, and it is often easy to assume information other than the data monitored. Such unwanted information leakage often results in privacy breaches of the people in the environment. The wireless communication which is employed by sensor networks facilitates eavesdropping and packet injection by a challenger. These factors which demands security for sensor networks at design time to ensure operation safety, secrecy of sensitive data, and privacy for people in sensor environments (Claude Castelluccia, 2005). Security is a major aspect which needs to be discussed in a wireless sensor network. The wireless sensor networks are more susceptible to a variety of attacks, which will include node capture, physical tampering and denial of services which will report a range of fundamental challenges.
The security of the Wireless Sensor networks is vulnerable to an attack which is due to the broadcast nature of the transmission medium. The nodes are often placed in a hostile or dangerous environment where the nodes are not physically protected. Basically attacks are classified as active attacks and passive attacks which respect to the transmission medium.
Passive A ttacks
The unauthorized attackers will be monitoring and listening to the communication channel, these types of attacks are passive in nature so they are called as passive attack. These attacks are called passive because the data will only be monitored but not changed (Dr. G. Padmavathi, 2009). The one and only attack in passive attacks is attacks against privacy. In this attack the information from the sensor networks would probably be collected through direct site surveillance. The sensor networks will intensify the privacy problem because they make large volumes of data which can be easily available through remote access.
In this type of attack the unauthorized attacker will monitor, listen to and also modify the data streams in the communication channel (Yang Xiao, 2007). These attacks are more harmful then that of the passive attacks. The following are the attacks which are active in nature Routing Attacks in Sensor Networks, Denial of Service Attacks, Node Subversion, Node Malfunction, Node Outage, Physical Attacks, Message Corruption, False Node, Node Replication Attacks and Passive Information Gathering.
Routing Attacks in Sensor Network
The attacks which will affect the network layer are called as routing attacks. The routing attacks are spoofed altered and replayed routing information, selective forwarding, sinkhole attacks, Sybil attacks, wormholes attacks, and hello flood attacks. Spoofed altered and replayed routing information is an attack in which every node will act as a router which directly affects the routing information. Selective forwarding is attack in which the malicious nodes can drop selectively only certain packets. Sinkhole attack is an attack in which the traffic will be attracted to one particular node (Sophia Kaplantzis, Alistair Shilton, Nallasamy Mani and Y. Ahmet Sekercio glu, 2007). Hello flood attacks in this an attacker will send or replays a routing protocol's HELLO packets from one node to another. The most common attack that can be found in wireless sensor network is impersonation attack, in this attack the malicious node impersonates a genuine node and its identity is used for mounting the active attack such as Sybil or node replication. In this attack a single node will take multiple identities to deceive other nodes. As sensor nodes will tend to be physically unprotected, it is feasible for an attacker to capture replication and insert duplicate nodes back into selected region of the network (Rocıo Arroyo-Valles, Antonio G. Marques and Jesus Cid-Sueiro, 2007).
Denial of Service
Denial of service will be produced by the unintentional failure of nodes. This type of attacks is meant not only for the adversary's the attempts to subvert, disrupt or destroy the network and will also diminishes any event which will have the capability to provide a service. The physical layer denial of service will also attack jamming and tampering (Anthony D. Wood and John A. Stankovic, 2002). Whereas at link layer, collision, exhaustion and unfairness, at network layer, neglect and greed, homing, misdirection, black holes and at transport layer this attack could be performed by malicious flooding and de-synchronization.
The nodes with advanced anti-jamming techniques such as frequency- hopping spread spectrum and physical tamper proofing of nodes are generally impossible in a sensor network due to the requirements of greater design complexity and higher energy consumption. The node will generate an immense amount of data which will be inside the sensor network. Amount of raw data product of those measurements will be useful at the base station. This data is called as an aggregated data which can be attacked easily by the malevolent adversary (Chi-Fu Huang, Yu-Chee Tseng, 2003). The use of radio transmission, along with the constraints of small size, low cost, and limited energy, make WSNs more susceptible to denial-of-service attacks. Ad-hoc networking topology of WSN facilitates attackers for different types of link attacks ranging from passive eavesdropping to active interfering. Attacks on a WSN can come from all directions and target at any node leading to leaking of secret information, interfering message, impersonating nodes etc.
This attack will capture the node and information is tampered disclosure of also cryptographic keys and also will compromise the whole sensor networks. One node can be captured and all the information in that node can be obtained.
A sensor node is considered as being compromised when an attacker will attack the network by various means, gains control or access to the sensor node itself after it has been deployed. The attacks can be of two types invasive and non-invasive. The invasive is the attack will be defined as an attack where the attacker physically breaks into hardware by modifying the structure. A non-invasive attack will be defined as an attack in which the data is taken from the hardware devices itself (Javier Lopez, 2008). Complex attacks can be easily lunched from compromised nodes; this is because the subverted node is the full-fledged member of the network.
In this type of attack a situation is created that will stop the functioning of the node. In this the cluster leader will stop the functioning which will affect the sensor network protocols.
This attack will make the node generate inaccurate data that will expose the integrity of the sensor.
The sensor network will mainly work on the hostile outdoor environment in this a small from factor of the sensor will coupled with the unattended and distributed nature of the deployment. The sensor nodes are at risk by the physical capture because the communication at the node the communication is wireless, that will particularly easy to snoop on. The data at the nodes can easily be acquired by the attracters. At the nodes the attackers can easily inject the malicious messages into wireless network (Kazem Sohraby, Daniel Minoli and Taieb F. Znati, 2007). This attack will permanently destroy the network.
The content of a message will be modified by an attacker compromises its integrity.
A false node will involve the addition of a node by an adversary and causes the injection of malicious data. This might add a node to the system that feeds false data or prevents the passage of true data.
Node Replication Attacks
In this attack the attacker will add a node to an existing sensor network by copying the nodeID of an already existing node.
Passive Information Gathering
An adversary with powerful resources can collect information from the sensor networks if it is not encrypted (Fernando Boavida, Edmundo Monteiro, Saverio Mascolo and Yevgeni Kouch, 2007). An intruder with an appropriately powerful receiver and well-designed antenna can easily pick off the data stream.
Hence from the above context it can be understood that the security issues in the wireless sensor networks are due the attacks on the network. They are mainly two types of attacks passive and active attacks. The passive attack is in which the data will not change, where as in active attack the data in the network will change. The active attacks are more harmful then the passive attacks.
The securities mechanisms will actually used to detect, prevent and recover from the attacks which are caused. To solve both energy problem and security of wireless sensor network, some energy efficiency security methods have been proposed: Energy Efficient Security Protocol and Energy-Efficient Secure Pattern Based Data Aggregation. Both methods can reduce amount of energy consumption, but, energy consumption is still large because they still use cryptography methods. Thus, this paper presents energy efficient security method to solve the problems without any cryptography method. The security in the network can be provided if the system is protected from the attackers. Mainly the network system should be protected from the active attacks which will cause damage to the network (Karlof C. and D. Wagner, 2005). The damage can be limited by distinct approaches. First is by using tamper-resistant unit, in this unit each node is equipped with a tamper-resistant component which can store key data in it. By doing this the damage of capture of nodes can be limited. Second approach is aiming probabilistic security. In this approach the setting is not assume that sensor nodes are tamper resistant but will limit what an attacker gains after reading data from capturing sensor nodes. Because of the high cost, the first option will be restricted to application domains that are critical enough to be more expensive more requiring few sensors. If devices cannot be made tamper- resistant, then aim at probabilistic security (Drik Westhoff, Joao Giroa and Amardeo Samrma. 2006). In this approach, the term limited gain expresses that the attacker receives only a well-defined subset of knowledge from the wireless sensor network.
The routing attacks are an attack which will affect the network layer. The solution for routing attacks is to improve secure ad-hoc routing algorithm. A security enhanced version of Ad hoc On-demand Distance Vector protocol which is called as security-aware Ad hoc On-demand Distance Vector protocol. This is a protocol which will give satisfactory performance. This is an approach which will depend on the user-defined, application-dependent parameters which will evaluate the trust levels. The other approaches which will help in route redundancy are a property that will take the advantage. The approach which is discussed is the most applicable to general ad hoc network (Fei Hu, Jim Ziobro, Jason Tillett and Neeraj K. Sharma, 2003). Some of the features of this approach are security protocols for sensor network, Ariadne, intrusion tolerant routing protocol for wireless sensors.
In the link layer the encryption and authentication with a common symmetric key prevents most outsider attacks: adversary cannot join the topology. By using counters the replay attacks can be prevented. The attackers can forward the packets without altering encryption can make selective forwarding difficult but does nothing to a black hole attack. Each sensor node needs to efficiently authenticate its received code image before using and propagating it. Public key schemes based on elliptic curve cryptography are feasible in wireless sensor network. A hybrid mechanism that combines the speedy verification of hash schemes with the strong authenticity of public key schemes (Yang Xiao, 2006). A hash tree is computed from packetized code and its root is signed by the public key of the base station. Each sensor node can quickly authenticate the data packet as soon as it is received. They also show by simulation that the proposed secure reprogramming scheme adds only a modest amount of overhead to a conventional non-secure reprogramming scheme, Deluge, and is therefore feasible and practical in a wireless sensor network.
Some key management schemes that can be partially used for securing WSN environments even though most of those schemes are proposed for general ad hoc networks. Hybrid key-based protocols: An obvious conclusion from current research results is that a single keying protocol will not be optimal for all sensor network topologies, densities, sizes, and scenarios (Osvaldo Gervasi, 2005). Protocols such as Identity-Based Symmetric Keying and Rich Uncle have limited application until the network's routing infrastructure has been sufficiently well established. Individually other protocols such as the public-key group and pair wise keying protocols consume too much energy. For significant sensor networks, a mix of public key-based protocols, including pair wise, group keying, and distribution keying, provide an energy efficiency superior to using just a single protocol. Threshold cryptography: A solution to deal with key management in general ad hoc networks is proposed by Zhou and Hass in  and may be borrowed to WSN environments. It uses a (k, n) threshold scheme to distribute the services of the certificate authority to a set of specialized server nodes (Levente Buttyán, Virgil D. Gligor and Dirk Westhoff, 2006). Each of these nodes is capable of generating a partial certificate using their share of the certificate signing key skCA, but only by combining k such partial certificates can a valid certificate be obtained. The solution is suitable for planned, long-term ad hoc networks. However, it may not be applicable for WSN because sensor networks can lose some nodes whose energy is run out of. In addition, is based on public key encryption and thus requires that the all the nodes are capable of performing the necessary computations, which may not be feasible for energy-limited sensor nodes. Certificate repository: Hubaux et al go a step further than, by requiring each node to maintain its own certificate repository. These repositories store the public certificates that the node themselves issue, and a selected set of certificates issued by the others (John Viega, 2005).The performance is defined by the probability that any node can obtain and verify the public key of any other user, using only the local certificate repositories of the two users. The dilemma is: too many certificates in a sensor node would easily exceed their capacity, yet too few might greatly impact the performance (as previously defined) of the entire network. Fully Distributed Certificate Authority Fully Distributed Certificate Authority is first described by Luo and Lu in and later analyzed by Luo et al in Its uses a (k, n) threshold scheme to distribute an RSA certificate signing key to all nodes in the network. It also uses verifiable and proactive secret sharing mechanisms to protect against denial of service attacks and compromise of the certificate signing key. Since the service is distributed among all the nodes when they join the network, there is no need to elect or choose any specialized server nodes. Similar to the solution presented in , this solution is aimed towards planned, long-term ad hoc networks with nodes capable of public key encryption and thus could not adapt the routing changing of sensor networks.
Pebblenets: Secure Pebblenets is a distributed key management system based on symmetric encryption. The solution provides group authentication, message integrity and confidentiality. This solution is suitable for planned and distributed, that this solution can provide more practical security scheme for sensor networks. Pebblenets use only symmetric cryptography. The disadvantage is that once a node is compromised, forward secrecy is broken; therefore tamper- resistance becomes crucial. ofthreshold cryptography (Steven M. Bellovin, 2002) In addition, in pebblenets a key management server not only has to store its own key pair, but also the public keys of all the nodes in the network. The difficulty includes the storage requirement exerted on the servers which must potentially be specialized nodes in the network, and the overhead in signing and verifying routing message both in terms of computation and of communication.
Design of Security System
Wireless sensor networking is one of the most exciting and challenging research domains of this time. As technology progresses, so do the capabilities of sensor networks. Limited only by what can be technologically sensed, it is envisaged that wireless sensor networks will play an important part in our daily lives in the foreseeable future. Privy to many types of sensitive information, both sensed and distributed, there is a critical need for security in a number of applications related to this technology (David Boyle, 2008). Resulting from the continuous debate over the most effective means of securing wireless sensor networks, by considering a number of the security architectures employed, and proposed, for the security. They are presented such that the various characteristics of each protocol are easily identifiable to potential network designers, allowing a more informed decision to be made when implementing a security protocol for their intended application. Authentication is the primary focus, as the most malicious attacks on a network are the work of imposters, such as DOS attacks, packet insertion etc. Authentication can be defined as a security mechanism, whereby, the identity of a node in the network can be identified as a valid node of the network. Subsequently, data accuracy can be achieved, once the integrity of the message sender or receiver has been established then the data can be secured. Consider the current security architecture for WSNs and this is based on the principal of centralized data (Raghavendra, C. S., Krishna M. Sivalingam and Taieb F. Znati, 2004). In this Wireless Sensors Networks architecture, the measurement nodes are deployed to acquire measurements the presence of common attackers, Denial of service attacks, node compromise, impersonation attacks, and protocols specific attacks. The nodes are part of a wireless network administered by the gateway, which governs network aspects such as client authentication and data security (WSN, 2009, p.1). The gateway collects the measurement data from each node and sends it over a wired connection, typically Ethernet, to a host controller.
A Wireless Sensor Networks measurement node contains several components including the radio, battery, microcontroller, analog circuit, and sensor interface. In battery powered systems, this must make important trade-offs because higher data rates and more frequent radio use consume more power. Today, battery and power management technologies are constantly evolving due to extensive research. This architecture consists of the following components:
* Host controller.
* WSN Gateway.
* WSN Node measurement.
The interface device consists of two primary modules. One is the serial interface engine (SEI), responsible for the bus protocol, and the other is the root hub, used to expand the number of USB ports. Be sure that the module is properly aligned with the connector at the back of the crate. Push the module toward the back of the crate with gentle pressure. When the card pushes back, push the locking lever down and press the card firmly into the crate with firm pressure on the top and bottom of the front panel. The locking lever will raise and lock into place. Fasten the retaining screws at the upper end of the front panel and at the bottom of the front panel below the lever. To remove the card, reverse the process by removing the retaining screws and pressing down firmly on the locking lever to disengage the card from the connector at the rear of the crate (Karim Yaghmour, 2003). The Host Controller incorporates much of the intelligence required for processing incoming and outgoing data, as well as legacy keyboard support for keyboards connected to keyboard controllers through Port This core is ideally suited for a variety of applications ranging from palmtop computing, mobile computing, and other consumer related applications such as medical monitoring devices. Host controllers can handle only high speed communications (Jan Axelson, 2005). This is capable of scheduling more than one stage of control transfer in a single frame.
The Wireless Sensor Network Gateway offers an IP based interface on one side and different wireless interfaces on the other side. Gateways are the indispensable components in order to achieve communications between terminals connected to heterogeneous network that use at different protocols and have different network characteristics. Gateways are often used to enable users at remote locations to access different target systems. A network gateway provides the connectivity between remote systems at remote locations with the target systems of interest to enable different network applications. TCP/IP protocols were built to transmit data over the ARPAnet, which was a packet switched network (Craig Hunt, 2002). A gateway acts as the interface between proximity local area protocols and wide area protocols, such as TCP/IP (Transmission Control Protocol/ internet Protocol) on the Internet. A gateway also manages its client devices, aggregates their data, and performs other related tasks. The gateway provides mutual communication by performing communication protocol conversion between the public communication network and the private communication network. The gateway is also used in mutual protocol conversion between Local Area Networks that are constructed as private communication networks. The gateway routes user traffic to destinations in the local network or to an external network, such as the Internet (Carl Malamud, 2007). The gateway often functions as a service selection gateway (SSG) which allows users to connect to various subscribed, on-demand network services. A service selection gateway (SSG) facilitates a remote user to use various services provided using the Internetworking technologies.
WSN Node Measurement
Wireless sensor network measurement node offer low power, reliable operation for long term, distributed deployments. The measurement nodes feature direct sensor connectivity and 2.4 GHz radio to wirelessly transmit data to the wireless Ethernet gateway (National Instruments, 2009). Each measurement node offers four analog input channels and four digital input or output channels can configure for input, sinking output, or sourcing output. Measurement nodes increase the performance and flexibility of security system. By default, a node transmits every acquired value to gateway at the specific sample interval.
Ethernet was originated at Xerox Corporation in the year 1970s (Jan Axelson, 2003). The Ether in Ethernet refers to luminiferous ether, which is the name given to a hypothetical medium that was one once thought to serve as the propagation medium for electromagnetic waves. The existence of ether has since been disproved, but the name lives on the term Ethernet. Although the Ethernet name continues in popular use, the IEEE standard uses the word sparingly. It is one in a group of IEEE standards that describe the technology for use in local and metropolitan area network (Jan Axelson, 2003). Normally Ethernet uses frame to communicate between the different devices, with the only distinction begin the use of a special Ethernet MAC address. Ethernet provide end to end visibility of the Ethernet service and the associated performance. Ethernet is the most widely used data link layer protocol in the world. It provides the link between the gateway and host controller for the purpose of security while transferring data from one destination to other destination. Ethernet based on LAN can enable to interconnect the wide variety of equipment including UNIX and Linux workstations (Scott Mueller, 2003). Hence from the above context it can be understood that Ethernet is the link between Host and gateway to transmit the data with at most security.
This design is an efficient and reliable backup scheme for security systems. It is mainly using a wireless sensor network (WSN) to gather the related environmental parameters and to transmit the data to the gateway through an Ethernet. And then it further stores data in the back end database for the professional monitoring staffs to analyze and study. Besides, the proposed backup scheme could also improve the inconvenience to add or remove sensor nodes in an existing security network. As now a day's security designer are facing critical task of guarantying of the security of increasingly more complex wireless network systems while dealing with tight constraints(Donggang Liu and Peng Ning, 2007). Many protocols and algorithms cannot protect the data from host to the clients. Wireless security solutions are gaining more and more popularity because of their flexibility, convenience and clean installation, especially in home security and alarm systems. Sensor networks, however, may have an important role in complex, integrated security systems as well, where protection is provided against a wide range of threats, like physical attacks (Laszlo Szabados, Andras G. Toth and Gyula Simon, 2007). A very expensive and time consuming part of system setup is the deployment of sensors. Special security needs require special hardware; especially the wiring of the sensors can be costly and difficult such as fire alarm sensors require special fireproof wiring not easily fitted into the given environment. The main idea behind this security system is to keep a list ofany work related to Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) security. In this network the processing of the raw data is performed in WSNs by dividing the network into small groups and analyzing the data aggregated at the group leaders. So the group leader has to authenticate the data, which it is receiving from other nodes in the group. However, addition or deletion of nodes from the group leads to more problems. Consequently, secure protocols for group management are required. Moreover these protocols have to be necessarily efficient relative to time, energy, computation and transfer the data without any damage (Charles P. Pfleeger and Shari Lawrence Pfleeger, 2003). To provide the security the operating system and networks must requires the cooperation of system administration.
Some of the steps to be followed while implementing this design
* Simulate the Design: To operate this design, one must have a realistic simulation environment, in which all parameters should be in according to an accurate description of the environment, platform and operation. In order to have this, one can barely trust on the predefined parameters found in this design. All the parameters must be verified and validated before using it on site.
* Tool's accuracy: For the network and node monitoring, control and management are critical for installing the nodes and verification and fine-tuning of vital parameters of the system components so accuracy of the tools are necessary.
* Use sniffers: To check the broadcast nature of the antenna, which radiates signals from the gateway, is efficient and easy to tap into for debugging purpose.
* Deploy small first, and then at large. Manually deploying hundreds of nodes is waste of time and the system may doom to failure. First check the operations with a few nodes that can be deployed in a reasonable amount of time, within a human reachable range (Rousselot, Dallemagne, Ph. And Decotignie, J. D., 2009). This is not always possible, when a Wireless Sensor Networks is installed in a security system. In this case, only the simulation will tell if the system is likely to run properly.
* Plan installation: It is essential to having the tools to hook the nodes in reliable and safe manner. Tools to tune the position of the nodes to improve link quality will save a lot of time.
* Do not use external device: The external device may cause any damage to the systems. It is better to use the devices that are located inside the node enclosure.
* External node identification: External nodes should be identified for the better function.
* Secure all the components: All the components should be checked properly after the enclosure of equipments.
By following the above steps a security system can be designed in a simple manner. This security is based on the platform of wireless sensor networks.
Providing end-to-end data security, data confidentiality, authenticity, and availability, in wireless sensor networks (WSNs) is a non-trivial task. In addition to the large number and severe resource constraint of sensor nodes, a particular challenge comes from potential insider attacks due to possible node compromise, since a WSN is usually deployed in unattended/hostile environments.
Our design overcomes the limitations of the existing hop-by-hop security paradigm and achieves an efficient and effective end-to-end security paradigm in WSNs. We exploit the static and location-aware nature of WSNs, and propose a novel location-aware security approach through two seamlessly integrated building blocks: a location-aware key management framework and an end-to-end data security mechanism. In this approach, each sensor node is equipped with several types of symmetric secret keys, some of which aim to provide end-to-end data confidentiality, and others aim to provide both end-to-end data authenticity and hop-by-hop authentication. All the keys are computed at each sensor node independently from keying materials preloaded before network deployment and the location information obtained after network deployment, without inducing extra communication overhead for shared key establishment. Our Location-aware End-to-end Data Security design (LEDS) then provides a secure and reliable data delivery mechanism, which is highly resilient to even a large number of compromised nodes.
Feasibility study deals with analyzing the worthiness of the problem and the possibility of solving the problem. These types of studies were conducted and the result was satisfactory. The feasibility analyzed were,
v Technical Feasibility
The technical feasibility centers on an existing computer system (hardware and software) and to what extent it can support the proposed system. The technology should be within the state art, where the defect can be reduced to a level matching the application.
v Behavioral Feasibility
The proposed system is not totally new form of the existing system to cause discomfort to the client. The proposed system is user friendly and has improved the throughput.
v Economic Feasibility
As stated earlier the computer center has required the resources functioning well and therefore there is no new requirement for any new additional things. Hence is economically feasible. The system to be developed will be supported by the existing environment with Internet Connection.
The project analysis is carried out to understand the function, behavior, performance and the scope of the project.
This project mainly deals with providing routing information to nodes in Ad-hoc networks, where the network topology changes in accordance to the mobility of users. It also has to remove the stale route information from the nodes that have cached the broken link route in their cache table, there by avoiding packet losses and routing overheads.
Mobile ad-hoc network is a relatively new innovation in the field of wireless technology. These types of networks operate in the absence of fixed infrastructure, which makes them easy to deploy at any place and at any time. The absence of any fixed infrastructure in mobile ad-hoc networks makes it difficult to utilize the existing techniques for network services, and poses number of various challenges in the area. Typical challenges include routing, bandwidth constraints, security and power.
Function and Performance
Users within the network want to communicate with each other where ever they are. Communicating through infrastructure network will lead to the loss of the information due to change in the topology of networks. So, current mobile ad-hoc networks are used to communicate with each other. They find the best path between the source and the destination and maintain the path till the data transfer is made. They also find the stale route, there by avoiding data packets to be transferred through the broken path. This avoids packet losses, reduces delivery latency and routing overhead.
HISTORY OF JAVA
Java has been around since 1991, developed by a small team of Sun Microsystems developers in a project originally called the Green project. The intent of the project was to develop a platform-independent software technology that would be used in the consumer electronics industry. The language that the team created was originally called Oak.
It has only been since 1994 that Oak technology has been applied to the Web. In 1994, two Sun developers created the first version of Hot Java, and then called Web Runner, which is a graphical browser for the Web that exists today. The browser was coded entirely in the Oak language, by this time called Java. Soon after, the Java compiler was rewritten in the Java language from its original C code, thus proving that Java could be used effectively as an application language. Sun introduced Java in May 1995 at the Sun World 95 convention.
Web surfing has become an enormously popular practice among millions of computer users. Until Java, however, the content of information on the Internet has been a bland series of HTML documents. Web users are hungry for applications that are interactive, that users can execute no matter what hardware or software platform they are using, and that travel across heterogeneous networks and do not spread viruses to their computers. Java can create such applications.
Java Virtual Machine
Java is compiled to byte-codes whose target architecture is the Java Virtual Machine (JVM). The virtual machine is embeddable within other environments, e.g., web browsers. Utilizes a byte-code verifier when reading in byte-codes. The Class Loader is employed for "classes" loaded over the network
Basics of Typical Java Environment
Java programs normally undergo five phases
* Edit: Programmer writes program (and stores program on disk)
* Compile: Compiler creates byte-codes from program
* Load: Class loader stores byte-codes in memory
* Verify: Verifier ensures byte-codes do not violate security requirements
* Execute: Interpreter translates byte-codes into machine language
JAVA ENVIRONMENT DIAGRAM
INTRODUCTION TO SWING
Swing contains all the components. It's a big library, but it's designed to have appropriate complexity for the task at hand – if something is simple, you don't have to write much code but as you try to do more your code becomes increasingly complex. This means an easy entry point, but you've got the power if you need it.
Swing has great depth. This section does not attempt to be comprehensive, but instead introduces the power and simplicity of Swing to get you started using the library. Please be aware that what you see here is intended to be simple. If you need to do more, then Swing can probably give you what you want if you're willing to do the research by hunting through the online documentation from Sun.
Features of the Java Language
Java facilitates the building of distributed applications by a collection of classes for use in networked applications. By using Java's URL (Uniform Resource Locator) class, an application can easily access a remote server. Classes also are provided for establishing socket-level connections.
JAVA FOUNDATION CLASSES
Probably the single most important new feature added to JDK 1.2 is version 1.1 of the Java Foundations Classes (JFC). JFC is a set of APIs for building the GUI-related components of Java applets and applications. JFC 1.1 was released separately from the JDK in February of 1998 so that they could be used with the then-current JDK 1.1. JDK 1.2 integrates JFC 1.1 as a Core API and adds the Java 2D and Drag and Drop APIs. The APIs included with JFC include the following:
v The Abstract Windowing Toolkit
v Java 2D
v Drag and Drop
These five APIs are introduced in the following subsections.
ABSTRACT WINDOWING TOOLKIT (AWT)
If you've programmed in Java before, you know about the AWT. It provides the capability to create platform-independent, GUI-based programs and is a very important contributor to Java's popularity. Any programmer who has written programs using the arcane APIs of Microsoft Windows immediately appreciates the clarity, simplicity, and power of the AWT. Not only is the AWT a better API for developing Windows applications, it is a better API for programming window-based applications on platforms ranging from Motif to OS/2.The AWT of JDK 1.2 has been augmented with many new classes and interfaces that add drawing, Printing, and image-processing capabilities, and support the Accessibility, Drag and Drop, and Java 2D APIs.
Chapter 4: [System Design]
Data Flow Diagram:
In the above figure it shows the data flow taking place between the sender node and the sink receiver node with the sensor node acting as the mediator of the data transfer process.
In the level1 it shows that the data is being encrypted to the cipher text from the plain text using the Idea algorithm when it is been forwarded to the sink node from the sensor node and the sink node receiver of the data decrypts the data that is been received from the sensor node to view the plain text from the encrypted cipher text.
In the above figure it shows clear picture of the data transfer over the same location group of nodes where the key is generated which is shared with the sensor node the group leader of the network, along with the encryption of the data that is being transferred from the node. This data is been sent to the sensor node in the same location. From here the data is been forwarded to the sink receiver node in the same group. Here the received data is decrypted and the generated key and all is verified such that the data received is legitimate and the sender is of the same group of the network.
In the next figure it is been explained the data transfer between the nodes that are present in the different group locations. Having the different group leader sensor nodes for each location based nodes. The data flow will be the same as that of the data transfer in the same location but when it comes to different locations the data is encrypted generating the secrete key is sent to the sensor network of the node local location where the node identity is verified and then data is forwarded to the sensor node of the neighbor location of the sink receiver node. Here the trustworthiness of the sensor node key is verified and the data is forwarded to the sink receiver node, then the sink verified the key and decrypts the data. Thus the data can be transferred safely over the network with the localization of the nodes using the sensor node in a location where as not leaving the nodes in an unsecure state of no surveillance as in the traditional model.
The main aim of the design is to maintain the end to end security over the wireless sensor networks thus by achieving the authentication, confidentiality and integrity.
The sequence diagram of the design gives the clear idea of the sequence of steps that takes place while the data transferring over the network takes where it checks for the trustworthiness of the neighboring nodes along destination path to the sink receiver node.
As the data is sent to the sensor node from the sender node the sensor node gets the values of the neighboring nodes and checks the trustworthiness of the nodes and data is verified. If the nodes are trustworthy the data is forwarded to the sink receiver node as trustworthiness fails the data transfer is dropped from the network.
The various modules included in the project as follows
Ø Virtual Geographic Grid
Ø End-to-End Security
Ø Data Filtering
Virtual Geographic Grid
This module used to divides the terrain into multiple square cells. The parameters of a geographic virtual grid consist of a reference point and the cell size.
End to End Security
This module used to encrypt with a unique secret key shared between the event sensing nodes and the sink Furthermore, the authenticity of the corresponding event sensing nodes can be individually verified by the sink.
This module used to efficient en-route false data filtering capability to deal with the infamous bogus data injection attack. It guarantees that a bogus data report from that cell can be filtered by legitimate intermediate nodes or the sink deterministically.
Selecting Sensor Node:
Receiving Key from Sensor:
Display Neighbor Nodes in Sensor
Display Sensor Keys from Sensor
Check and Display the Trustworthy Values
Finding path from Source to Destination
Display the Received Paths to Destination
Select the Shortest Path to Destination
Send Encrypted Data to Destination
Selecting Sensor Node:
Receiving Key from Sensor:
Display Neighbor Nodes in Sensor
Display Sensor Keys from Sensor
Check and Display the Trustworthy Values
Receive the Encrypted Data from Source
Enter the Key
Display the Original Data from Source
After Clicked the Stop Button
After Clicked the Start Button
Display Trustworthy Values
Chap ter 5 [Findings and Evaluation]
Effectiveness of the project
End- to-end data security is provided by the having data confidentiality, authentication and availability in Wireless Sensors Networks (WSNs) which is a non-trivial task. Wireless sensor networks are a type of networked systems which are characterized by many computational and energy resources. Sensor networks are characterized by lower bandwidth, memory sizes, limited power supplies and energy. The security in sensors networks can be obtained by Location-Aware End-to-end Security systems. Wireless sensor networks are one of the fast growing technologies where it is used in military and civilian actions. Most of the severe threat in wireless sensor network is the security compromise of sensor networks. In sensor networks communication is expensive in terms of bandwidth and energy. The attacks in sensor networks involve node comprising attacks and the Denial of services attacks. Location aware end-to-end security is given by the location aware key management and end-to-end data security mechanism (Yingshu Li, My T. Thai and Weili Wu, 2008). The security in wireless sensor networks is given by Java and some Graphics user interface tools. Hence effectiveness of GUI and Java helps in providing security for wireless sensor networks. Security of a system is very debatable subject where no system can perform or obtain perfect security. When a system is designed the security features to avoid corruption and to reduces misuse are to be observed. GUI provides many control elements for the system users, these tools and modules are intended to have security policy and historical state of security infrastructure. The effective of GUI testing is very much similar to imbus as users expect a robust graphical user interface for practically using in software projects. In GUI mentoring of task is given by the two agents like computer which performs the task and the technician who handles all the tasks. By this the security is provided to data from both the ends. The GUI tools help in having effective security by performing authentication techniques. (Mauro Marinilli, 2006). In usage of wireless sensor networks security is the main issue which is being faced by many of the users. Java provides several security models for programmers, system administrators and the end users. Java provides java. Security package contains many utility classes. Java provides data authentication, amiability and authentication by the usage of several packages. End-to-end security is in charge of securing communications between software components which are located at different machines. Java end-to-end security concerns with authenticating and authorizing users and the application components and encrypting communication channels (Mourad Debbabi, Mohamed Saleh and Chanseddine Talhi, 2007). Java DataBase (DB) is an open source which helps in providing data security. For building any javaDB security is very important. The security in java can be obtained by applying encryption, authentication, and authorization as having a secure environment. In java the security is provided at low-level, application level and end-to-end (Dzone, 2009). Hence the effectiveness of java and GUI tools helps in proving end-to-end security in Wireless Sensor networks.
The data or information is sent from home and sink where sensor is used as mediator between them. The selection of home and sink is based upon the distance between them and the sensor body. This can be given by the performing practically. Thus it can be selected by giving the distances manually. In this project at node 1 the distance is given as 80 then the LEDS node value is given as LEDS707. At node2 distance is entered as 70 and the LEDS node value for it is given as LEDS508. At node 3 the distance is entered as 60 and the LEDS node value is given as LEDS884. After the nodes values have been entered than LEDS884 is taken as sensor node. LEDS884 sensor provides key for LEDS508 and LEDS707 as TO and HJ. After keys have been assigned LEDS707 and LEDS508 are treated as neighboring nodes and the sensor keys for sensors are displayed. The trustworthiness of the sensor networks is checked. A path from source to destination is displayed. These paths are displayed by an alert messages which area [LEDS668, LEDS572, LEDS669, LEDS711, LEDS163], [LEDS668, LEDS572, LEDS277, LEDS711, LEDS123, LEDS163] and [LEDS668, LEDS572, LEDS277, LEDS123, LEDS163]. Among thesis distances the smallest distance to destination is selected. The encrypted data is sent to destination by providing a key with the shortest path to the destination. This is the process where the encrypted data is sent to the destination by providing specific key. After encrypted data has been sent by the home the data is decrypted at the destination. The decryption process is done by following step by process as such that of encryption process. For this at node 1 the distance is entered as 85 and is given as LEDS366, at node 2 the distance is entered as 75 and is given as LEDS774 and at node 3 the distance is entered as 65 and is given as LEDS331. Among the three the sensor node is selected. After the sensor node is selected sensor sends key to LEDS331 and LEDS366 as XH and HD. The neighboring nodes are displayed under inner neighbor. And the next screenshots displays sensor keys for the sensor and the trustworthiness of the sensors are checked. Both inner and outer neighbors are displayed and checked. The key is entered to have the decrypted data is encrypted at the source end. This decrypted data is displayed at the receive data in the screen. The start button is clicked to know about the trustworthiness of the neighboring nodes and the checking of sensor nodes is stop by clicking on the sp button. Finally the trustworthy for all the nodes are displayed. Hence from the above discussion it can be concluded that the effectiveness of wireless sensor networks is given by GUI tools and with the help of java. Both java and GUI components helps in providing security. These selection of home, sink and the sensor is done with the help of distances and according to the distances the sensor node and the it's neighboring nodes are given. This process helps in providing security to data by using encryption and decryption techniques.
Wireless Sensor Networks are considered as a significant technology in recent years. As Wireless Sensor Networks have various applications over a wide range there is a scope of having problems. These problems/issues can vary from system to system and are of limited range, limited power, limited cost and limited processing power/memory. These networks have large number of nodes but there is no global ID for these nodes. It is prone to many failures and can be easily compromised with changing topologies (F. L. Lewis, 2006). Global communication which is one of the issue is reduced by a cluster head that implements one or more optimization functions such as data fusion and transmits to more distant cluster heads. So it uses more energy than any other nodes in the cluster. Next is the security issue which is considered as major issue. As WSN's are simple they are unnatural nodes and therefore they are extremely vulnerable to a variety of attacks. So in order to make it secure it is necessary to ensure that the network supports all security properties like confidentiality, integrity, authenticity and availability. If the solutions to these four security properties are not solved then WSN's will continue to have much vulnerability. One of the important issues in WSN is self organization of networks into functional units. WSN's have limited resources and nodes and have varying limited lifetime so in order to maximize network lifetime, the self organization phase must be short and energy efficient. Power efficiency is most common issue in all the routing protocols. More energy is consumed by the sensors so many optimized techniques need to be identified and utilized to reduce energy consumption. Communication should be reduced as it is the most energy intensive activity that the node performs. WSN also has a fundamental problem like lack of realistic evaluation model that permits researchers to test and compare their work (Jamil Ibriq and Imad Mahgoub, 2004). The ad-hoc networking topology renders a WSN susceptible to link attacks ranging from passive eavesdropping to active interfering. The attacks on WSN can come from all directions and can target at any node and damage the secrecy by leaking secret information, interfering message and impersonating nodes. The threats to ad-hoc routing protocols can come from external attackers or internal attackers. Here External attackers include injecting wrong routing information, replaying old routing information and distorting routing information. Cryptography schemes like encryption and digital signatures can be used to defend against external attacks. Whereas Internal attacks refers to the malicious routing information to all the nodes sent by compromised within the network. This is very severe than external attacks because it is very difficult to detect such malicious information as compromised node can also generate valid signatures (Fei Hu, Jim Ziobro, Jason Tillett and Neeraj K. Sharma, 2004). Hence from the above context it can be understood that there are many issued in wireless sensor networks and they are also provided with appropriate solutions to overcome them.
Wireless Sensor Networks are one of the emerging areas which have equipped scientists with the capability of development real-time monitoring systems. It will have large scale deployment in the future. The sensor networks grow in size because of low cost, good protocols and as dense networks have more advantages. In future sensors are provided with micro machines and low power motors are used that supports mobility. Standard mechanism for communication is done by automated interaction between sensors that requires compatible wireless technology. This network makes use of heterogeneous networks that are composed of wireless sensor nodes, Wi-Fi and satellite terminals for effective delivery of real time data management. This network can be developed in such a way that it can understand the capability and usability of wireless sensor networks for critical and emergency applications (Maneesha V. Ramesh, 2009). Sytem design and engineering are also the keys to bring sensor networks model into reality. Certain classifications are being investigated for future purpose, they are,
* Target classification under constraint resources through collaborative data fusion
* Designing aggressive power management with passive wake up capabilities
* Developing robust routing infrastructure that runs under hostile environment
* Better Localization schemes
* Scalable architecture with thousands of nodes along with maintaining operational performance requirement (Tian He, Sudha Krishnamurthy, John A. Stankovic, Tarek Abdelzaher, Liqian Luo, Radu Stoleru, Ting Yan and Lin Gu, 2004). Hence from the above content it can be understood that WSN will play a major role in all the networks.
Effectiveness of Java
Java is considered as the best language to the problem of choosing an appropriate language for the first programming course. Java programs are not only architecture-neutral but are also portable. One way in which Java achieves portability is by completely defining all aspects of the language, leaving no decisions to the compiler writer. In addition to the robustness JAVA programs are designed to be secure. Java is designed to accommodate the fast-paced, modern world of software development, in which components of a system may change on a regular basis. Java has significant advantages not only as a commercial language but also as a teaching language (K. N. King, 1997). Hence it is understood that Java is a suitable internet language that makes it excellent in all areas.
It explains about the utilization of the security system architecture in wireless sensor networks. If fuzzy logic-based aggregation technique has been proposed to be utilized in this system then it can overcome the problem which arises in the current system. The purpose of this technique is to maximize the loss of information gain of the readings from the sensors. Finally this system can conducted a set of experiments using a small model (Voskov, L. S., Panfilov, P.B., Vabischvich, A.N., Komarov, M.M. and Efremov, S.G., 2009).To verify the wireless sensors in the security this can be used to predict loss in data. The inclination of data being recorded can be used to predict the actual deflections to within a satisfactory error. In future it can include utilizing the WSN nodes to detect the change in data which being transferred. In addition it can be utilize for detecting the attacks. Beyond this, a simulation and visualization it can support the further development in monitoring the different tools. These tools will characterize both the state of the controlled data and the state of data transferred (Lei Zhang and Gaofeng Wang, 2009). Simulation for development of an appropriate security system is a necessary predecessor to physical experiments as sources of uncertainty can be better tracked and controlled in a virtual flow of data. The simulation is a necessary step in the development of security for the Wireless Sensor Networks.
Wireless Sensor Networks is a fast growing technology and has exiting research area. These networks are referred as secured networks to provide end to end security with authenticity, availability and confidentiality. In order to provide an efficient data security system for sensor networks, the research work was customized a number of times. These networks are the preferred choice for the design and development of monitoring and control systems. The technology formulated to let in radio frequency identification and real time location system but the real force behind wireless sensor network was the power to place detectors in remote or in the environment without wired lines. Security is a difficult task for providing it to these networks because of complexity in managing the critical resources. Providing security in wireless sensor networks is different from traditional approaches because of resource limitations and computation restrictions. Limited energy resources like computations, communication capacities, memory and low cost devices are included in the network. It is widely used in many areas. This network uses sensors for the detection of toxic, harmful and unsafe materials in case of any leakage identification. Wireless networks leads to a new trend as a way of interchanging the data through internet service like e-mail and data file transfers is increasing enormously.
Security in Wireless Sensor Network is vital to the acceptance and use of sensor networks. In particular, Wireless Sensor Network product in industry will not get acceptance unless there is a proof security to the network. A threat analysis can be made to the Wireless Sensor Network and suggested some counter measures. The sensor network which is used in this will monitor its surrounding activities and it is easy to assume information other than the data monitored. Some of the attacks arise while implementing a security system based on the wireless sensor networks such as active attacks, passive attacks. Some of the active attacks are Routing attacks, Denial of service attacks, Node Subversion, Node Malfunction and Physical attacks. Passive attacks have only one attack that is attack against privacy. In this study some of the solutions are given to the problems which are occurring while transferring the data from source to destination. Some of the solutions are by using tamper-resistant unit and aiming the probabilistic security. The design implementation of the security system based on the wireless sensor networks which include the component such as Host controller, wireless sensor network gateway, wireless sensor network node measurement and Ethernet. By implementing this design perfectly a network can be designed with high level of security.
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