SNMP

Abstract:

SNMP or Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP) is an application layer protocol that provides the exchange of management information between network devices. SNMP is a part of the Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) protocol suite. Through this research the emergency of network management will be managed for fire alarm, power off.

Managing devices such as computers is vital and tracking for its safe and emergency issues will assist in many aspects such as identifying location, solving communication issues etc. In this research we will propose a SMNP based solution for effectively managing computer devices. In this research we will propose a MIB [Management Information Base] using ASN1.0 specification and also proposing a prototype on the implementation. Then based on our proposed prpotype we will evaluate.

ASN for the proposed MIB has been designed as part of this research but it could not be implemented with real time implementation due to lack of resource for SNMP based developemnt.

Aim:

Propose a solution for SNMP based Emergency management for an organization

Objectives:

* Research on network management using SNMP.

* Proposing an MIB Tree for the emergency network management

* Critically evaluating the proposed solution for SNMP based emergency network management.

Introduction

Network management is managing and maintaining different components and its functioning in a network. Network should be managed in an efficient way for avoiding different attacks. Several protocols are used for managing network. Management plays a vital role for monitoring the state of the network and analyses the performance. Among such protocols Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP) is one which is used for monitoring the network. The main purpose of this protocol is designed for maintaining devices in network in internet protocols (IP). The network management performance can be used for transporting network information and its elements functioning (Stephen F. Bush and Amit B Kulkarni, 2001). SNMP in networks provides reliable and integrated network management. Several attacks may occur in network, for analyzing networks should be managed in an efficient way. The SNMP manages the network with the usage of different commands to the network and is useful in different networks. There are several architectures for SNMP which is used depending upon the network mechanisms. It performs several operations in network for managing different components in the network. For performing all these operations SNMP uses Management Information Base (MIB) for handling components in the network. In this project SNMP and its performance in network is analyzed with the help of case study approach. The emergency preparedness is important part in network management and is equal to other maintenance works. One of the problems in network is traffic (German Goldszmidt and Jurgen Schonwalder, 2003). Sometimes the flow of data is more in network which causes traffic in network. In order to avoid traffic limited number of data should be transmitted in the network. Another problem that occurs in networks is security. Sometimes intruders may involve in network which leads to loss of data, in order to avoid this SNMP protocol performs several operations. For identifying network problems with SNMP components in network uses Management Information Base. Manager plays major role in managing the network. SNMP emergency services are very much helpful for the managing the network. This project uses emergency management of SNMP in order to solve problems that occur in networks (Geln E. Clarke, 2005). Hence from above context it can be concluded that SNMP is one of the protocol which helps in managing the network. Several problems may occur in network like traffic and security to the data. SNMP emergency management helps in managing the networks by performing different operations.

Research Problem

The network management protocols identify the communication between the network management server programs that are executing on the router or host, and the network management client program invoked by the manager. Considering these factors, it can be expected that the network management protocols contains numerous commands (Douglas Comer, 2006). The major disadvantage of constructing the network management protocols is the resulting complexity because this protocol needs an individual command for every operation on the data item. The Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP) is useful in such types of cases. SNMP makes an interesting approach to network management. In place of defining the large command set, SNMP directs all the operations in a fetch-store paradigm. SNMP makes use of only two commands which allow the manager to store values into the data item and get the value from the data item. Other operations are described as the side-effects of the two operations. The main advantage of using the fetch-store paradigm is simplicity, flexibility and stability. SNMP is stable as its meaning remains fixed. SNMP is also easy to understand, debug and implement as it evades the difficulties of using special cases for every command. Finally the SNMP is flexible as it can contain the arbitrary commands in a well-designed framework (Douglas Comer, 2006).

Problem Context: Importance of emergency in SNMP

In the present scenarios of the Simple Network Management protocol, there are numerous of conditional factors that involves in defining the perspectives of the response in emergency SNMP (Amjad Umar, 2003). The emergency response can be used as a tool guide to the proposed scheme. The situation of the emergency can be found in the several areas of the networking management. The state of emergency can be found in many context such as market demand, failure in the key resources, shortage in the areas of the supply, in the same way there is a need of the emergency can be found in the areas of the political sciences and public administration. As in the same way in this research the point to be focused on is the emergency response of the Simple Network Management Protocols (Harold F. Tipton and Micki Krause, 2004). The factor that contributes to the difficulty in the emergency are lack of flexibility in making decision, lack of available resources, lack of response in option, failure in communicating and cascading the events. To overcome these whole problems in the SNMP emergency, it must have to develop the outstanding plans that can be used for giving the training on the extensive simulation of the Emergency Response. Most of the organizations get failure only because of the one reason that is managing the emergency situations (Rob Cameron, Neil R. Wyler, Trent Fausett, Kevin Fletcher, Patrick Foxhoven and Mark J. Lucas, 2007). If the emergency situations in an organization are maintained in a superior approach then it may lead to loss in the communication, information and essential data. Hence a proper management system is required for organizing the emergency situations in Simple Network Management protocol. This protocol is used to reduce the traffic when a emergency situation is occur in the network, then the preventive measures that has to be taken are recovery, preventives in the system, improving the communication scheme, performance and work on the basis of the propriety.

Research Method:

Case study is one of the best methods for researchers; these are effectively used by the people to understand the contest of the study. It is less complexity and adds strength to the data which is used in the research. The steps that is followed in this case study are

* Determine the theme of the research

* Select the cases and analysis the techniques for gathering the data

* Preparation for the collection

* Collection of the data according to the field

* Estimate and analyze that data

* Preparation of the report

This study is to manage the emergency in Simple Network Management protocol. The organization that involves in the SNMP managements standards, that provides the major introduction to the organization management. There are several conditions that have an impact on the areas like co-operation and trading (Bill Gillham, 2000). To develop the management system in the SNMP is based on the information and communication. This includes the problems, listing the questions, describing the method that involve in the research. The key features of the report includes the detail of the Simple Network Management Protocols in the management information of specific data that relates to the successes or disappointments experienced by the organizations that were conveyed during data collection and answers or comments illuminating issues directly related to the research questions (Ben Beiske, 2007). The researcher develops each issue using quotations or other details from the data that is collected, and points out the uses of data where it is applicable. The data also includes the confirming and conflicting findings from literature reviews. The report conclusion makes assertions and suggestions for further research activity, so that another may apply these techniques to another electronic community, network and its management to determine whether similar findings are particularly to in communities that belongs to the network (George L. Dunbar, 2005). Final report distribution includes all participants. Within the case study it has been analyzed at the first time whether the technique used with each non-profit organization under study. The assigned investigator studies each organizations written documentation and survey response data as a separate case to identify unique patterns within the data for the single organization. A detailed case study that is, written ups for each organizing management, categorizing interview questions and answers and examining the data for within group similarities and differences. Cross case analysis follows. Investigators examine pairs of cases, categorizing the similarities and differences in each pair (Kathleen Stassen Berger, 2004). Investigators then examine similar pairs for differences, and dissimilar pairs for similarities. As patterns begin to emerge, certain evidence that may stand out as being in conflict with the patterns. In those cases, the investigator conducts follow-up focused interviews to confirm or correct the initial data in order to tie the evidence to the findings and to state relationships in answer to the research questions.

Chapters Summary:

In summary, here there is a discussion about the case studies in terms of the different types of case studies which is found in the literature. The case studies are considered to be useful in research as it enable researchers to examine data at the fine level. It is an alternative to quantitative or qualitative research, case studies is a practical solution to when a big sample population is difficult to obtain. Although the case studies have a variety of advantages, so it is used for data management for having the better situations and it provide a better insights for the document in detail to which the subjects of Interest is related. Case study method has always been criticized for its lack of severity and the tendency for a researcher. It is the base for establishing reliability and generality in subjected to uncertainty when a small sampling is deployed. Some case study research is dismissed as useful only as an exploratory tool. Hence as the case study have various advantages over the qualitative or the quantitative researches. So it is used in this research.

Summary of chapters:

Chapter 2 includes the Literature review for the related research work.

Chapter 3 discusses the analysis of problem requirements which is providing a solution for managing or developing emergency based system.

We have used SNMP and MIB based approach to provide the design of the emergency based provision.

We will be using MIB tree and ASN based design and development for this.

Chapter 4 includes the development and data collection which will be obtained through SNMP Query for Firealarm and Power off.

Chapter 5 covers the analysis and evaluationof results or test data,

This has the effectiveness of the research and proposed solution for emergency.

Chapter 2: Literature Review

2.1 Network Management

Network Management is a service which employs different applications, tools and devices to assist the network managers in maintaining and monitoring networks. Hence the meaning of Network Management is different for different users. For example in certain cases the network management involves a single network advisor monitoring the network activity by utilizing an obsolete protocol analyzer. In other cases the network management involves auto polling, distributed database and high end workstations producing real time network topology traffic and changes (Network Management n.d).

Architecture of Network Management

Many of the network management architectures use similar set of elements, structure and relationships. The managed devices or end devices like the computer systems and network devices run the basic software which allows them in producing alerts when problems are recognized. For instance consider the exceeded user determined thresholds. The alerts received are programmed by the management entities to respond by executing one, group of actions like operator notification, system shut down, automatic attempts and event logging by system repair.

Even the entities of the management can be polled for end stations to verify the values of definite variables (Network Management n.d).

The polling can be user initiated or automatic but the agents of managed devices react to all polls. These agents are the software modules which first compile information regarding managed devices in which they reside. Later the information is stored in management database and is finally produced to the management entities reactively or proactively of the network management systems (NMSs) through a protocol of network management. The network management protocols include Common Management Information Protocol (CMIP) and Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP). Figure 1 represents basic network management architecture (Network Management n.d).

Sampling Techniques

Network Management involves the status information of queue occupancy, latency, load and other parameters which is available from devices like switches, networking interfaces and routers. This information of the network management is accessed by the Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP) (Edwin A. Hernandez, Matthew C. Chidester, and Alan D. George, 2000). The Network Management Station (NMS) of the SNMP queries the agents or network devices to evaluate the status of the network links or devices periodically. The accuracy of the data measured is determined by period of sampling. A transient activity cannot be detected accurately if the sampling interval is large and a greater storage capacity is required at the NMS as small intervals consume larger bandwidths on the network. For instance, a burst of major action with few seconds is probable to be undetected with sampling interval of some minutes. To balance the accuracy with sampling several sampling techniques have been practical to the managers of network. Some of these sampling techniques are:

SNMP Architecture:

Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP) is the network protocol which is used in network management systems. This protocol is designed to administer the devices on an Internet Protocol (IP) network. It collects the information from different network devices such as routers, servers, hubs on an internet protocol. It is used for managing complex networks.

The SNMP architecture consists of different set of components such as network management system and the SNMP agent and the managed device. The managed device is also known as the network elements. It is connected to the data network. The SNMP agent collects the data from the managed device and transforms it to another format using SNMP. This agent acts as a server, switch, hub and many others. The NMS is the one of the module of the SNMP which basically executes the applications which can manage and control the managed devices like physical devices such as routers, network interfaces and software. They manage the remote monitoring of these managed components and do the sampling. Then after do the analysis of the collected information and finally gives the presentation of the information (Steven Karris T, 2004). All the devices in the architecture are referred as managed devices. The managed device in the architecture acts as an SNMP agent which facilitates the network management system to recover the status of managed device. All the available information of the managed devices is been addressed through management information base (MIB). There are two types of MIB's. They are scalar and tabular. The scalar object of MIB's denotes the single object instances and the tabular objects of MIB's define the multiple object instances. If the network management system recognizes which device to be managed in MIB then it changes the MIB objects with the relevant requests to the agent of SNMP. The information of MIB is loaded into the network management system with the help of MIB file. The network management system acts as the master device where as the managed device and the SNMP agent acts as a slave device. It provides security by preventing unauthorized users to gain access on the system. This security is performed with the help of community string. This string acts as the password and groups the data either to read-only or read-write areas (Thomas Porter, 2006). The application server of the SNMP agent is designed to run the specific applications. The SNMP agents and the network management systems communicate each other with different set of operations such as read, write and trap. The NMS requests the SNMP agent through read operation and it sends the information through write operation. The notifications are sent from SNMP agent to NMS through trap operation. Hence from the above context it is understood that SNMP is used in many applications. It is implemented in many operating systems. The storage network of the SNMP architecture consists of switch and the hub which acts as the interface between the components. All the devices such as managed devices, MIB are connected only through storage network. Tape library contains more than one tape drives which stores bulk amount of data. It acts as a SNMP agent. The SNMP agent translates the whole information. Different SNMP versions are derived to increase the performance of the system.

SNMP ahs the followings:

Network Element: if any tool connects to the network then that tool can be called as network element. Some of the tools like gateways, hosts, terminal servers, servers, switches, firewalls, and active hubs.

Management station: this station includes a platform which contains software in SNMP that manages and controls the network elements.

SNMP agent: it is a software management agent which is responsible for executing the functions in the network management after receiving the messages from the management station.

SNMP request: a message which travels from management station to SNMP agent in the network device.

SNMP trap receiver: it even receives the notification messages from SNMP agent on network devices.

Management information base: it is a method which identifies the elements in SNMP database.

SNMP Architecture

Simple Network Management Protocol is very popular not only because of its simple operation but also due to easy of usage. This protocol is very useful for manufacturers and seller as it is easy to use SNMP technology for the manufacturers while adding network management functions to their products (Kerrie Meyler, Cameron Fuller, John Joyner & Andy, 2008).

Components of the SNMP Architecture:

The SNMP architecture mainly contains two components, managers and agents, apart from standards which are used for controlling the interactions between components. By using SNMP commands, these managers and agents communicate with each other. These commands are explained in RFC 1157. Here, the managers organize the functioning of agents. The agents provide the data to the managers by interacting with the devices like routers and computers. These devices are also known as managed devices (Ramadas Shanmugam, R. Padmini & S.Nivedita, 2002). The protocol used for communication between manager and agent is referred as SNMP. Generally, the SNMP managed network consists of three components; they are (Deon Reynders &Edwin Wright, 2003):

* Managed devices.

* Agents.

* Network-management systems (NMSs).

Managed devices: It is a network node which includes SNMP agent which exists in a managed network. These devices gather and store the management information. By using SNMP, managed devices enable the management information to network-management systems (NMSs). It also responsible for querying the agents by using SNMP commands. Managed devices can also be known as network elements, these can be any type of devices like routers, switches, hubs, access servers, bridges, IP telephones, printers, or computer hosts (Gilbert Held, 2003).

Agent: It is a network-management software module which exists in managed devices. Agent software represents one or more program modules which operate within the managed devices like bridge, router, workstation or gateway. Each of the managed agent stores information and provides these information to the manager after receiving the request from the manager. It translates the management information into a well-suited form with SNMP (Deon Reynders &Edwin Wright, 2003).

Network-managed systems (NMSs): This system performs applications that examine the managed devices. It provides a large amount of memory resources for network management. In any managed network, there should one or more number of NMSs (Gilbert Held, 2003).

SNMP operations

SNMP reads or writes the values in applications from SNMP devices. There are four basic SNMP operations, they are Get, Get-next, Set and Trap. Get and Set are the basic operations which are mostly used for reading and writing data to a node which are identified by a specific OID. It also requests the values of one or more SNMP objects and sets the values of SNMP object. Get-next reads the content of the tables at a time and steps through MIB hierarchy.

Trap is an asynchronous notification from server (agent) to client (manager) which reports the occurrence of an interesting event. It sends the information in the form of packet to SNMP (Evi Nemeth, Garth Snyder & Trent R. Hein, 2006).

Basic commands of SNMP

Commands are explained in RFCs, there are many RFCs which relate to SNMP components. The importance of these RFCs is it describes the operation of the protocols. Generally, there exists three RFCs; they are RFC 1155, RFC 1157 and RFC 1213. RFC 1155 used for Structure of Management information (SMI), it explains about the data types and structure that should be used for managed objects. RFC 1157 is used for Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP), it describes protocol and operation of SNMP. RFC 1213 is used in Management Information Base (MIB) (Philip Miller, 1997).

By using four basic commands in SNMP, managed devices are monitored and controlled. They are namely read, write, trap, and travel operations (Deon Reynders &Edwin Wright, 2003).

Read command - it is used by NMSs, in order to monitor the managed devices. NMS inspect various variables which are maintained by managed devices.

Write command - to control managed devices, these commands are used by NMS. The variables in the managed devices are changed by NMS.

Trap command- these commands are utilized by the managed devices to asynchronously report the result to the NMS. Whenever there are certain results in the managed devices, then managed devices send rap to NMS (Deon Reynders &Edwin Wright, 2003).

Transversal operations- NMS make use of these operations to identify the variables which supports managed device and also collects the data in variable tables like routing table.

SNMP Network Management

Managing a network is very difficult task for any administrator as it deals with huge number of nodes and protocols. The best way to keep track of all the nodes that exists in a network is to identify and implement an effective protocol which can allow a user to read or write a particular piece of information. SNMP is one of the network management protocol preferred by most of the network administrators in organizations. SNMP can be available with three versions; each has enhanced features when compared with its previous versions. SNMPv3 can offer high security features while managing organizational network. A network manager in an organization has to play a key role in managing the networks. Using of SNMP for network management can be advantageous as it can solve most of the problems that exists in a network (Sebastian Abeck and Adrian Farrel, 2008). Thus, performance of network mostly depends on the network protocols used by the administrator.

Network management using SNMP protocols can be identified as a request/reply process. SNMP makes use of request messages like GET and SET while managing a network. Through GET request a SNMP server can retrieve the required information from a node where as SET request can stores specific information on a node. SNMP servers mostly use GET requests in order to manage a network. SNMP implementation efficiency largely depends on these requests and replies from the nodes or servers (Dinesh Chandra Verma, 2009). A network administrator has to recognize the network details before implementing SNMP protocols. Client programs in networks can be utilized by network administrators in order to display the actual details of a network. While displaying network details a client program acts like an interface. When a user or administrator wants to access specific information, a request must be sent to the server. For sending request to particular node, a client program makes use of SNMP protocols. Requests from the users will be received by SNMP servers running on the specified node. SNMP server processes these requests and finds the information required for a user. Finally a client program will display the information based on the response received from SNMP servers. The major aspects that has to be understood in SNMP network management is, how a user can specify the information request and how a server recognizes the required information (Larry L. Peterson and Bruce S. Davie, 2007). SNMP makes use of Management Information Base (MIB) for retrieving the required information. MIB performs the function of identifying information from SNMP databases. As SNMP uses MIB, a particular syntax for the requests has to be specified. For implementing SNMP with MIB's a standard specification like ASN.1 can be used. A SNMP client agent keeps an ASN. 1 identifier in MIB, SNMP server searches the required information based on the identifier specified by the client. For managing a network SNMP makes use of various network components. Every SNMP agent will interact with MIB's and Network Management Systems while managing a network (Monique Morrow and Kateel Vijayananda, 2003). Hence from the above discussion it can be understood that, SNMP operates in client/ server mode which establishes virtual connections with the servers to provide information to the Network Management Systems (NMS). The information provided to NMS can provide the devices status at a particular time. MIB in SNMP refers to the databases controlled by SNMP agents and SNMP servers retrieve the information based on MIB's in networks. Network management through SNMP can be an effective and most used method in present organizational networking environments. Many large organizations use SNMP tools for managing their networks effectively.

Why SNMP

SNMP is defined as simple network management protocol. Network management system will make use of SNMP for communicating with various network objects. SNMP is mostly used for the remote management of network device. SNMP is widely used because it easy to use and user can easily add the network management functions to their new or existing products. SNMP runs on various devices like network tools, core network devices and office network tools (Ray Rankins, Paul Jensen and Paul Bertucci, 2002). SNMP allow network and system administrator to access network devices that are present in their networks such as server, routers etc. SNMP for the management of network device contains one SNMP station and management station. Management station is mainly utilized to arrange the network elements and to receive the SNMP traps from those elements. By making use of SNMP, network monitor can observe changes and alerts that are identified in the network elements. If the size of network is increased then method called management is required. In SNMP errors obtained are varies from one agent to other agent but will include system failure, disk warning etc (Harold F. Tipton and Micki Krause, 2004). If the device passes an alert to the management station then network management itself involves in rectifying the problem. Time to time configuration request should be send to the device. If provided string is correct then automatically configuration of the device will change according to the requirement. Organizations can identify the status of all equipments and can also perform remote trouble shooting. SNMP is nothing but a protocol that is used to develop and manage nodes that are present in the network system. SNMP allows system administrator to work on the problems that are executed in the network and should plan for the growth of network. Network management service will identify the changes that are done in the network devices based SNMP (Douglas R. Mauro and Kevin James Schmidt, 2005). SNMP consists of three features; they are managed device, agents and network management system. Managed device is usually a network node. It contains SNMP agent that is located on a managed network. Management data that is gathered and stored will be available to network management system of SNMP. Managed devices can also be called as network elements. An agent is nothing but network management module software module which is present in the management device. This device has great knowledge on local management information and this information can ne transferred to SNMP. NMS usually carry out applications that can manage and control the managed device. Hence from the above discussion it is identified that SNMP is a protocol which can help in managing the networks.

Why MIB

Management Information Base (MIB) is an essential component for handling a network. The importance of MIB increased as it comprises data definitions for managed objects. For managing the networks through SNMP protocol, an information base is necessary. The information base must allow a user to retrieve required data. MIB provides the facility of managing databases in SNMP agents. Managed object instances stored in MIB's will be exchanged between SNMP agents and managers (Stephen B. Morris, 2003). Thus, MIB is necessary for managing the information while implementing SNMP protocol in networks. Managed objects in MIB will be specified with a unique identifier, a user has to send request regarding information by following a particular syntax. MIB in SNMP also helps in recognizing the present status of a network device. Identifying the network information in case of small networks can be done very easily as the host names and IP addresses can be available to the users directly. But in large networks, a MIB usage is essential in order to display the network details to valid user or administrator (Nathan J. Muller, 2002). As MIB contains large collections of data, any kind of network management protocols can access it for managing a network. The complete details of network devices and resources can be attained with the help of MIB databases. What kind of network information is needed for the client can be analyzed clearly by making use of contents specified in MIB's. While implementing SNMP protocol, the server identifies the required information through identifiers specified in MIB's (David Houde and Timothy Hoffman, 2001). Hence from the above discussion it can be understood that, MIB is a very important need in Network Management Systems (NMS). NMS makes use of SNMP protocols for accessing the data which is stored in MIB's.

Management Information Base

Management information base is usually a collection of networks, which can be functioned by making use of simple network management Protocol. MIB is a component of SNMP. Different types of data that is exchanged through database are known as management information base. The object structure that is included in the management information will usually depend on the configuration of the SNMP. Out side the initial structure, further extension will be permitted for the addition of new objects. Initial management information base and any extensions are associated to the particular functions that are present in the network (Joe Casad, 2004). MIBS that are present in the SNMP are connected to the domain name system, where as additional extensions are linked with the network objects such as fiber distributed data interface. While designing new product or to modify the existing product, developers of the product will make use of management information base model. Extensions are usually part of the management information base and the Initial management information base specifies as the part of SNMP. MIB-I is normally considered as initial management information base where as MIB-II is considered as first extension. This numbering method will be useful in identifying the initial management base and also useful in identifying the home connection of the network objects that are involved (Scott Mueller and Terry William Ogletree, 2004). The main purpose of introducing management information base is to perform various logical operations in a network. Using MIB as main source, various network objects will exist. By making use of this process it is very simple for the system to identify the network objects that are present in the MIB. After locating the object, without delay in process executed command will be transferred to the user. Hence from the above discussion it is identified that management information base consists of set of network objects, which can be managed through the SNMP.

Is SNMP the only option?

SNMP is not the only option for the network monitoring. The RMON (Remote Monitoring) is one of standard monitoring MIB that is also use to monitor various network systems to exchange network monitoring data. This RMON specification is the extension of the SNMP MIB specification. The RMON has two versions which are RMON1 and RMON2. The RMON1 is used for basic network monitoring in most modern network hardware. The RMON2 is used is extension of RMON that is generally used in higher layers above that is MAC layer. RMON has more feasible in selecting network probes and consoles with features that meet particular networking needs. The Token Ring RMON MIB is used for the network managing of Token Ring networks (Ajoy Datta K and Maria Gradinariu, 2006). The other network monitoring protocols is SMTP (Simple mail Transfer Protocol) is used for sending and receiving the mails. This also supports SMTP authentication and even can connect to the servers. This is very simple and mostly advantageous for laptop users around the world and can connect to the Internet service providers. This is very fast while sending and receiving the messages. ARP is the Address Resolution Protocol which is used by the computer to find the hard ware address associated with an IP address and used to route data between networks for the communication purpose. DNS (Domain Name System) is the hierarchical naming system for computers which is connected to Internet. This translates the domain names to meaningful names to humans for the purpose of locating and addressing the devices. DHCP (Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol) gives up the task of the network administrator by dynamically configuring the each computer on the network. This uses the client-server architecture. This has dynamic addressing that is assigning dynamic IP addresses to the devices on the network and have different whenever it connects to the network. By this dynamic approach a new computer can added to the network without the manual assigning it to the unique IP address (Scott Mueller and Terry William Ogletree, 2005). WSN (Wireless network sensor) protocol also used for monitoring purpose which is capable and has good energy and will give good results in the presence of ongoing faults. It predicts network control state and also reduces the message traffic. Hence from the above context it can be stated has there are other network protocols which are also helpful for many other purposes for controlling traffic of messages and other things.

Chapter 3: [Case Study discussion]

Case Study Scenario:

The scenario is to tracking system, for emergency based network management.

What existing systems exist there?

The existing emergency system is manual involvement one. In the system the various necessary changes has been done manually but not automated. The physical involvement systems are those which are not mechanically perform the operations whenever required it has to do its activities with the human intervention. The SNMP based emergency system used in this case is manual involvement system. The emergency system can be manually saved by providing the emergency services. The emergency system can be manually employed and necessary things have to be done.

Case study scenario

Why have chosen fire Alarm

Fire Alarm systems are generally provided at risk places in an organization and once if they get activated they send signals to the fire alarm panel which sends these audio signals like sound and light signals to the offsite monitoring station. The legal requirements generally relates to the protection of life and also the location of the organization. These are chosen to provide safety for life and also protection during a fire or other emergency. To reduce the amount of money invested for the business. They provide the fire departments about the notification of the fire in the business and direct them to the area of risk. By this the loss of property, human etc can be reduce. These are used to balance for structural fire protection and to give special protection for the items of high value. This can be considered as the emergency system as delay in this may result to loss of the human and also the property. The smoke detectors are generally consists of two main parts a sensor and very loud electronic horn for making noise so that to provide about any fire accident that occurred in any part of the organization so that everyone gets alerted and move to the safe places (Benard Lewi T and Richard Payant P, 2003). In the research the researcher has considered the fire alarm as one emergency service because if these are not provided the fire is the one which spreads fast within less time.

Why you have chosen Power off?

The Power off is generally refer to program that allows the user to plan to shutdown or power off at certain time. This will also control the power state of the PC. This can do operations remotely. So it is very convenient for the user to use the power off since this can also be used in bulk and from remote places. In the research the researcher has been chosen this option because in an organization the power off can be helpful in various purpose as this is mainly operated remotely. This will physically power off the computer. The power off is used at the time of emergency to shut down all the PCs so that not to get damage and loss to the organization can be controlled. The data will be safe and which is very important for any organization. Economically also this is helpful because this automatically shutdowns the PC so if a work is assigned and then it has to be set according to the time and will power off the system which saves the electricity (Joint Commission Accreditation Health Organizations and Joint Commission Resources, 2005 ).

Hence from the above it can be stated as Fire alarm and power off are considered as the important emergency services because in one case it protects the life and property thus by benefiting to greater extent and in other case also by using power off it is preventing the damage of the PCs. This part of report talks about the requirements.

Emergency handling plays a significant role. In the network management emergency services are critical and are very essential in every point of view. Emergency services should be properly handled for smooth running of an organization. If not the organization may face problems in achieving the goals and also loss may occur which can make it to decrease it in financially and also its reputation may go down in the market.

The requirements are mentioned in the following for the emergency handling:

* Organizations are placed in disparate locations.

* Operations like network management are carried out in separate or remote places

* Power off or Fire Alarm sets of in one of the building of the organization there has to be a way of handing the issues like which building, system got affected.

The organization must be placed at the distance locations so as to attract the people at all places and may try to get the maximum benefit since they may be successful at some places and in other places they may be less success. The costs of the resources also differ from place to place. The availability of labor also differs and may be better in some places when compared to other. So organizations at different places can be popular and can achieve maximum profits. Apart from this the network management must be carried out in separate places since the different issues related to any particular organization at that place can be better understood by the people at the same place only and can manage. The other management operations are also must be done at remote places. The fire alarm has been one of the emergencies and has to be provided with proper guidance and if it has been placed in any building of an organization. In any case of fire attack the people of the company must get the information by providing the proper systems which makes sounds and lights so that they get rescue. By this the organization will be saved from the loss of life and property. The same way power off also used in order the systems not to get damage and even data must be safe. So it will help to find the place and system where the damage took place.

Private Node:

The private subtree enables private organisations to enhance the usefulness of SNMP. Into its own part of the subtree, a vendor uses product identifiers and the MIB definition that are needed to manage its products. Product identifiers combined with the MIB-II system description variable allows a device to identify itself precisely.

Any vendor can request a Branch or a subtree in the tree of management information. And define its own variable necessary for its devices. (Wydział Elektroniki i Telekomunikacji, 2007) Hence we have the groups under the private node as shown in the MIB Tree in next page.

MIB:

The management information base (MIB) stems from the OSI/ISO Network management model and is a type of database used to manage the devices in a communications network. It comprises a collection of objects in a (virtual) database used to manage entities (such as routers and switches) in a network.

Objects in the MIB are defined using a subset of Abstract Syntax Notation One (ASN.1) called "Structure of Management Information Version 2 (SMIv2)" RFC 2578.The software that performs the parsing is a MIB compiler. The structure of ASN.1 has been formulated in section 1 with respect to the requirement of the assignment.

The database is hierarchical (tree-structured) and entries are addressed through object identifiers. This is illustrated in the diagram below.

SNMP, a communication protocol between management stations (Parcel Management as example with respect to our case) and managed objects (Parcel/Tag with respect to our case), makes use of MIBs.

Components controlled by the management console need a so-called SNMP agent — a software module that can communicate with the SNMP manager.

SNMP uses a specified set of commands and queries. The MIB contains information on these commands and on the target objects [Parcel/tag] which is e xplained in detail in this section. (Subramanian, Mani, 2000)

[ASN.1 Specification]

Language/Tool used:

About ASN:

ASN.1 is an acronym of Abstract Syntax Notation One. It is the notation and a standard flexible notation which describes encoding and decoding of data structures. This provides data which is useful for transmitting data between a communication medium. This is mostly used in communication protocols. It is one of the parts of OSI model of protocols which is located in presentation layer when complex information is to be transmitted ASN is mostly used over networks. ASN. 1 is a data definition language which makes researcher to define the parameters for a protocol data without the anxiety of encoded transmission. ASN provides rules for describing the objects structure regardless of its implementation language. This can be used for nay applications whether it is complex or simpler. Data can be sending in any from using ASN like audio, video or data. ASN.1 in combination with ASN.1 encoding provides a way to exchange data between application programs in the network. ASN.1 is success as it is combined with several encoding rules like Basic Encoding Rules (BER) Canonical Encoding Rules (CER), Distinguished Encoding Rules (DER), Packed Encoding Rules (PER) and XER encoding rules (Dpug Steedman, 1996). These encoding techniques are helpful in ASN.1 for encoding the data while transmitting information. ASN.1 encoding is more advantageous when compared with other techniques for transmitting information through wireless. ASN.1 has international standard as it has reliability and interoperability. ASN.1 can be linked to C, C++ and java data structures for its application coding. ASN.1 is mostly used in telecommunication applications .

ASN.1 Abstract and concrete Syntax

ASN.1 has a syntax which is defined in ITU-t x.680 for series of recommendations and it has several alternative syntax which is given by ITU-T X.690 series. The abstract syntax is similar to protocol standard which is used for describing the Protocol Data Units. The concrete syntax is given for set of encoding rules which is used for converting the abstract form into original data stream for transmitting over a communication media (ETSI, 2000). The separation between abstract and concrete provides benefits while protocol development.

ASN.1 Extensibility

The advantage of ASN.1 is that it provides extensibility of data structures which makes old and new protocol to interwork. ASN.1 use tools for interpreting ASN to different programming languages like C, C++ and java.

Some of the features of ASN.1 are given as follows (Chirstpher John Harris and I White, 1987)

* ASN.1 is a language given by ISO 8824

* The presentation layer of ISO model helps in encoding and decoding ASN.1 to internal data format

* It uses basic encoding rules

* Represents data in bit patterns

* The data types in ASN.1 is given by GDMO

* While transmitting network elements convert the data to ASN.1 for transmission

CCITT and IOS has defined abstract syntax notation and its encoding rules. The ASN is mostly used in higher layers and for transmitting standard data types. The advantage of ASN.1 is it has well designed syntax and automatic tools can be designed for compilation of ASN.1. As it provides advantages there are some disadvantages it that sometime it is inefficient while performing encoding. In ASN.1 involves predefined data types which are similar to C and C++. The data types are given as integer, real, Boolean, octet string, enumerated, object identifier, Null, visible String and UTCTime. Here is the simple module example of ASN.1 (ASN.1, 2010)

MyASn1Module DEFINITION::=

BEGIN

EXPORT EVERYTHING

IMPORTS DataType FROM OtherASN1Module

MyType ::=INTEGER

MYSet ::= SET{MyType, DataType, BOOLEAN}

END -MyASn1Module

The above example shows syntax for ASN.1 while performing encoding while transmitting data. The abstract symbol does not have any restriction while encoding the data. ASN.1 allows maximum number to implementing encoding. Mainly ASN uses BER for having encoding for any type of data. ASN.1 has different types and it has different subtypes in it (Alex Gillespie, 2001). Hence from the above context it can be understood that ASN.1 is one of the standardized method which is used for describing the way data structures transmit information over a communication media. It is more flexible and reliable in nature. For encoding it uses BER, CER, DER , PER but not XER. The definition of ASN.1 can be mapped to C, C++and java languages. It provides compact encoding packet format.

ASN Code:

mib OBJECT IDENTIFIER ::= {enterprises 1}

DisplayString ::= OCTET STRING

PhysAddress ::= OCTET STRING

-- Three groups such as GPS Group and Device IP Group and System Group are defined under the private-enterprises

-- group

FireAlarm OBJECT IDENTIFIER ::= { mib 1 }

poweroff OBJECT IDENTIFIER ::= {mib 2 }

-- FireAlarm group

FireAlarmTable OBJECT-TYPE

SYNTAX SEQUENCE OF FireAlarmEntry

ACCESS not-accessible

STATUS mandatory

DESCRIPTION

"The FireAlarm table contains FireAlarm information such as Computer name, building name, room name"

::= { gps 1 }

FireAlarmEntry OBJECT-TYPE

SYNTAX FireAlarmEntry

ACCESS not-accessible

STATUS mandatory

DESCRIPTION

"The FireAlarmEntry information for one of Device Devices."

INDEX { gpsIndex }

::={ FireAlarmEntryTable 1}

FireAlarmEntry::=

SEQUENCE {

FireAlarmIndex INTEGER,

FireAlarmBuildingName DisplayString,

FireAlarmRoomName DisplayString,

}

FireAlarmIndex OBJECT-TYPE

SYNTAX INTEGER

ACCESS read-write

STATUS deprecated

DESCRIPTION

" A Unique value for each computer Devices.The value must remain constant at least from one re-initialization of the entity's network management system to the next re-initialization."

::= { FireAlarmEntry 1 }

FireAlarmBuildingName OBJECT-TYPE

SYNTAX INTEGER

ACCESS read-only

STATUS mandatory

DESCRIPTION

"This is the location for the building where Fire alarm could happen."

::= { FireAlarmEntry 2 }

FireAlarmRoomName OBJECT-TYPE

SYNTAX INTEGER

ACCESS read-only

STATUS mandatory

DESCRIPTION

" This is the room number where Fire alarm could happen."

::= { FireAlarmEntry 3 }

n poweroff Group

poweroffTable OBJECT-TYPE

SYNTAX SEQUENCE OF PowerOff Entry

ACCESS not-accessible

STATUS mandatory

DESCRIPTION

"The PowerOff table contains PowerOff information such as Computer name, building name, room name"

::= { gps 1 }

PowerOff Entry OBJECT-TYPE

SYNTAX PowerOff Entry

ACCESS not-accessible

STATUS mandatory

DESCRIPTION

"The PowerOff Entry information for one of Device Devices."

INDEX { gpsIndex }

::={ PowerOff EntryTable 1}

PowerOff Entry::=

SEQUENCE {

PowerOffIndex INTEGER,

PowerOffBuildingName EntryBuildingName DisplayString,

PowerOffRoomName DisplayString,

}

PowerOffIndex OBJECT-TYPE

SYNTAX INTEGER

ACCESS read-write

STATUS deprecated

DESCRIPTION

" A Unique value for each computer Devices. The value must remain constant at least from one re-initialization of the entity's network management system to the next re-initialization."

::= { FireAlarmEntry 1 }

PowerOffBuildingName OBJECT-TYPE

SYNTAX INTEGER

ACCESS read-only

STATUS mandatory

DESCRIPTION

"This is the building name where power off could happen."

::= { FireAlarmEntry 2 }

PowerOffRoomName OBJECT-TYPE

SYNTAX INTEGER

ACCESS read-only

STATUS mandatory

DESCRIPTION

" This is the room number where power off could happen."

::= { FireAlarmEntry 3 }

END

ASN:

It has the following groups:

* Fire alarm group

The Fire alarm group which is used to keep track of fire alarm details such as building name, room name etc.

* Power Off group

The PowerOff group which is used to keep track of fire alarm details such as building name, room name etc.

The above groups are defined under private node.

Proposed Architecture of network manager:

: Computer

The above is the architecture of the proposed design of network and computer interaction using SNMP. The computers are the PCs which could be affected of fire or power issues.

Chapter 4:

[Data Collection

Meeting the Requirements:

The following are the requirements for the proposed MIB:

Proposed system was intended to have emergency alert based network management.

* Fire alarm information

* Power off information

For this we need to show by going through the proposed MIB and checking how it meets the above requirements and the table below explains about it.

Requirements

Objects Defined in MIB

* Fire alarm information

Fire alarm table and objects such as FirealarmComputerNo, FirealarmBuildingName, FirealarmBuildingNo

* Power off information

Power Off table and objects such as PowerOff ComputerNo, PowerOff BuildingName, PowerOff BuildingNo

Example [Identifying OID by Network Manager through Tabular way]:

The network manager when intends to get the fire alarm BuildingName information for the 2nd computer, he can go for the following OID.

The above OID has come in the following way:

(1) Identifying the OID for the Firealarm BuildingName [1.3.6.1.4.1.1.1.2]

(2) Since it is the 2nd device's BuildingName is required and hence the OID will be [1.3.6.1.4.1.1.1.2.2]

FireAlarm Tabular storage format:

Index

BuildingName

RoomName

ComputerNO

1

A

B

C

2

D

E

F

3

G

H

I

4

J

K

L

5

M

N

O

In the above example Index value specifies the Computer device entry number and its corresponding BuildingName , RoomName & ComputerNO .

In the above figure 1.A specifies the BuildingName of 1st Computer, 1.B specifies RoomName and 1.C specifies the ComputerNO of the 1st Computer. Similarly 4.B specifies RoomName value of 4th computer and so on.

Retrieval of Information by the agent:

Agents retrieve information in the Lexicographic Ordering. This is quite straight forward for retrieval of information stored in Linked list form as in the case of System group.

Process continues till nthth device [Computer]……..

In the above diagram the set of request and response necessary for the retrieval of FirelAlarm information by the agent for any device in the table format. Since the retrieval is mainly done by lexographic ordering so any point of time agent can retrieve for BuildingName, RioomNo, Computer No. respectively for any one computer device.

Chapter 5:

Evaluation]

Necessity of Managing Devices:

Management solutions for devices like computers have been changing rapidly from past few years since the device users are increasing day by day. Many future changes and mechanisms will be implemented in managing the devices. It has crucial role in many organizations, industries and with every norm people. It can be used by everyone anywhere. Corporate, organization and many other business firms are widely using device phone now days. So they are maintained in their performance as the usage is very huge.

The following are the reasons for managing the devices [Device could be computer, router, switch etc ]:

* Computer users need information technology services to benefit their quality of service. They make ensure that the management of devices provides good quality.

* As the market is changing, business firms also try to change the device market and adopt many device customers.

* Many of the device networks will manage the devices to attract the users. This management of device may increase its applications and the business organization may work efficiently.

* Developers in the organization will plan before for implementing the software's, up gradations, security services and improvements.

Device troubleshooting is required so that it can estimate how the devices can be maintained. Applications that are installed, tracking, configuration, registration with networks and virus details in the device should be maintained mainly to develop and improvement its features. Firstly it has to hold the device applications from virus, tracking and configuration since these are most important for the device. This virus attacks and other problems during the device registration will make the network administrators to work on problems that may rise, possible faults that occur before only. Network developers will be alerted in front of the problems that occur. This is very helpful for the pocket PC users they use their managing devices and applications as a tool for security.

Restoration of device service:In some cases many of the devices undergo problems in network services. Device services must function properly after all the requirements have been satisfied. Such as software upgrades, device management actions of plan and set or information needed. These plans of actions support the services and devices managing system.

Growing Need for Mobility management and Security:In coming years the device management is needed widely. So it has to be well equipped by which corporate organizations can get access of their data and applications with others. Initiatives are carried out in this management of devices and employ the staff for equipped devices. Improved management of devices such as tracking, configuring and operating supports and develop the organization standard in market. Thus the organizations result in increased productivity of workers and management development.

Device related services:This is one of the needs to manage the devices that user may gain the new updates versions, games software's, upgrades of the device software. All these are provided from device services. But it is not as easy to appeal with the customers by its service applications, add-ons; software's and ensures them about the service. Here the network manager with his knowledge serves all its applications, provisioned software to the subscriber in distributed manner. Sometimes the service provided newly will be of no use that which will not support the software access and its features with managed services. If the device devices not work properly they cancel it afterwards. By these problems the network servicers make it possible to manage the set of information requirements and configure its applications.

Security:Security is the most important aspect that is needed for every device network subscriber. Thus the protection from the device management and administrators security is provided for data in memory, from viruses, misuses and stealing.

Need to manage the device:

The above discussed solution for the services can maintain the service applications, the parcel, data configurations, source and the end point can be caught by administrative professional. Whenever the configuration is designed perfectly the users can derive updated settings and applications of the device manually. For maintaining the dependability, changes, upgrades without any interruption in device network and production are the main reasons for the management of devices. The active management, maintaining the performance in the network, information collected for improving and analyzing can be able to work if the management of the devices is performed. Hence from the above context it can be conclude that managing of the devices is very causing in this present world since day by day the device users are increasing.

Evaluation

Benefits of the proposed system

The proposed system has been effective in providing Fire alarm information or power off information to the network manager.

Let us evaluate based on the objectives for this research and let us consider how far we have met the objectives.

* Research on network management using SNMP.

This objective has been met when we performed research on network management using SNMP through various articles and case studies. It has been effective since it laid foundation while building the proposed MIB tree using ASN language.

* Proposing an MIB Tree for the emergency network management

The design of proposed MIB tree has been found effective since it has met the requirements which is Emergency service like Fire alarm and power off issue to handle. We also proposed the ASN code for these scenarios.

* Critically evaluating the proposed solution for SNMP based emergency network management.

We have evaluated the effectives of the SNMP based emergency network for emergency and also discussed about the details of emergency issues handling and the benefits with drawbacks in this part of report

The historic information of the earlier actions in the network management system is maintained by using the audit trail device. The QoS (quality of service), traffic determining and storage of different network configuration values are the main useful services which Network Administrator can run. By using the commands like Get-Response, Trap and Set-Request the proposed SNMP system will also help the network administrator to direct and follow various information from one location to another location, so the system is said to be centralized and is extremely effective and widespread solution to network management. The system is very easy for the implementation and it response to the actions very fast. The Network management system (NMS) can track the system easy because the agent will last address, home address, home agent, foreign agent along with the current location like longitude, latitude and altitude. By using it will take further steps if required. The system group is the added group which makes the system more expensive. This contains additional data of the system like System Time, System Descr, System Name and System Object Identity which makes it more useful to the NMS to track the devices. This system uses Client-Server approach hence it is easy and very user friendly. Global Positioning system group has cases of Latitude, Longitude and Altitude which makes the NMS to track the devices even to the long distance scale. System network management protocol (SNMP) is used in this system which can be used for the operations required for network management over wide range. The MIB used in this requires the software called Abstract Syntax Notation (ASN.1) and can relate to all the network elements.

Different application area of proposed MIB

Benefits

* Aviation Applications - The flight safety is developed along the region. It will provide the full navigation service throughout the CAR/SAM region which is base on the consistent navigation service and common avionics. It allow more capable, optimized, flexible and user chosen route structures. The maintenance is reduced and unnecessary operation of the ground systems can also be done.

* Marine Applications- By use of Satellite navigation signal data the Underwater survey, buoy placing and if there is any navigational danger location and also mapping is increasing day by day.

* Rail Applications- The most important in this is to have the information about where the trains are located because to avoid collisions, to smooth flow of the traffic and also reduces the delay of the trains because of traffic clearance as tracks are ready to use. The satellite navigation provides sound position for locating the rail traffic management system. It also used to manage the movement of cars and engines in switch yards, which is nothing but packets used to filter the network and also ensure the safety of people who work.

* Public Safety Application- To provide information related to the public safety systems like their location and status. They are generally to identify and know about the location of police, fire engine, rescue and individual vehicles.

* Surface Application- This provides the automatic toll collection centers on toll roads without having the toll booths that must be managed by the human. It provides the short distance routes for some companies. So from above it reduces the government's expenditure and increases the revenue and also provides integrated transportation system and save valuable time and money.

Disadvantages of the proposed system

The MIB based on SNMP lacks the feature of security. It must have some feature by which the NMS should get the alert of any violet of security or any strange behavior of the device. Since the system is centralized the load on the manager processor will be very much. The request and reply from this NMS system should pass through series of objects and groups hence it uses lot of bandwidth. So it takes lots of time for the processing because each request and reply must pass through every object and group. It also won't give the information regarding the device that when it has been changed its network. The system also does not have the idea related to the list of networks that any devices migrated in particular time period. It should have maintain the list of IP addresses which must have the information of the pattern of the device. This helps will help the tracking of unusual pattern or behavior.

Future developments

* It has to develop the object which will keep track of the record which contains the information about how long the device was present in particular system and also to which system it has been migrated.

* The Management Information Base (MIB) must contain the common pattern for tracking the unusual pattern for making aware to the manager about possible security break.

* The above mentioned security can be added if the devices can send some hole for the possible hacker.

* One of drawback is overload so the proposed system should be such that it has to reduce that from Central NMS in order to avoid crushing block of entire system.

* The other proposal is the system should keep track of time taken by the messages from device to LMP (Location Monitoring Point) and to the Central NMS system.

* It also must maintain the list of care of address, list of home agents and list of foreign agents for audit trail methods.

We are also proposing network engineer for monitoring the fire alarm or power off issues. The following is the screen which will be used by network manager for monitoring the devices.

The proposed planed monitoring mentioned above helps monitoring effectively because of the following reasons:

* It will help the manager to use it once and see the result rather that sending request one by one and getting response one by one which is time consuming. Apart from this when monitoring is necessary it has to be accurate result. If it is request and wait for response and then request during that elapse time security data could have been changed to other variable and what might happen is that the manager may not see the accurate result.

* The monitoring has also embedded flexibility in terms of period/sample period. For example the network manager can choose the sample period depending on how busy the computers are.

* At any point the network manager wants to view lets say 100 computers in a real time scenario what can be done is that he just need to know the IP addresses and OIDs which needs to be kept of the field in he above monitoring system and select a period. The violations can be monitored effectively and with fast as well. Hence the proposed plan for monitoring helps to generate let the user know about the information with ease and hence providing good future extensibility support.

Conclusion:

SNMP that interchanges the information or data between networks is mostly used in any organization. It is the component of the TCP/IP protocol suite. It is very flexible in working with the networks in managing the devices. SNMP architecture directs all its operations and commands in maintaining the network. This protocol identifies the problem where occurred then it takes preventive measures to degrade and improve the communication and its performance in emergency cases. Most of the organizations are using the SNMP tools to control the traffic and maintain the performance in managing the network. MIB which is collection of networks functions the simple network. This MIB helps the SNMP protocol to manage the network and components. These can be controlled by the SNMP managers who can interact with the module. Fire alarm information, power off information contains the computer name, building name and number. Such that they can reach the fire alarm place and manage the networks. Device management is necessary in organizations to control the network in information technology and maintain the quality of service. Hence its features and applications are protected along with the network. Device related security and services are governed to overcome the disrupting and damage of the network service.

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* Rob Cameron, Neil R. Wyler, Trent Fausett, Kevin Fletcher, Patrick Foxhoven and Mark J. Lucas (2007) Juniper Networks Secure Access SSL VPN Configuration Guide, Syngress Publishers, pp.577

* Scott Mueller and Terry William Ogletree (2004) Upgrading and repairing networks, Que Publishing, pp. 1224

* Sebastian Abeck and Adrian Farrel (2008) Network Management: Know It All, Morgan Kaufmann Publications, pp. 384.

* Stephen B. Morris (2003) Network management, MIBs and MPLS, Prentice Hall PTR Publications, pp. 379.

· Steven Karris T (2004) Networks: design and management, Orchard Publications, pp.508.

* Thomas Porter (2006) Practical VoIP Security, Syngress publishers, pp.563.