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Methods for Quality Assurance Evaluation

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Published: Wed, 07 Feb 2018

ABSTRACT

This dissertation intends to discover, assess and prioritise a variety of aspects of Supplier/dealer/dealer Quality Assurance Evaluation. It additionally aims at presenting a suitable methodology in a sequential order. To start with, this thesis exploits the fictional practices and reviews the methodologies authored by a selection of researchers. A reference company (Suzuki-Pakistan) has been chosen to conduct the Analysis of Supplier/dealer/dealer Quality Evaluation concept in the industry. Interviews were conducted and data was obtained and analysed. Thorough analysis has been made and essential answers have been mentioned.

Making use of academic and experimental research, a model/framework based on comprehensive methodology was established. Also, the enhancement points as well as the areas of weaknesses of the SQAE system in the pilot organization are clearly drawn. This thesis is mostly focused on real-time issues related to the managerial, tactical and methodological areas of Supplier/dealer Quality Assurance Assessment in light of Supply Chain Management.

Analyzing the proposed framework and looking into its use in the industry as well as possible results and viability has also been carried out. Every vital detail, format and content has been explained. Also, involvement of advanced manufacturing concepts has been discussed.

The proposed concept helps in making manufacturing companies come to terms with the need to introducing Supplier/dealer/dealer Quality problems into the mainstream of their manufacturing procedure. This is seen as the foundation for establishing a proper working principle for Supplier/dealer/dealer Quality Evaluation.

Introduction:

Supplier/dealer/dealer Quality Assurance (SQA), within the idea of Supply Chain Management, has received tremendous awareness in the last few years. Methodology of purchasing purpose has been formed quite a lot by the method of Total Quality Management and newer supply chain management practices resulting in a transform from detection to prevention viewpoint. “An extensive array of fresh supplies and new goods has emerged and the assemblies now days demand degrees of difficulty at the same time as performance needs are increasing and allowable tolerances are being lessened” [Lloyd, 1984]. However, to make sure that the standard of the product is up to the optimum level, it is mandatory to look into the supplier/dealer/dealer standard issue and only inspecting the supplier/dealer/dealer components is not the answer as the role of supplier/dealer/dealer is getting more and more essential regarding production and specially in the manufacturing procedures where various assemblies are included in the creation of the final product. Examination indeed cannot be done to such a massive number of components and purchaser has to take the supplier/dealer standard assurance operation into account.

Supplier/dealer/dealer-Purchaser relationship also relies on a larger contribution into the Quality of not only Supplier/dealer/dealer’s items but also into the Supplier/dealer/dealer’s quality assurance operations. Like Japanese organisations (huge names such as Suzuki, Nissan and Mitsubishi), adhering to the principle of supporting supplier/dealer/dealer to ameliorate the standard by assessing and later reforming their standard output against their own standards, as a result they managed to create optimum standard levels with regard to their products and succeeded in attaining the advantage in terms of taking control of the business and markets.

However, Supplier/dealer/dealer Evaluation concerning supplier/dealer/dealer range and post-selection audits, is an intricate procedure related to the assessment of supplier/dealer/dealer’s production capacity, quality control operation, procedure capabilities, consistency in supplies, rate linked to product and their co-ordination with the purchasers (Flynn & Flynn, 2005, 23-28).

Amid these essential issues, Product Conformance (with the conditions, prerequisites or standards) is of great meaning as it is directly linked to Quality and in some situations related to safety and effectiveness. As different products have differing standards of standard, it is quite tedious to set a single criterion to gauge their quality and as a result, to establish a single model or singular standard to evaluate the supplier/dealer/dealer’s operation and ability in this view. Any manufactured goods Confirmation structure or pattern must include all the appropriate matters like matching the product with the drawing, its fabric qualities, operational standards, functionality criteria and, to some extent, customer’s overall fulfilment point concerning the presentation of manufactured goods in any regard. However, “joint agreement on product substantiation methods and requirements for completion of excellence in quality disputes are necessary concerning supplier/dealer/dealer’s quality evaluation programme (Flynn & Flynn, 2005, 23-28).

In this research, Supplier/dealer/dealer Quality Assurance Evaluation (SQAE) with regard to Product Conformation shall be deliberated over. Step by step methodology of Supplier/dealer/dealer Evaluation is imperative to position and engaged into assessment. There are various working methods in this vision, applied in different industries, so it’s really vital to put the supplier/dealer/dealer assessment theories and principles under examination.

Aims and Objectives of the Project:

The aim of this study is to observe these complex issues by analysing the present practices and model/frameworks and their outputs and to assess the most appropriate model/framework, founded on the analysis and securitisation in various industries. Working in a step-by-step process for the assessment must also be evaluated and it must include all the procedural and managerial features of the supplier/dealer/dealer quality assurance assessment procedure (regarding Product Conformance) related to description of specifications, standards, prerequisites and examination methods.

The objectives are to,

  • Recognize various features of supplier/dealer/dealer standard assurance assessment regarding product conformity and study their significance and effect on Supply Chain Management.
  • Assessment of needs for provision and principles.
  • Significance of Product Excellence in Supplier/dealer/dealer Assessment, choice procedure and assessment of selection criteria.
  • Establishment of Supplier/dealer/dealer assessment methodology based on the scrutiny of current practices in industry.
  • Analysis of height of understanding among supplier/dealer/dealers and purchasers with regard to agreement on Quality Assurance.
  • Consolidation of a Strategy for Supplier/dealer/dealer Quality Assurance Evaluation with regard to produce good Conformance (Juran and Frank, 1993, 45-64).

One significant objective is to spot methods of using SQAE in order to restructure the supply chain management performance, not to only assess supplier/dealer/dealers but also to make decisions and to conduct trade with them on the basis of SQAE. It is necessary to use SQAE to improve the supplier/dealer/dealer’s performance and thus Supplier/dealer/dealer must be involved form the product improvement procedure and there SQAE can recognize the bottlenecks that could be set aside by both purchaser and supplier/dealer/dealer mutual efforts (Flynn & Flynn, 2005, 23-28).

Importance of SQAE and its Significance to Engineering Organization:

As discussed over, supply chain management is a significant feature of trade in these times and it’s not simply regarding buying products at right time in a suitable quantity. It’s getting more and more intricate with globalisation and trade as well as ever-increasing intricacy in designs and presentation modes of different products. Supplier/dealer/dealer Assessment both prior to choice selection and after selection is imperative in order to ensure the quality/standard of the product or material supplied (Dorgan & Dowdy, 2002).

Now, the growing amount of business proceeds to the huge numbers of components and merchandise under supply chain where a solitary purchaser (especially ones that are assemblers) is trading with many supplier/dealer/dealers and has got numbers of mechanism to be given from supplier/dealer/dealers (Flynn & Flynn, 2005, 23-28).

The characteristics of these components are also important. Some supplied components are essential assembly components that must be accurate and up to the criterion so as no difficulty is experience concerning their meeting and at last their presentation, some raw materials are so essential that material properties surroundings up the performance criteria. Supplier/dealer/dealer has indeed has got more and more significance and so consequently, Purchaser-Supplier/dealer/dealer relationship are stronger and need betterment in each regard. Therefore, Quality/standard would come first to assure (Kotler, 1979, 2-12).

Engineering companies particularly deals with group of supply chain management issues. Supplier/dealer/dealer reliability and excellence are given much significance and most of the trade firms choose and assess their possible supplier/dealer/dealers for these two essential aspects. Manufacturing companies also gives much significance to their supplier/dealer/dealer’s performance in terms of quality/standard. However, resistance levels are being lessened, due to market pressures, release timetables have been narrowed too. This all guide up to the Supplier/dealer/dealer-Purchaser focus to achieve the most favourable quality/standard height and this can only be completed by appropriate coordination (Gunal, 2000, 28-35). However, SQAE is not all about investigating the supplier/dealer/dealer excellence in structure but it’s about the performance of continuous enhancement in standard and establishment of proper relationship between purchaser and dealer to get the highest profit leading to the reasonable benefit (Aaker, 2004, 138-139).

Literature Review:

Supply Chain Management, together with its growing necessity, has developed into a very important division of industrialized trade all around the world. It has been focus by the Researchers and Practitioners, they have been focus on the issues [and still do] regarding the thought and methodologies appropriate to Supply Chain Management. So, an enormous quantity of matter is available that have to to be searched via with a complete examination of the Supply Chain Function. The writing helps to categorize the appropriate material for research on the subject of Supplier/dealer Quality Assurance.

This literature review is founded on different description of SQAE. Initially, literature review discusses the supply chain and its result. Secondly, it looks at SQAE usage as well as its advantages and its methodology, and finally SQAE investigation regarding Product Conformation. Though, SQAE is associated to the supplier/dealer positions and identification of their advantages and shortcomings, and this is also discussed in this literature review as an essential discussion point (Gunal, 2000, 28-35).

Supply Chain and Its Effect on Companies:

Bailey et al (2005) say that the supply chain is an action that deals with the run of material or goods from manufacturer or supplier/dealer to the organization or consumer. It is carried out in a way to increase value and lower asking price.

In conditions of manufacturing, the supply chain is described as the procedure of material processing that includes the following description.

  • Delivery of products
  • Alteration of products
  • Requirement for products.

Delivery manages the changes in the uniqueness of the product or in other expressions it provides a explanation of quality/standard of the product that must be achieved while carrying out a production for customer satisfaction. This is the eventual goal of any business (Terpstra & Sarathy, 2000, 23-29).

Objectives of SQAE and Its rewards:

Quality/standard Management has been the topic of a variety of practices function in the business. Beginning and execution of TQM makes companies alternative examination based activities with quality/standard preparation and quality assurance practices. SQAE has also come out as a vital means of procurement administration. In this observation, Benito and Dale state that the widespread practices in the industry include supplier/dealer selection based on quality and dependability considerations, supplier/dealer quality and reliability records on that the regeneration of contracts are based, supplier/dealer certification and supplier/dealer progress. The plan of these practices is to guarantee supplier/dealer quality.

Lloyd [1984] puts stress on an essential matter linked to all-purpose supply chain management. Lloyd states “it is too late to protest about poor quality/standard of incoming supplier/dealers after the examination if the supplier/dealer is.

  • Not qualified to meet the condition and tolerances mandatory required.
  • May not be completely approachable of just what is understood by condition and tolerances mandatory required.
  • Do not have a regular organise quality control program.”

These failures can cause enormous problems for any organisation concerned with purchasing and manufacturing.

Hahn [1990] describes two significant uses of SQAE, to choose a fresh supplier/dealer and to assess the existing supplier/dealer. However, American companies chiefly apply this methodology to set up the ratings and rankings of their supplier/dealers for the purpose of decision-making regarding persistence of the business transaction with the supplier/dealers or not. Japanese and Korean producers use these assessment techniques differently and are less likely to construct any score or position structure for the supplier/dealers.

Motwani et al (1999) analyse the efficiency of SQAE procedure concerning ISO 9000 and TQM and persist on the investigation of how a supplier/dealer applies ISO 9000 in his administration and as a result they bring to a close that SQAE can also be completed by the inspection of ISO principles execution at the supplier/dealer’s end and the aim of Quality Assurance of the finishing manufactured goods ought to be satisfied.

Working Method of SQAE:

Lloyd [1984] says that the methodology of seller evaluation/assessment on the source of previous routine of vendor. He includes the following ways in that vendor quality/standard performance ought to be documented and assessed.

Quality History Records concerning manufactured goods Conformance:

This is based mainly upon the quantity of acknowledged and discarded products complete in an exact time outline. This is a conventional method and reflects the expressions of satisfactory Quality Level.

Assessment between Supplier/dealers on the grounds of Acceptance/Rejection:

Here, Statistical methods are used and usual sharing graphs used to investigate the comparative performance of vendors connected to the defected works/lot/period of time.

Classic Frequency Allocation:

Once more this process is based on the examination results, either at the supplier/dealer or purchaser’s end. Tolerance restrictions are defined on charts and so quality/standard of loads is considered on the basis of changeability in goods.

However, the tactic described on top is completely based leading the theories of AQL and SPC, only considering the examination capabilities of the supplier/dealer and not focusing on the in-procedure ability or in-procedure quality/standard assurance of the supplier/dealer. Supply Chain Management is more about the presentation of every function in a speedy way and to rely a lot on assessment cannot help the cause of both price and time taken to produce a product.

Swift and Booker [1996] use ability index in command to assess the product conformance and they announce the need of reliability of supplier/dealer’s data in this regard. They additional state that newer quality/standard reassurance tools like FMEA must be included into SQAE procedure to determine the causes of breakdown or defects in manufactured goods and so a dealer may be evaluated on the foundation of potential causes of breakdown and so severity height may be obtained. This is an essential point that wants to be evaluated. However, they make the most of the idea of variability forecast and acceptance chain analysis in this regard. Regardless, their study is mainly focussing on the engineering of manufactured goods conformity and didn’t contract much with the supply chain management idea in SQAE.

Russell [1995] provides the method of Quality Management Benchmark Assessment, that fundamentally a checklist of several prerequisites related to all aspect of manufacturing purpose of a supplier/dealer and set progressively more challenging enhancement goals. It is fundamentally mission oriented and so a manufactured good approach regarding SQAE.

Feigenbaum [1991] depend on supplier/dealer audit methodology to evaluate supplier/dealer quality. Curry recommends that a descriptive audit in terms of examination of a product may be done after a precise time frame of time and all sorts of routine and valuation/assessment tests must be done in this view. Schuurman relies more on the administration side of audits and Feigenbaum announces that over all audit of supplier/dealer’s quality control operation is necessary to guarantee the superiority of the product.

Jerry Wolfe [2002] from the American culture for testing and resources hoists his model/framework for supplier/dealer assessment, although it deals particularly for the raw material supplier/dealer and the exact bits and pieces in steel but he formulated his tactic in a complete manner by bearing in mind the importance of dimensional evaluation/assessment and performance tests for material in provision and therefore makes these tests the criteria for Supplier/dealer Quality Assurance Evaluation. He establishes a sort of sample evaluation/assessment method, to build the foundation of Supplier/dealer Evaluation/assessment for Product Conformance.

Karl Springer [1994] resolute on the establishment of the supplier/dealer-purchaser relationship and relates it to the procedure of Continuous Quality Enhancement and finally he makes CQI the stand of Supplier/dealer Assessment that whether the dealer is committed to implement Continuous Enhancement Strategy or not. Although this could be said to be as a stringent criteria but it must not be used by purchaser to put any force on supplier/dealer, it must only be used to assess supplier/dealer and then as a result help the supplier/dealer to set a certain degree of quality/standard assurance.

There are different methodological factors in SQAE, regarding examination and testing, based on contemporary Manufacturing Technology and Supply Chain Management Equipments. Elmaraghy [2004] unveils the concept of Integrated Examination and deems it an essential factor in assessing the supplier/dealers, particularly in future as technology and manufacturing procedures are getting more complex. Japanese are functioning for the growth and execution of Multi-Vendor Integration software to assess many vendors at a period based on conformance principles for different goods and they use it to become aware of non-conformances and their amount. Bhote [1992] declares that World-Class producers and Purchasers don’t rely only on mainstream Supplier/dealer Evaluation/assessment procedures like Supplier/dealer Quality System Audits, evaluation of supplier/dealer’s quality manuals and relationship based primarily on reporting. They make SQAE a mutual procedure, both for supplier/dealer and purchaser, by implementation techniques like Specification Optimisation, Classification of features of products and procedurees, early supplier/dealer involvement mainly in product development and they set up product and cross functional teams to assess supplier/dealer and supplier/dealer’s capability (Gunal, 2000, 28-35). different

Various Methodologies for SQAE in Literature:

To start with the literature review, one must go via the JURAN’s methodological model/framework of SQAE. It’s mainly loaded in terms of use and entirety. It stressfully addresses the glaring issues connected to manufactured goods conformance. In examination of this, Quality Gurus [J.M. Juran and Gryna, 1993], underscore some examples they find of importance while functioning on Quality/standard Planning and Analysis. They recognize the nature of dissimilarity between the mechanized events and sequences in view of difficulty of some products. They start with the condition and declare that it is to be the first phase of quality/standard planning for SCM. Their methodological framework is below.

Specification of Quality Prerequisites for Supplier/dealers:

For contemporary products, Quality-planning starts before an agreement is decided on. Such development must be familiar with 2 issues.

The purchaser must transmit to the supplier/dealer a whole understanding of the implementation to advantage from using the product. Communicating usage supplies may be tedious even for a simple product.

The purchaser must look for information to be sure that the dealer has the ability to meets all fitness-for-use prerequisites. When there are intricate goods, in view of the exact domestic environments nearby a certain component, it is essential to assign distinct development and production contracts that help to determine how to conclude prerequisites (Yadin, 2001, 16-20).

Different circumstances may beg for two types of specifications:

  • Specifications that describe the product prerequisites.
  • Specifications that describe what value-related activities are expected of the supplier/dealer, i.e., the dealer’s quality/standard system (Yadin, 2001, 16-20).

Assessing of Supplier/dealer Capability:

Assessing supplier/dealer quality encompasses one or both actions:

  • Approving the supplier/dealer’s design via the assessment of product samples.
  • Approving the supplier/dealer’s ability to fulfil quality prerequisites on production consignments

Qualifying the Supplier/dealer’s Design:

Qualification assessments are mandatory to measure a manufactured goods and it is not irregular for qualification test outcomes to be refused. 2 reasons are common:

  • The test outcomes demonstrate that the plan does not meet the product functions needed.
  • The examination process is not sufficient to gauge the performance of the product (Gunal, 2000, 28-35).

Qualification of Supplier/dealer’s manufacturing procedure:

Evaluation of the supplier/dealer’s developing ability may be carried out via three approaches:

  • prior data on similar products,
  • procedural capability analysis, or
  • An assessment of the supplier/dealer’s quality system via a quality survey.

A supplier/dealer quality assessment is an assessment of a supplier/dealer’s capacity to meet quality/standard prerequisites on production shipments. The result of the review are used in the supplier/dealer selection procedure. It is also made use of if the supplier/dealer has already been selected, in that case, the review informs the buyer about area where the supplier/dealer may require help in fulfilling prerequisites. The survey can be a collection from a simple questionnaire that is mail to the dealer to a personal visit to the supplier/dealer’s facility.

Example of dealer quality/standard survey (this highlights product conformance linked factors):

The questionnaire present clear questions such as the ones underneath that are accessible to supplier/dealers of a producer of medical devices:

  • Has your business received the quality prerequisites on the product and agreed that they may be completely met?
  • Are your ultimate examination grades known?
  • Do you be in agreement to provide the buyer with advance note of any change in your manufactured goods design?
  • What protective clothes do your workers wear to decrease manufactured good contamination?
  • Describe the system of air-filtration in your industrialized areas (Benito & Dale, 2001, 189-195).

Evaluating of Supplier/dealer Products:

The assessment of the supplier/dealer manufactured goods (according to Juran) must be base on the methodology below.

Evaluating of first samples of product:

Under a variety of circumstances, it is important that the supplier/dealer send in experiment results of a small early sample prepared from produce tooling. They must also send in a model from the primary production consignment earlier to the full delivery being made. The final assessment may be completed when a purchaser’s representative visits the supplier/dealer’s plant and overviews the examination of a casual sample chosen from the first manufacture lot. A check can also be formed from procedure capability or procedure management kind data from that lot (Benito & Dale, 2001, 189-195).

Surveillance of supplier/dealer quality:

Quality examination is the ongoing monitoring and confirmation of circumstances, procedures, products, procedural actions, methods, services, and analysis of records. These are all related to stated references. This certifies that specified prerequisites for quality are being met.

In the ancient times, inward examination frequently took up a great segment of time and attempt. With the opening of modern intricate products, there were quite a lot of companies that exposed that they do not have the wanted examination skills or tools. This led them to rely more on the supplier/dealer’s quality/standard system or examination and test data (Aaker, 2004, 138-139).

Dobler-Burt Methodology for Dealer/Supplier/dealer Quality in connection with Product Growth- Plan and Specifications:

Dobler and Burt [1990] speaks about four major factors that validate the quality assurance stage of a firm’s bought products;

  1. Formation of total and suitable specifications for quality/standard prerequisites.
  2. Option for supplier/dealers with technical and production ability to carryout the needed excellence/cost job.
  3. Expansion of a realistic insight with supplier/dealers of quality prerequisites, and establishment of the incentive to perform accordingly.
  4. Overseeing of supplier/dealers’ quality/cost performance, and use of suitable control.

Product Specifications:

In accordance with Dobler and Burt, a solid manufactured goods specification stand for a combination of the four considerations below:

  1. Design prerequisites.
  2. Production features.
  3. Commercial buying considerations.
  4. Sales and marketing features.

While handling commercial purchasing considerations, purchasing employees need to carry out the following examinations with regard to quality/standard:

  • Examine the quality prerequisites.
  • Assure that quality prerequisites are completely and plainly stated in the specifications.
  • Assess their rationality, relative to cost.
  • Assure that specifications are printed in a method that allows competition among potential supplier/dealers.
  • Determine whether or not present supplier/dealers can develop the wanted quality into the objects.
  • Assure the viability of the examinations and tests required to guarantee quality (Evans and Dean, 2000, 53-72).

They also declare the need for more generalised specifications that are appropriate to the broad industrial condition. They assert: “When preparing its own condition, a corporation should aim at making them as close as probable to industry standards”. If certain dimensions, tolerances, or description are required, every go must be made to attain these “specials”. This must be done by scheming them as added extras or alteration to framework components, and it shall save time and money (Wolfe, 2002, 137-146).

Different Methods of Manufactured good Specification Establishment:

Dobler and Burt express the use of specification growth procedure as follows. They say: “Many firms now make use of a cross-functional manufactured good growth team in the overall plan process. The approach is perfect for integrate the view of purchase, as well as the other appropriate function, in the specification development procedure. In some cases it is desirable to include appropriate designers or use engineers from the supplier/dealer’s company in the specification development procedure before the specs are done”.

They discuss about various types of condition growth system as well as their implementations.

Designing Drawings:

Drawings are perhaps the most exact method of detailing what is necessary, particularly when one needs exact shapes, measurements, and spatial relationships. Engineering drawing are ready to use of significantly when there is need to detail quality/standard for construction projects, particularly in foundry and machine shop work to manufacture a variety of particular mechanical components and components.

There are four fundamental rewards in using drawing for description:

  • They are exact and precise.
  • They are the most practical way of detail mechanical items requiring very close tolerance.
  • They encourage wide competition.
  • They clearly establish the standards for examination (Aaker, 2004, 138-139).

Material and Method-of-Production Specifications:

When this procedure is used, potential supplier/dealers are instructing accurately as to the supplies to be used and how they are to be implement. The buyer assumes full legal responsibility for product performance.

Performance Specifications:

A performance condition for wire may need it to tolerate a given temperature, have a certain resistance to scratch, and have particular conductivity capability. No mention is rendered in the specifications with consider to what resources are to be implement or how the wire is to be equipped or encapsulate to construct the desired character. (Aaker, 2004, 138-139).

Branding:

Some organisations produce brands to attain their objectives that comprise quality/standard assurance (de Chernatony, 2001, 3 & 4).

Samples:

Samples are recognized as the lazy person’s method of describing prerequisites. When samples are implemented, the buyer doesn’t have to look for for an identical brand, choose a standard requirement, or exemplify the presentation wanted. Sample is not the most cost experienced or the most suitable means of buying. Generally, the cash used for examination costs significantly goes further than the cash cut via description costs. It often is tough to resolve by examination that the product manufactured is, in fact, the identical as the model. Superiority of equipment and workmanship are frequently quite tricky to decide via routine assessment. Therefore, in a number of cases, approval or rejection becomes quite a personal decision (Wolfe, 2002, 137-146).

Samples are generally used only in the case if other methods of explanation not succeed. Darkness and touch, printing, and grading are three broad areas in that other methods of description are not feasible. A specific shade of blue, for example, is not easy to explain without a taster. Planned lithographic workmanship is best described by the supplier/dealer’s proof. Setting grades for commodities such as wheat, corn, and cotton by samples has apparently been the most appropriate


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