Identifying and Mapping the Scientific Landscape of Expatriate(s) Studies in Last Five Decades: An Author Co-citation Analysis

ABSTRACT

This paper aims to explore the theoretical essentials of the knowledge network of expatriate studies based on a dataset of 793 journal articles and 17716 citations. A computer-aided co-citation network analysis of 17716 citations is conducted to trace the development paths and paradigms shift of expatriate studies. Based on the analysis, we divided the development of research on expatriate management into three stages: initializing stage (1957-1985), forming stage (1986-1995), and development stage (1996-2006). We ranked overall first author citations, article citations for each stage, and journal citations for each stage. Using network analysis, we mapped the co-citation network for each stage and analyzed the centrality of top 50 articles in each stage. Ideas generated from these articles provide a picture of the research development on expatriate issues. The results provide guidance to researchers for future research in this area.

Key words: Expatriate management, Network of knowledge, Co-Citation Analysis

Identifying and Mapping the Scientific Landscape of Expatriate(s) Studies in Last Five Decades: An Author Co-citation Analysis

INTRODUCTION

Coinciding with the increased globalization and outsourcing of manufacturing and services in the last few decades is increased focus on expatriate management research and practice. Studies in this field have covered many topics ranging from predictor identification, to process investigation, and to outcome examination of expatriate adjustment (see review articles by Harrison, Shaffer, & Bhaskar-Shrinivas, 2004; Mendenhall, Kuhlmann, Stahl, & Osland, 2002; Thomas, 1998; Thomas & Lazarova, 2006). Meta-analyses also demonstrate the importance of expatriate adjustment for promoting personal and organizational effectiveness; and support the validity and generalizability of studies focused on predictors of expatriate adjustment (Bhaskar-Shrinivas, Harrison, Shaffer, & Luk, 2005; Hechanova, Beehr, & Christiansen, 2003).

With the rapid development in expatriate studies, it is time for researchers to reflect on the past and identify avenues for future research. As demonstrated by the majority of reviews, the model and constructs of expatriate adjustment proposed by Black, Mendenhall, and Oddou (1991) have provided a needed conceptual framework for the field. Even though Harrison et al's (2004) review provided a holistic picture of the expatriate adjustment literature, the center of this review is Black et al's (1991) framework. While the importance of this model is unquestionable, we would also like to see the integration of ideas from other highly cited works, such as those by Tung (1981; 1982), Adler and Bartholomew (1992), Harvey (1985), Mendenhall & Oddou (1985), Gregersen (1990), Shaffer (1999), Caligiuri (1998), Harzing (1995), Takeuchi, Wang, and Marinova, (2005), Bhaskar-Shrinivas, Harrison, Shaffer, and Luk, and others into further model and theory development of expatriate management. To this end this study will focus on the evolution and centrality/importance of academic articles at different development stages in the field of expatriate management. For example, Harrison et al (2004) identified limitations associated with a heave reliance on Black's (1988) 3-facet adjustment construct and scales and called for a broadening of the expatriate adjustment framework Most reviews have been based on judgmental analyses of the existing articles and there has been no hard evidence showing the dominance of Black et al's (1991) framework. In the current study, we employ an author co-citation analysis (ACA; Garfield, 1963; Small, 1974) to objectively examine the structure of citation relationships among expatriate studies and to map the expatriate management field with a network approach. The results will allow us to explore the importance of Black et al's (1991) model and to identify other influential articles that deserve attention and integration into conceptual frameworks and associated empirical studies.

Every discipline is a knowledge system that is a component of a more general knowledge system. Within each discipline, journal articles, books, and monographs play the fundamental role of storing and disseminating knowledge. Of these three means of formal communication (journal articles, books and monographs), one could argue that journal articles generate the most useful information due to their timeliness and refereeing process which serves as a check on the quality of the research studies. Consequently, citations in journal articles in a particular discipline provides an objective measure of the development of that discipline and furnishes a relative measure of particular contributions of authors, articles, and journals to the progress of the discipline.

Using the network approach, the current paper chronicles the results of expatriate research journals from a database developed from the Social Sciences Citation Index (SSCI) over a fifty-year period, 1957-2006. Based on the author co-citation analysis of these data in expatriate management, this paper first reports the relative academic importance of authors, articles, and journals (in terms of number of citations) in the expatriate literature, and then points out the historical stages in the field's development. This paper further maps the co-citation networks and reveals the centrality of the top 50 articles in each stage and predicts the future directions of this field. Specifically, this paper has three objectives: (1) ascertain important papers and books in expatriate studies based on objective citation analyses; (2) identify the underlying network among scholars and articles in the expatriate adjustment field; (3) identify different streams of studies to provide future directions of this field. To address these issues, we will firstly introduce the invisible network of knowledge (INK) theory, which will be used to guide our ACA; secondly, we will use the INK approach to examine the relative contributions of authors and articles to the field of expatriate management; thirdly, we use network analysis technique to map the network among authors and articles to evaluate disciplinary trends in expatriate management; and, fourthly, we will briefly examine the themes within the most cited studies to provide a qualitative perspective on the development of expatriate management research over the last 50+ years. Finally, we provide a discussion of our results and provide some directions for future studies in this field.

THEORY OF THE INVISIBLE NETWORK OF KNOWLEDGE

Knowledge is power (Sir Francis Bacon, 1597) and is an output of a learning (or knowing) process, similar to how plans are the output of a planning process. It is a complex concept that, before it is presented, it is stored in the learner's mind and is unobservable to the eye of voters (Doyle et al., 1996). Since people harbor their own views on knowledge, there can be a lack of clarity concerning specific actions to be taken in the quest for knowledge. Kerlinger (1986) outlines four “ways of knowing” which establishes a hierarchy of evidence credibility. We can learn through habit, “common sense”, authority and science with science as the most reliable and credible source of knowledge. Yet even with scientific means of “knowing” we need to have a strategy to combine data. We need a “channel” that helps people to visualize knowledge and develop and maintain a common visualization and representation (Price, 1965). Gibbons Limoges, Nowwotny, Schwartzman, Scott, and Trow (1994) hold that the terms of science and knowledge are often used interchangeably or combined to form scientific knowledge and the scientific knowledge is usually presented in journal articles, books, and monographs. One strategy for combining knowledge is through meta-analysis which focuses on quantitatively combining results from various studies. Qualitative reviews on the other hand provide a non-quantitative approach to generalizing across studies. Another less utilized means of combining studies is to examine the network of cited authors and their articles. These pieces of knowledge, represented by the individual studies in a particular field are developed based on each other and connected with each other through citations and co-citations. These citations and co-citations form a knowledge network within which there are subsystems or clique networks connected with each other. This knowledge network is also part of a broader and more general system (Chandy and William, 1994). From this network perspective, the knowledge of any single discipline, such as expatriate management, could be represented and viewed as an outcome of the interaction of its foundation domains. In the case of expatriate management these foundation disciplines include psychology, sociology, organizational behavior and human resource management. Expatriate management studies comprise a significant amount of research in each of these disciplines and the theoretical models borrow from concepts utilized within the disciplines. Thus, each of the disciplines has well-established subsystems of expatriate management research (i.e., different streams of expatriate management studies). We believe that further development of the field of expatriate management research can benefit from a network analysis, i.e., author citation and co-citation analysis, of the field. This analysis will help us to combine knowledge gained from previous studies and to explore the nature, potential uses, and evolution of the field over time.

Concept of Invisible Network of Knowledge (INK)

Networks have long been used in engineering and science for managing complex systems where they commonly refer to systems (webs) of interlinked subsystems (or components), each of which is optimally designed to effectively perform a designated task. Each subsystem is highly specialized and generally draws on high quality (Jones et al., 1996) of accumulated knowledge and expertise. By the optimal interlinking of these subsystems, a considerably broader and more complex range of functions and capabilities than that of individual subsystems is realized. Theoretically, the system as a whole may not be truly optimal; however, it can be adequately effective and flexible to execute tasks significantly better than its individual parts.

In the knowledge creation world, the network concept has been used to identify the role of “invisible colleges” of knowledge acquisition, which can be traced back to Derek Price's (1963; 1965) proposal. He opined that research networks (made up of linkages connecting researchers with each other) link scholars to form invisible colleges working in a specific research area through such informal media of communication as telephone calls, conversations at professional meetings, and preprint distributions. Nicholas Mullins (1972) also corroborated Price's view and stated that researchers are stimulated by relatively small groups of colleagues working on the same issues and building on each other's work. Francis and Peter (1993) proposed that invisible colleges can be beneficial to a researcher in the following aspects: (1) identifying colleagues working on the same or related areas, (2) acquiring the knowledge from peers and enquiring about relevant topics in person or through the literature, and (3) formulating answers to these questions and communicating views via professional media, such as journals. These journals (particularly famous or major journals in each discipline) function elegantly and smoothly in the academic world, just like the market system works as an “invisible hand” in the economy (Smith, 1776/1976), to influence the locus of development and diffusion of knowledge in each academic field.

Based on the above understandings, Etemad and Lee (2003) first used metaphors and analogies to describe and visualize knowledge networks as an airline map, and defined the network in knowledge creation as an “interlinked” web of “knots and nodes” that is “loaded” with “concentration of resources” scattered over a landscape that constitutes the domain of that subject. Recently, a group of colleagues (Ma, McLEE, & Yu, 2007, Ma & Wang, 2007) created a new concept of “an invisible network of knowledge production in a discipline (an INK Model)”, which will be used for this study. In addition to the advantages of the traditional concept of a knowledge network, the INK is a more comprehensive model developed by co-citation network analysis to represent the invisible college in a field. An INK of a field will help us gain an initial understanding of the nature, potential uses, and the evolution of the field over time. It can be viewed as a repository of broad and complex sets of expertise, experience, and accumulated knowledge of various aspects of the field. Furthermore, it has certain key nodes and is enhanced by many linkages, from which both internal and external members can draw. Therefore, an INK is formed after (1) “nodes and knots” become loaded with knowledge resources (i.e., articles, authors, or journals), (2) these “nodes and knots” develop ties and linkages among themselves through co-citations (Podolny, Stuart, & Hannan, 1996), and (3) these ties synergistically amalgamate their resources, which in turn results in strengthening, broadening, and deepening the functional capabilities of both the network and its members (the research field).

A given INK embodies both the knowledge content of its nodes and the inter-linkages among the nodes within its network. It can be viewed as the organized and the de facto representation of the knowledge content of a field. Chandy and William (1994) maintain that any localized knowledge network (in this study, the authors replaced knowledge network with INK) is a part (or subsystem) of a broader and more general system. From this perspective, the INK-Expatriate, is an example of an emerging discipline with established origins; and which can be viewed as an offshoot of the interaction of its foundational domains, such as psychology, human resource management, sociology, and organizational behavior.

The field of expatriate adjustment study began around 1960 when a few studies focused on sojourner adjustment. The studies on expatriate manager adjustment flourished after 1980 when the international management field started to bloom (Harrison et al., 2004). In the current study, we will use INK to develop a network portrait of expatriate adjustment research in order to reveal a comprehensive and objective understanding of the evolution of this field.

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

Identification of Databases and Design of Search Processes

Expatriate research field builds its structure on its constituent disciplines. Most of these disciplines, such as psychology, sociology, organizational behavior and human resource management, as mentioned previously, are well established and have their own publication media. In the scenario marked by an absence of well-established media (a particular journal exclusively dedicated to expatriate management research), researchers in this field have published their work in the publication avenues of their own disciplines. This dispersal of publication outlets posed some challenges for this research study. Most expatriate-related frameworks and research studies advanced beyond what was drawn from its constituent disciplines. The application and integration of research and ideas from different disciplines widened the definition of the field's boundary limits and the scope of the field. To deal with these challenges, we used a key-word search approach to examine the Social Sciences Citation Index (SSCI) for expatriate-oriented individual studies to identify sources of information from the databases. The SSCI citations contain over 4000 refereed journals in the social sciences and cover a variety of research disciplines that include the fundamental fields of expatriate management research. Therefore, the results reported in this study are not limited to any specific field or area, which confirm the true interdisciplinary nature of the expatriate management field.

With the identification of the potential databases containing expatriate-related raw entries, appropriate search procedures needed to be adopted. Historically, three search strategies could be used to build the databases for citation and co-citation analysis: the key-word approach (using keywords to search relevant literature), the journal approach (using all publications from certain journals for certain areas as boundaries to collect relevant raw entries), and the title approach (using the titles of publications to identify raw entries). We adopted the key-word search strategy to deal with the challenges of dispersed publications of expatriate studies in a variety of venues. To acquire published studies related to expatriates, we searched the online Social Sciences Citation Index (SSCI) with all possible derivatives and combinations of the following nine terms: expatriates, international managers, international assignments, international leaders, international careers, global managers, global assignments, global leaders, and global careers. The reason to include many key words is that the work of expatriate has been expanded to a variety of terms as listed above. In order to reflect these changes, the coauthors discussed and came up with the extensive (not necessarily comprehensive) list of terms related to expatriate management studies. This search strategy yielded 793 journal articles with 17716 citations.

Data Set and Co-citations Analyses

Citations are considered to be an authentic and reliable indicator of scientific communication (Small, 1978; Garfield, 1979) and a basis for the identification of “invisible colleges,” i.e., research networks that refer to each other in their documents without necessarily being linked by formal organizational ties (Price, 1965; Crane, 1972; Lievrouw, 1989). Co-citation is the frequency with which two documents or authors are cited together by more recent papers (Alger, 1996). The basic assumption behind co-citation is that documents that are frequently cited together by succeeding works are related in subject matter. The essential notion is that the more frequently the two publications are co-cited, the stronger their linkage. In co-citation analysis, the data compiled are counts of the number of times two works: individual documents, authors' works, and/or journal titles-are jointly cited in later publications (McCain, 1991). Therefore, co-citation analysis has been considered an efficient method to measure relationships and linkages between authors, papers, and journals to describe mainstream, or the leading edge research in science (Tsay, 2003).

To start our analyses, we examined the data set of 793 articles and 17716 citations published between 1957 and 2006 and developed graphs to reflect the development of the expatriate management field by graphing the numbers of articles (and citations) from this data set against the years (see Figure 1 and 2). In these Figures it is clear that the field of expatriate management has developed at an increasing rate, during the last 50 years and even more so during the last decade examined. In order to analyze the evolution of this field, we divided the last 50 years into three stages based on the co-citation patterns reflected in Figures 1 and 2, Stage 1 - initializing; Stage 2 - forming; and Stage 3 - developing. Stage 1 starts begins with 957 and ends with 1985, where the number of articles slightly increased, but co-citation development is relatively low and flat, meaning that articles published in this time period have rarely being co-cited together. We therefore define the field of expatriate management at this stage as just beginning (initializing). During Stage 2 (from 1986 to 1995), it is clear that both the number of articles and the number of citations during this period have slowly but steadily increased and the field of expatriate management has started to form progressively, thus, the label “forming”. Stage 3 starts from 1996 till the end of the study period (2006) where the field of expatriate management has experienced dramatic and exponential development which led to the label, “developing”.

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After defining the three stages of the expatriate management field, the following co-citation network analyses were carried out separately for the three different time periods. In these analyses, we employ bibliometrics (Etemad and Lee, 2003) to accomplish the following goals: (1) map the co-citation networks of the expatriate management studies at different development stages; (2) examine the centrality (the influence) of individual articles on expatriate management research; and (3) assess the impact of a variety of research journals on expatriate research, a natural by-product of this analysis. The general procedure for co-citation analysis include four steps: (1) compilation of a raw co-citation matrix; (2) conversion of the data matrix to a correlation matrix; (3) analysis of the correlation matrix through non-metric multidimensional scaling (MDS), cluster analysis, and/or network analysis; and (4) interpretation and validation of the results (Alger, 1996; McCain, 1991). The software we used to conduct these analyses is Ucinet 6.0 for Windows (Borgatti, Everett, and Freeman, 2002). The results are described in the following section.

RESULTS

The results list the highly cited authors, books and journal articles, and the academic journals in the field of expatriate management research. As mentioned above, we put expatriate studies into three stages: Stage 1 - initializing; Stage 2 - forming; and Stage 3 - developing. We will report our analysis results in the same fashion by presenting them in three different stages.

Citation and Co-citation Frequency

First of all, we analyzed all of the references without differentiating stages and then selected the best cited 51 authors (the first author of articles) in the past 50 years (see Table 1 for the list; the years beside the scholars' names are the publication years of his/her representative and the mostly cited study). Second, we selected about 50 of the most influential articles based on their citation rankings for the three stages, respectively. Since we picked the number of citations as a cutoff criteria, the number of articles in each stage varies from 52 in Stage 1 (cutting off at 2 citations), to 55 in Stage 2 (cutting off at 5 citations), to 57 in Stage 3 (cutting of at 15 citations). We listed these articles in Table 2. Third, for top journals, we used the same strategy to select top 50 journals that published papers on expatriate management. The cutting off points are 3, 7, and 29 for Stage 1, 2, and 3, respectively. Table 3 shows the top 50 journals.

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Upon examination of Figure 1, it is obvious that the development of expatriate management field has enjoyed a long history and experienced an exponential development in the last decade or so. According to the results of Figure 1 and Table 1, the INK of expatriate management in a given time period emerges as clear as “twinkling stars in the cloudy sky of knowledge” that symbolizes the historical timeline. Influential authors appeared in each decade of the last 50 years. Between 1957 and 1966, Oberg (1960) and Gullahorn (1962) were the major scholars; between 1967 and 1976, Hays (1971), Baker (1971), and Miller (1973) were the major scholars; between 1977 and 1986, Tung (1984), Mendenhall & Oddou (1985), Hofstede (1980), Torbiorn (1982), Nicholson (1984), and Church (1982) emerged as the brightest stars; between 1987 and 1996, Black (1991), Adler and Bartholomew (1992), Selmer (1989), Feldman and Thomas (1992), Gregersen (1990), Naumann (1992), Brewster (1991), and Stroh (1994), Harzing (1995), Brett (1995), Harris (1995), Aryee (1996), Birdseye (1995), Guzzo (1994), McEvoy (1995), and Earley (1987) were the most significant contributors, and along the historical timeline, in 1997-2006, Caligiuri (1998), Shaffer (2001), Harvey (1997), Dowling (1999), Aycan (1997), Suutari (2002) and Ones (1999) were the most prominent researchers.

From Table 2, if we look at the authors of top 10 articles in each stage, it is very interesting to see that at Stage 1, there is no clear indication of the top 10 articles beyond the first two, 20 articles tied for the third place of 3 citations each. For the total of 22 articles, 18 of the most cited were by different authors. It is clear that the expatriate management research was sparse at this stage there was sparse and that there were no dominant authors or articles in this field. The cutting off point of the top 50 articles at this stage is 2 and the range of citation among these 50 articles is from 2 to 5. This confirms our stage hypothesis that expatriate studies at this stage is initializing. Journals at this stage (Table 3) are also from different disciplines.

At Stage 2, however, it is clear that the expatriate research field started to form rapidly. Among the top 10 most cited articles, two of them were written by Black (1988; 1990) and Tung (1981; 1982), respectively and the most cited one is Mendenhall and Oddou's (1985) article published in the Academy of Management Review. The range of citations of the top 50 articles is from 5 to 23, a significant increase from Stage 1. Studies in this field were clearly evident in highly respected journals in the disciplines of management and psychology (Table 3). Given the prevalence of articles in top-rated journals, these data would suggest a transition of the field of expatriate research and management to a recognized and important field of study in the foundation disciplines.

At Stage 3, from the list of authors of top 10 articles, it is much clearer that Black, Tung, Mendenhall, and Gregersen are currently dominating the field. The top five cited articles are all written by Black and colleagues. The range of citations of the top 50 articles is from 15 to 69 reflecting an exponential development of the field. Looking at the ranking of the journals (Table 3), five of the most frequent citations are in highly respected journals that were evidenced in Stage 2: Academy of Management Journal, Academy of Management Review, Journal of Applied Psychology, Journal of International Business Studies and International Journal of Intercultural Relations. These highly respected journals continue to see the research and development of expatriate management research as an important management topic. An interesting observation from this table is that the International Journal of Human Resource Management (IJHRM) was begun in 1989 and by Stage 3 was the journal with the second most cited articles in expatriate management. IJHRM is another reflection of the growing importance of the broader based increased attention to international human resource issues.

Network Analysis of Articles

To further explore the pattern of development in the expatriate management field, using Ucinet 6.0, we mapped the co-citation networks of the top 50 articles in each period (see Figure 3, 4, and 5) and analyzed the centrality of each article in the respective network (see Table 4). We used “degree” centrality and “betweenness” centrality to measure the position attribute of each article (Freeman, 1979). Considering each article as a node in the co-citation network, degree centrality means a count of the number of paths at length 1 that emanate from a particular node reaching to other alternative nodes; betweenness centrality is number of times that any alternative node needs a particular node in order to reach any other node (Borgatti & Everett, 2006; Freeman, 1979). These two measures are highly correlated with each other (Bonacich, Oliver, & Snijders, 1998). In the current analysis, we used both measures to assess the centrality of each article in the co-citation network of expatriate studies. In the following discussion, we will focus on betweenness centrality only. In sociology, high betweenness centrality means that the individual positioned in the high-centrality node of a communication network has more control of information flow and more people need this particular individual to reach or contact another person in the network (Freeman, 1979). A high betweenness (and degree) of centrality of a particular article in a co-citation network indicates that this article has been co-cited with more other different articles in the field than those ones with low centrality. In other words, the centrality represents the importance of an article in the expatriate management literature and the outreach of this article to peripheral studies in the field.

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A glance at Figure 3, 4 and 5 tells us that along with the development of expatriate literature, the co-citation of top 50 articles has become denser and articles have become more connected with each other from Stage 1 to Stage 3, further confirming our differentiation of three stages and indicating an increasing awareness of the studies between scholars in this field. The field has become more concentrated. This change of co-citation patterns also reveals the rapid formation of an independent research field of expatriate management.

From Table 4, a general pattern can be seen across three stages that the betweenness centrality has become more evenly distributed among articles in the later stages. More specifically, in Stage 1, one article (Harari & Zeira, 1974) stood out as the most influential and outreached article in the field followed by Adams (1969) and Seward (1975), and the range of betweenness centrality number is quite large (0 to 95.68), indicating that more nodes will need these three articles to reach other nodes, or the top articles are cited by different articles that have no connections in the co-citation network. In Stage 2, the highest number of centrality reduced to 7.86 and 4 articles distinguished themselves as having the equally highest betweenness centrality, i.e. Black, 1988; Buchanan, 1974; Copeland & Griggs, 1985; and Mendenhall, 1985. The range of centrality score is 0 to 7.86, much smaller than the first stage, indicating that the field is more connected and not as many nodes as in Stage 1 are needed for particular articles to reach other nodes. In Stage 3, fourteen (14) articles share the top betweeness centrality and the highest centrality index reduced to 2.59 and the lowest now is .73, indicates that the field of expatriate study has become further interconnected and no single dominant article takes the leading role, however, it is clear from the author analysis above that Black and his colleagues are centrally placed in this network but through a range of articles, not a single article. Considering the variety of topics covered among the top 14 articles in Stage 3, we can see that the field of expatriate develops into an independent field, and the field has been evolved in a healthy way that many different fields of expatriate management issues have been covered and have taken an equally important role in the field. However, at the same time, Blacks and his associates' studies are still dominating in the field, counting 6 out of 14 top studies (details will be discussed later).

From the co-citation analyses we have identified articles that are central to the field. In order to assess their contribution to the theoretical development of the field we need to examine the contributions of the articles most cited and central to the field. In the following, we will briefly review the articles with top betweenness centrality to describe the activities in each stage.

Stage 1. The article with highest centrality at this stage was co-authored by Harari and Zeira (1974). They looked at issues of managerial compatibility of MNCs' goals and managerial styles with local environment and employees, and their host country employees' job satisfaction. Interestingly, the host county in their study was United Stages and the MNCs were headquartered in Israel, France, Japan, and USA. They compared these four different organizations headquartered in different countries and identified several issues, such as imposed managerial style, unfamiliarity with the local environment, communication and decision making problems, and performance evaluation issues. This article touched on broad issues such as MNC staffing, expatriate selection and training, cross-cultural communication, and performance evaluation, which may explain the centrality position of this article in the co-citation network at the early stage of expatriate management literature.

Stage 2. The four top centrality articles at this stage are basically different and cover different aspects of expatriate management. Among the four articles, one is a theoretical paper in expatriate management field (Mendenhall & Oddou, 1985). Mendenhall & Oddou identified four dimensions of expatriate adjustment, self-oriented, others-oriented, perceptual and cultural toughness. The second article is one which empirically explored the adjustment of women international assignees and its antecedent factors, such as social networks and support (Copeland & Griggs, 1985). A third foundation article in the field which has transcened the test of time is the proposed three-facet (general, interaction and work) expatriate adjustment construct which led to the development of the popular expatriate adjustment measure, frequently used in future expatriate studies (Black, 1988). The fourth and last article is an empirical study in the field of socialization, investigating the role of socialization in the organizational commitment (Buchanan, 1974). The study by Buchanan led to consideration of expatriate adjustment and adaptation as a socialization experience. These articles begin to examine expatriate adjustment through consideration of different dimensions of adjustment and the recognition of expatriate adjustment as a socialization process. Finally, the last article begins to examine contingency factors in expatriate adjustment. At this stage, the field of expatriate research is forming and there is increased recognition that effective adjustment of expatriates is the key to personal and organizational performance. The concept of expatriate adjustment and the measurement of the construct is in an embryonic stage (Black, 1988), along with other important studies of expatriate management focused on social interactions (Copeland & Griggs, 1985), and antecedent factors in adjustment (Mendenhall & Oddou, 1985).

Stage 3. At this stage, 12 top articles were identified that enjoy the same highest centrality scores. These 12 articles are from different time periods (stages) but have heavily impacted the expatriate studies in Stage 3. Along with the historical timeline, we first discuss the classical works from Stage 1 done by Church (1982), Hofstede (1980), and Tung (1981; 1982), which have established solid foundations for the development of the expatriate management field. It is interesting to note that Church's (1982) comprehensive review article on sojourner adjustment provided a broad and solid base for later studies in the expatriate management field, with topics ranging from adjustment definition, the U-curve adjustment process, nationalities, personalities, social learning and social interactions. Tung's empirical studies (1981; 1982) offered reliable evidence on issues such as status of expatriate training, selection and failure rate among different MNCs in different regions. Her studies highlighted some important HR issues at organizational levels that stimulated scholars' interests in this direction. Finally, Hofstede's (1980) book on culture gave the expatriate management and researchers some background culture knowledge to facilitate understanding of cultural challenges to expatriate adjustment in different environments. Similarly the concepts derived from Hofstede's work, such as cultural distance and cultural novelty, were later incorporated into models of expatriate adjustment.

In addition to the four articles/books noted above, seven articles from Stage 2 occupied central positions in Stage 3 co-citation network analyses. They included Black (1988; 1991), Black, Mendenhall, & Oddou (1991), Black and Stephens (1989), Black and Mendenhall (1990), Feldman and Thomas (1992), and Harzing (1995). Black's (1988) study provided the most popular adjustment measures that have been consistently used by scholars in the past two decades. Black et al.'s (1991) theoretical framework also guided and has dominated the expatriate management field in the last two decades (Bhaskar-Shrinivas et al., 2005). Using his expatriate adjustment scale (Black, 1988) and guided by the theoretical framework (Black et al., 1991), Black and his colleagues have conducted other influential empirical and theoretical studies to investigate issues, such as U-curve expatriate adjustment process, spousal adjustment and antecedent factors of adjustment (Black & Gregersen, 1991; Black & Stephens, 1989). Black's (1990) review and theoretical article on training effectiveness, along with Mendenhall & Oddou's (1985) work, led to future studies in the areas of expatriate training. It is clear that at this stage (Stage 3), Black and his associates establish a central role in the conceptual and empirical development of the field of expatriate management. Two influential articles with different foci from this dominant stream are Feldman and Thomas' (1992) and Harzing's (1995) articles. Feldman and Thomas' (1992) study took a different perspective - career development - to study the issues of expatriate management. Several findings from his study, such as the importance of mentor, realistic job preview and linkage to long-term career development, provided a different but fresh perspective and led to a stream of research that has focused on global manager development. Harzing's (1995) article, criticizing of statistics citing expatriate failure rates has emerged as a high-centrality article, even though its citation rank is not that high compared to other articles (see Table 2). This may indicate that Harzing (1995) made her point well and challenged the established beliefs of the period.

There is only one article from 1996-2006 (Stage 3) that showed high centrality in the co-citation network of Stage 3. This article is an empirical study done by Shaffer, Harrison, and Matthew (1999) which reported results of a test of Black et al.'s (1991) theoretical framework. They found supportive evidence for Black et al.'s (1991) model.

DISCUSSION

The expatriate management literature has shown that expatriate adjustment correlates with expatriate overseas performance and their completion of the overseas assignments. It has also been found to link with job satisfaction and psychological well-being (Aryee & Stone, 1996; Bhaskar-Shrinivas et al., 2005). Expatriates play an important role as an intermediary between headquarters and a distant subsidiary. Their performance and well-being directly influence the organization's overseas operations. To meet the increasing demand for expatriates along with the globalization process in the past 50 years, numerous studies have specified and tested individual, job, organization and environment level antecedents, as well as, contextual factors such as family adjustment, organizational support, social support, and social networks related to expatriate adjustment and effectiveness (for a review see Bhaskar-Shrinivas et al., 2005; Harrison et al., 2004; Hechanova et al., 2003, Thomas, 1998; Thomas & Lazarova, 2006). As these data indicate expatriate management research has experienced rapid development, especially during the last decade.

The data from our co-citation network analysis indicates that expatriate management research has progressed through initializing, forming and developing stages and has become an independent and popular research field. The number of studies and their citation experienced a stable period until about 1985 when there was a noticeable trend upwards in expatriate research. The last decade has seen an exponential rise in the number of articles and citations. Our analyses have demonstrated dominant authors in the field and we have briefly summarized some of their contributions. The most stable results were found for the articles in Stage 2. The articles in Stage 1 are precursors to the field's development and the articles in Stage 3 still need time to have a sustained impact on the expatriate management field. Due to the time lag of citations, it is not surprising to find only one article from Stage 3 with a high centrality rating. There are certainly a lot of influential and fundamental studies in Stage 3 that are influencing current and will influence future work. Those citations will influence future co-citation network studies.

We also ranked the most influential authors and journals in the field of expatriate management. As mentioned previously, these authors' publications are cornerstones of the field that lead the expatriate management studies to develop in a variety of directions. From the changes of top journals at the three different stages, we can see that studies in expatriate management have been published in top-tier journals and the major international-oriented journals, such as Journal of International Business Studies and International Journal of Human Resource Management, have become the major vehicles for expatriate management research.

Limitations

As is pointed out by White and McCain (1998), the author co-citation analysis has its limitations. First, the citation image reflects only the use of a scholar's work by subsequent writers (including the scholar him-/her-self). Second, the author co-citation analysis only enables one to see a literature-based counterpart of one's own overview of a discipline. In other words, the author co-citation analysis only allows one to have an overview of a given field based on its literature. An in-depth analysis of the research contents of the field is not available from the author co-citation analysis. Thirdly, the publication process is overwhelmed with time lags; author co-citation analysis shows the way a field looked some time ago, not necessarily how it looks today or will look tomorrow. Fourthly, there is a self-fulfilling process that goes on in a research field's development. Researchers “learn” that they should cite certain authors work, because it is heavily cited in previous work, or the omitted citation is quickly picked up by astute reviewers. Fifthly, the citation indexes have their own built in biases, they only include certain journals in their database, and those journals change somewhat over time. Thus, citations of some of the early work may not appear in the current SSCI database due to either the journal's demise or that the journal is no longer on the citation list. Finally, computational limits constrain this analysis to authors only with citation records of a certain magnitude and those authors with fewer citations are left out in the analysis. Therefore, author co-citation analysis of expatriate literature may only identify highly co-cited authors and display their interrelationships from the citation record. Other approaches, especially qualitative analysis and reviews, should be used in conjunction with these analyses for an in-depth and comprehensive examination.

In our study, we only reviewed briefly expatriate management studies that appeared on our top centrality list of each developmental stage. Due to the limitation of our database (we only used SSCI), the results of our study should be taken cautiously. Moreover, due to the time lag, many recent articles did not show high centrality in our co-citation network. Our study offers more of a historical review of the development of expatriate management field, rather than judging the importance of different authors or articles. The omission of the recent works is not due to their lack of importance, but purely our methodological limitations.

Implications and Future Directions

In accordance with the metaphor of choice of citations as an assiduous voting process (Doyle et al., 1996), a meticulous manual and computer-aided analysis of 17716 citations resulting from the votes of thousands of authors traces the development paths and paradigms of expatriate management studies in this paper. Instead of doing a detailed review of each article in our database, we used the co-citation network analysis technique to map the evolution of the expatriate management field. By doing this, we provide objective evidence for the influential publications in the field and the paradigm shift from a diverse research field at the earliest stage through to a more concentrated field at Stage 2 dominated by Black and his associates' framework (Black et al., 1991). The “jury is still out” on the impact of the research at Stage 3. Clearly, there is a sustained effect of the research and frameworks conducted by Black and his colleagues but part of this influence is due to the biasing aspect of the journal review process as noted above in the limitations section. While this domination indicates a maturation of expatriate management field, we believe that new perspectives and studies should be developed to expand the scope and development of the expatriate management field. For example, while Black's (1988) construct of three-facet adjustment is evidence-validated and Black et al's (1991) framework is substantiated by empirical studies, this construct of expatriate adjustment is simplified and the framework is static. The dynamic process of adjustment has not received enough attention and the deeper level of adjustment has not yet been studied (such as values and personal transformation processes). We believe that future studies should focus on the following aspects:

  • New construct of expatriate adjustment. Scholars have studied psychological adjustment and social adjustment (Aycan, 1997; Searle & Ward, 1990). Black's (1988) construct focuses on the social adjustment part of this construct, but not psychological adjustment, such as the stress level or self identity changes of expatriates. Moreover, Van Vianen, De Pater, Kristof-Brown, and Johnson's (2004) study differentiated surface-level and deep-level cultural differences and investigated deep-level differences' impact on expatriate adjustment. In the same direction, we believe that the construct of adjustment should also be a multi-facet/multi-level construct. Black's (1988) three-facet construct of expatriate adjustment captures surface-level adjustment, but not deep-level adjustment such as value and personal changes. We suggest that future studies should refine the construct of expatriate adjustment to reflect the complexity of the expatriate adjustment issue.
  • The dynamic process of expatriate adjustment. Aycan (1997) has developed a process model of expatriate acculturation that incorporates experience appraisal, socialization and coping as parts of expatriate adjustment process. While there have been some studies focused on coping strategies (Stahl & Caligiuri, 2005) and longitudinal studies on goal orientation and stress (Takeuchi, Wang, & Marinova, 2005; Wang & Takeuchi, 2007), more studies are needed in this direction to capture the complexity of expatriate adjustment process. The developments of complexity theory and nonlinear modeling have made it possible to investigate the dynamic process of expatriate adjustment.
  • Repatriate issues. From our analysis, no study on repatriate adjustment has emerged as a highly cited or co-cited article, indicating a serious lack of attention paid to repatriation issues. Even though Tung (1982) raised this issue in her study more than two decades ago, no major articles in our database exclusively focused on the repatriation process.
  • Cultural context studies. There have been recent studies in the culture value field (Schwarz, 1994) that can be used to facilitate studies in expatriate management field. It would be interesting to see how value congruence or cultural distance measured by the newly developed cultural values would influence expatriate adjustment, such as Van Vianen et al.'s (2004) study. While historical studies have explored the impact of cultures/nationalities on expatriate adjustment (Torbiorn, 1982), more studies are needed to compare expatriates from different cultural background and their adjustment to different cultures/countries. This comparison will reveal some import contextual factors that influence expatriate adjustment.

CONCLUSION

The research in expatriate management plays a significant role in the development of international human resource management (IHRM) literature and provides important guidelines for multinational corporations (MNC). In order to understand the state of expatriate management research and the linkages between expatriate studies, this paper provides a co-citation network analysis to map the evolving patterns of the expatriate management field at three different stages of development. While there have been many review articles with different methodologies (literature review and meta-analytic review) as discussed previously (Bhaskar-Shrinivas et al., 2005; Harrison et al., 2004; Hechanova et al., 2003, Thomas, 1998; Thomas & Lazarova, 2006), the current study contributes to the field by adopting the INK model to map the underlying structure of co-citations to reveal the patterns of development. We not only present the citation rankings of each develop stage, but also analyze the centrality positions of different articles in each developmental stage and summarize some of the major contributions of the “central” articles from each period of development.

This study constructs the INK of expatriate for the period between 1957 and 2006. In addition, it discusses the key nodes or most important articles in this phase. These nodes and linkages provide considerable knowledge resources for new researchers who desire to study the disciplines related to expatriate management. This study identifies the most popular and highly cited journal articles, books, and researchers in the field of expatriate. The results derived from these analyses can provide direction for future research on expatriate management.

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TABLE 1

Top 51 Scholars Selected for the Co-citation Analysis from 1957 to 2006 (Citation Frequency ≧19)

Author

Citations

Author

Citations

Black JS (Black et al., 1991)

580

Aryee S (Aryee & Stone, 1996)

30

Tung RL (Tung, 1984)

247

Oberg K (Oberg, 1960)

30

Adler NJ (Adler & Bartholomew, 1992)

172

Van Maanen J (Van Maanen & Schein, 1979)

28

Caligiuri PM (Caligiuri et al., 1998)

157

Copeland L (Copeland & Griggs, 1985)

27

Mendenhall M (Mendenhall & Oddou, 1985)

127

Furnham A (Furnham & Bochner, 1986)

27

Selmer J (Selmer, 1989)

97

Birdseye MG (Birdseye & Hill, 1995)

26

Feldman DC (Feldman & Thomas, 1992)

94

Hays RD (Hays, 1971)

25

Gregersen HB (Gregersen & Black, 1990)

93

Kobrin SJ (Kobrin, 1988)

25

Harvey MG (Harvey, 1989)

69

Parker B (Parker & McEvoy, 1993)

24

Shaffer MA (Shaffer & Harrison, 2001)

63

Aycan Z (Aycan, 1997)

23

Hofstede G (Hofstede, 1980)

58

Baker JC (Baker & Ivancevich, 1971)

23

Naumann E (Naumann, 1992)

58

Suutari V (Suutari et al., 2002)

23

Torbiorn I (Torbiorn, 1982)

55

Guzzo RA (Guzzo et al., 1994)

22

Brewster C (Brewster, 1991)

54

Hammer MR (Hammer et al., 1978)

22

Harvey M (Harvey, 1997)

51

McEvoy GM (McEvoy & Parker, 1995)

22

Nicholson N (Nicholson, 1984)

50

Brislin RW (Brislin, 1981)

21

Stroh LK (Stroh et al., 1994)

47

Ones DS (Ones & Viswesvaran, 1999)

21

Forster N (Forster, 1997)

46

Abe H (Abe & Wiserman, 1983)

20

Church AT (Church, 1982)

44

Earley PC (Earley, 1987)

20

Harzing A (Harzing, 1995)

44

Kealey DJ (Kealey, 1989)

20

Brett JM (Brett, 1995)

41

Miller EL (Miller, 1973)

20

Ward C (Ward & Kennedy, 1996)

41

Punnett BJ (Punnett et al., 1992)

20

Dowling PJ (Dowling et al., 1999)

36

Bartlett CA (Bartlett & Ghoshal, 1989)

19

Harris H (Harris, 1995)

35

Gullahorn JE (Gullahorn & Gullahorn JR, 1962)

19

Edstrom A (Edstrom & Galbraith, 1977)

33

Hawes F (Hawes & Kealey, 1981)

19

Arthur W (Arthur & Bennett, 1995)

30

TABLE 2

Top Articles Selected for the Co-citation Analysis from 1957 to 2006

1957-1985 (Citation Frequency≧2)

1986-1995 (Citation Frequency≧5)

1996-2006 (Citation Frequency≧15)

Articles and Books

Citations

Articles and Books

Citations

Articles and Books

Citations

Haire-M et al-1966 MANAGERIAL THINKING

5

Mendenhall-M Oddou-G-1985 ACAD MANAGE REV V10 P39

23

Black-JS et al-1991 ACAD MANAGE REV V16 P291

69

Ivancevich-JM Baker-JC-1970 ACAD MANAGE J V13 P69

4

Tung-RL-1981 COLUMBIA J WORLD BUS V16 P68

18

Black-JS Mendenhall-M-1990 ACAD MANAGE REV V15 P113

50

Adams-TEM Kobayashi-N-1969 WORLD JAPANESE BUSIN

3

Black-JS Mendenhall-M-1990 ACAD MANAGE REV V15 P113

16

Black-JS Stephens-GK-1989 J MANAGE V15 P529

48

Almaney-A-1974 COLUMBIA J WORLD BUS V9 P23

3

Copeland-L Griggs-L-1985 GOING INT

15

Black-JS-1988 J INT BUS STUD V19 P277

47

Baker-JC Ivancevich-JM-1971 CALIFORNIA MANAGEMEN V13 P39

3

Black-JS-1988 J INT BUS STUD V19 P277

14

Black-JS-1991 HUM RELAT V44 P497

47

Cleveland-H et al-1960 OVERSEAS AM

3

Tung-RL-1982 CALIFORNIA MANAGEMEN V25 P57

13

Mendenhall-M Oddou-G-1985 ACAD MANAGE REV V10 P39

43

Fayerweather-J-1959 EXECUTIVE OVERSEAS

3

Baker-JC Ivancevich-JM-1971 CALIFORNIA MANAGEMEN V13 P39

11

Tung-RL-1981 COLUMBIA J WORLD BUS V16 P68

40

Gonzalez-RF Negandhi-AR-1967 US OVERSEAS EXECUTIV

3

Black-JS Stephens-GK-1989 J MANAGE V15 P529

11

Tung-RL-1982 CALIFORNIA MANAGEMEN V25 P57

38

Hall-ET-1959 SILENT LANGUAGE

3

Church-AT-1982 PSYCHOL BULL V91 P540

11

Gregersen-HB Black-JS-1990 GROUP ORGAN STUD V15 P461

34

Harari-E Zeira-Y-1974 MANAGEMENT INT REV V14 P43

3

Hofstede-G-1980 CULTURES CONSEQUENCE

11

Church-AT-1982 PSYCHOL BULL V19 P540

33

TABLE 3

Main Journals Reference Distribution from 1957 to 2006

1957-1985 (Citation Frequency≧3)

1986-1995 (Citation Frequency≧7)

1996-2006 (Citation Frequency≧29)

Journal

Frequency

Journal

Frequency

Journal

Frequency

MANAGEMENT INT REV

21

ACAD MANAGE REV

88

J INT BUS STUD

548

GASTROENTEROLOGY

20

ACAD MANAGE J

80

INT J HUM RESOUR MAN

386

J INT BUSINESS STUDI

19

ADM SCI Q

79

J APPL PSYCHOL

339

ANN AM ACADEMY POLIT

16

J APPL PSYCHOL

76

INT J INTERCULT REL

306

COLUMBIA J WORLD BUS

16

J INT BUS STUD

57

HUM RESOURCE MANAGE

296

HARVARD BUSINESS REV

16

INT J INTERCULT REL

44

ACAD MANAGE REV

293

BRIT MED J

15

COLUMBIA J WORLD BUS

40

ACAD MANAGE J

250

ANN INTERN MED

14

LANCET

35

J WORLD BUS

174

LANCET

14

PSYCHOL BULL

33

PERS PSYCHOL

153

NEW ENGL J MED

12

CALIFORNIA MANAGEMEN

27

J MANAGE

143

ACAD MANAGE J

11

HUMAN RESOURCE MANAG

25

J ORGAN BEHAV

130

ANNALS

11

AM J TROP MED HYG

23

HUM RELAT

128

GUT

11

J MANAGE

21

COLUMBIA J WORLD BUS

121

AM J CLIN NUTR

10

ADMIN SCI QUART

20

MANAGE INT REV

113

CALIFORNIA MANAGEMEN

10

J PERS SOC PSYCHOL

20

ADMIN SCI QUART

112

ART OVERSEASMANSHIP

9

LIVING ABROAD

19

EXPATRIATE MANAGEMEN

104

INT J INTERCULT REL

9

T ROY SOC TROP MED H

18

INT STUDIES MANAGEME

100

MULTINATIONAL ENTERP

9

GOING INT

15

PSYCHOL BULL

88

PERSONNEL J

8

HUM RELAT

15

J PERS SOC PSYCHOL

82

ACADEMY MANAGEMENT P

7

J INFECT DIS

15

HUMAN RESOURCE PLANN

77

TABLE 45

Network Analyses Results for Influential Articles/Books in Three Period

1957-1985

1986-1995

1996-2006

Articles and Books

Degree

Between-

ness

Articles and Books

Degree

Between-

ness

Articles and Books

Degree

Between-

ness

Harari-E Zeira-Y- 1974

41

95.683

Mendenhall-M Oddou-G-1985

52

7.857

Black-JS et al-1991

55

2.401

Adams TEM 1969

42

70.543

Copeland-L Griggs-L-1985

52

7.857

Black-JS Mendenhall-M-1990

55

2.401

Seward J 1975

42

70.543

Black-JS-1988

52

7.857

Black-JS Stephens-GK-1989

55

2.401

Gonzalez RF 1967

4

48.000

Buchanan-B-1974

52

7.857

Black-JS-1988

55

2.401

Hays-RD-1971

11

47.386

Black-JS Mendenhall-M-1990

51

7.492

Black-JS-1991

55

2.401

Miller-EL-1972b

41

46.035

Black-JS Stephens-GK-1989

51

7.492

Tung-RL-1981

55

2.401

Miller-EL-1973

40

34.325

Hofstede-G-1980

51

7.344

Tung-RL-1982

55

2.401

Tung-RL-1981

40

23.003

Hawes-F Kealey-DJ-1981

50

6.987

Church-AT-1982

55

2.401

Bradley-DG-1977

40

23.003

Tung-RL-1981

51

6.561

Feldman-DC Thomas-DC-1992

55

2.401

Desatnick-RL Bennett-ML-1978

7

14.891

Rizzo-JR et al-1970

51

6.561

Shaffer-MA et al-1999

55

2.401

Edstrom-A Galbraith-JR-1977

39

13.736

Tung-RL-1982

49

6.546

Hofstede-G-1980

55

2.401

Harari-E Zeira-Y-1976

5

13.423

Misa-KF Fabricatore-JM-1979a

47

6.486

Harzing-AW-1995

55

2.401

Harari-E Zeira-Y-1977

39

11.710

Louis-MR-1980

49

6.340

Mendenhall-M Oddou-G-1985

54

2.363

Harris-P-1979

39

11.710

Church-AT-1982

50

6.247

Black-JS Gregersen-HB-1991b

54

2.361

Hill-R-1983

39

9.267

Black-JS et al-1991

46

5.579

Mendis-DA et al-1985

53

2.343

Hofstede-G-1976

7

7.542

Pinder-CC Schroeder-KG-1987

48

4.974

Tung-RL-1998

53

2.299

Hofstede-G-1980

4

0.200

Edstrom-A Galbraith-JR-1977

43

4.648

Birdseye-MG Hill-JS-1995

54

2.262

Hawkins-RG et al-1976

38

0.000

Baker-JC Ivancevich-JM-1971

46

4.603

Caligiuri-PM-2000a

53

2.252

Ivancevich-JM-1969a

38

0.000

Dawis-RV Lofquist-LH-1984

47

4.431

Arthur-W Bennett-W-1995

54

2.225

Ivancevich-JM-1969b

38

0.000

Nicholson-N-1984

47

4.431

Naumann-E-1992

53

2.205

Katz-D Kahn-RL-1978

38

0.000

Torbiorn-I-1982a

47

4.322

Black-JS et al-1992

52

2.043

Kuin-P-1972

38

0.000

Hays-RD-1971

40

4.120

Torbiorn-I-1982

54

2.029

Maddox-RC-1971

38

0.000

Oberg-K-1960

41

4.104

Forster-N-1997

54

2.029

Miller-EL-1977

38

0.000

Harvey-MG-1989

43

4.069

Naumann-E-1993

53

1.995

Negandhi-AR-1971

38

0.000

Abe-H Wiserman-R-1983

45

4.040

Brewster-C-1991

50

1.983

Robinson-RD-1978

38

0.000

Harvey-MG-1985

44

3.817

Guzzo-RA et al-1994

52

1.982

Sanders-P-1982

5

0.000

Kobrin-SJ-1988

42

3.786

Dowling-PJ et al-1999

51

1.955

Simonetti-JL Simonetti-FL-1977

5

0.000

Lee-TW Mowday-RT-1987

45

3.608

Black-JS Gregersen-HB-1991a

54

1.917

Sirota-D Greenwood-JM-1971

0

0.000

Price-JL-1977

45

3.608

Earley-PC-1987

52

1.911

Tung-RL-1979

38

0.000

Porter-LW Steers-RM-1973

45

3.608

Feldman-DC Tompson-HB-1993

51

1.887

Tung-RL-1982

2

0.000

Gullahorn-JE Gullahorn-JR-1962

44

3.559

Caligiuri-PM et al-1999

52

1.790

Yum-CK-1973

38

0.000

Mowday-RT et al-1982

42

3.553

Crampton-SM Wagner-JA-1994

52

1.786

Zeira-Y-1975

38

0.000

Stening-BW-1979

37

3.265

Caligiuri-PM et al-1998

51

1.768

Zeira-Y et al-1975

38

0.000

Misa-KF Fabricatore-JM-1979b

43

3.166

Black-JS Mendenhall-M-1991

53

1.755

Zeira-Y Harari-E-1979

1

0.000

Adams-TEM Kobayashi-N-1969

43

3.166

Nicholson-N Imaizumi-A-1993

53

1.755

Zeira-Y Banai-M-1981

38

0.000

Steers-RM-1977

40

3.068

Black-JS et al-1999

49

1.698

Kuin P 1972

38

0.000

Adler-NJ-1981

39

3.035

Florkowski-GW Fogel-DS-1999

52

1.677

Maddox RC 1971

38

0.000

Clague-L Krupp-N-1978

39

3.035

Parker-B McEvoy-GM-1993

52

1.620

Miller E 1977

38

0.000

March-JG Simon-HA-1958

41

3.009

Edstrom-A Galbraith-JR-1977

49

1.605

Negandhi AR 1971

38

0.000

Earley-PC-1987

41

2.847

Mendenhall-M et al-1987

51

1.501

Robinson RD 1978

38

0.000

Dillman-DA-1978

42

2.666

Gregersen-HB Black-JS-1990

52

1.444

Sanders P 1982

38

0.000

Stewart-R-1982

41

2.592

Black-JS-1990

52

1.441

SimonettI JL 1977

38

0.000

Torbiorn-I-1982b

36

2.468

Caligiuri-PM-2000b

49

1.347

5 Due to length limitation, only top 43 most influential studies from each period are listed. The complete table is available upon request.