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INTRODUCTION

Human resource Development has in recent year become the focus of attention of planner's policy makers and administration. It is important not only for an enterprise but also for a nation to develop its human resources. Employee's Job Satisfaction is one of the main areas of HRD.

Organizations are social systems where human resources are the most important factors for effectiveness and efficiency. Organizations need effective managers and employees to achieve their objectives. Organizations cannot succeed without their personnel efforts and commitment. Job satisfaction is critical to retaining and attracting well-qualified personnel. This is especially an issue in medical institutions such as hospitals where specialist training and retention are highly important

Employee job satisfaction is an attitude that people have about their jobs and the organizations in which they perform these jobs. Methodologically, we can define job satisfaction as an employee's affective reaction to a job, based on a comparison between actual outcomes and desired outcomes. Job satisfaction is generally recognized as a multifaceted construct that includes employee feelings about a variety of both intrinsic and extrinsic job elements. It encompasses specific aspects of satisfaction related to pay, benefits, promotion, work conditions, supervision, organizational practices and relationships with co-workers.

Concerns about employee job satisfaction are just as critical in the apparel industry as they are in other business sectors. Similarly, the motivation to investigate job satisfaction among health care employees is similar to the interest of research concerning job satisfaction in industrial settings.

Numerous factors influence employee job satisfaction, including: salaries, fringe benefits, achievement, autonomy, recognition, communication, working conditions, job importance, co workers, degree of professionalism, organizational climate, interpersonal relationships, working for a reputable agency, supervisory support, positive affectivity, job security, workplace flexibility, working within a team environment and genetic factors. Sources of low satisfaction are associated with working with unskilled or inappropriately trained staff, laborious tasks such as documentation, repetition of duties, tensions within role expectations, role ambiguity, role conflict, job/patient care, feeling overloaded, the increasing need to be available for overtime, relations with co-workers, personal factors and organizational factors

Irvine and Evans (1995) have also underlined the importance of work characteristics (routine, autonomy and feedback), characteristics of how the work role is defined (role conflict and role ambiguity) and characteristics of the work environment (leadership, stress, advancement opportunities and participation) in relation to job satisfaction.

Justification for the need to investigate job satisfaction is exemplified in the seemingly observed relationship between the levels of job dissatisfaction, absenteeism, grievance expression, tardiness, low morale and high turnover. Job satisfaction is an immediate antecedent of intention to leave the workplace and turnover. Unsatisfied workers will leave their jobs more than their satisfied colleagues. Retention and turnover of staff, particularly highly skilled personnel, are important issues for managers in the current health care environment. Employees who experience job satisfaction are more likely to be productive and stay on the job. Furthermore, more satisfied employees have more innovative activities in continuous quality improvement and more participation in decision-making in organizations. Job satisfaction is also found to be positively-related to patient satisfaction.

Among determinants of job satisfaction, leadership is viewed as an important predictor and plays a central role. Leadership is a management function, which is mostly directed towards people and social interaction, as well as the process of influencing people so that they will achieve the goals of the organization. Numerous studies carried out in several countries showed that there is a positive correlation between leadership and the job satisfaction of health care providers

Organizational success in obtaining its goals and objectives depends on managers and their leadership style. By using appropriate leadership styles, managers can affect employee job satisfaction, commitment and productivity.

Leadership style can be viewed as a series of managerial attitudes, behaviors, characteristics and skills based on individual and organizational values, leadership interests and reliability of employees in different situations. It is the ability of a leader to influence subordinates to performing at their highest capability. This factor captures the extent to which management respects workers, operates with honesty and integrity, promotes efficiency, and has open lines of communication with employees.

The subject of leadership is interesting for many researchers. The continued search for good leaders has resulted in the development of many leadership theories. Studies have been carried out to determine how leadership behaviors can be used to influence employees for improved organizational outcomes. In the past several decades, management experts have undergone a revolution in how they define leadership and their attitudes toward it. They have gone from a very classical autocratic approach to a very creative and participative approach. Ideas about management and leadership have changed considerably in recent years. People today are better-educated and more articulate. They can no longer be commanded in the same way as before. There needs to be much more involvement and participation at work.

There are several styles of leadership such as: autocratic, bureaucratic, laissez-faire, charismatic, democratic, participative, situational, transactional, and transformational leadership. Not everyone agrees that a particular style of leadership will result in the most effective form of organizational behavior. Different styles were needed for different situations and each leader needed to know when to exhibit a particular approach. No one leadership style is ideal for every situation, since a leader may have knowledge and skills to act effectively in one situation but may not emerge as effectively in a different situation.

COMPANY PROFILE

INTRODUCTION OF ORIENT CRAFT

Orient Craft Limited started in the year 1972 by Mr. Sudhir Dhingra with four employees and then Orient Craft was set up in the year 1978 to take over the existing business and has now grown to 8000 employees in seventeen factories.

Orient Craft India's No. 1 Garment Manufacturer and Exporter and is the recipient of the “Gold Trophy” given by Govt. of India for highest global exports out of the country for the year 1997, 1998, 2000 & 2001. Besides many other export and quality awards, Orient Craft won the highest award for being India's larges knit apparel manufacturer and also the award for being the second largest in global exports for the year 1999. Orient Craft bagged the Bid World Quality commitment International Start Award in the Platinum Category for the year 2001 and Gold award for the year 2000 and won also many other awards and certificates from the Ministry of Textiles and states like on Sep 19, 2004, Won the “Entrepreneur of the year 2003” from the prestigious Ludhiana Management Association.

The company is growing rapidly, year after year and has its manufacturing facilities spread over 6000000 sq. ft. area with seventeen factories in and around Delhi. Another state of the art Manufacturing Complex, covering 3, 40,000 sq. ft. of covered space is completed in December 2001. This manufacturing facility is the single largest manufacturing plant in whole of India producing cut and sew knits, woven sportswear, ladies formal suits and sweaters under one roof.

Company has the most modern manufacturing plants in the country with over 1, 40,000 sq/ ft. of covered area in one location. The company deploys over 73000 imported sewing machines for its manufacturing operations in Woven and Knit units. The company has in-house lab testing for garments, fabrics, and trims. Its labs are well equipped to test for all parameters including Color-Fasteners to light. Orient Craft Limited also has several in-house latest Computerized Unit, In-house garment Dyeing Units, Manual Sand-blasting and laser sand-blasting units.

The company has three 100% export oriented unit thereby having the advantage of importing all raw materials, trims free or duty from any part of the world. The company also has a specialized Home furnishing Division, Wherein all Soft Furnishing products are manufactured and exported to some of the most prominent brands.

COMPANY PROFILE OF 7D ORIENT CRAFT LIMITED

7-D, Maruti Industrial complex, Sec-18 Udyog Vihar, Gurgaon (HR)

Tel : 0124-2342043 to 47, 5090800, Fax : 0124-2341110, 2342042

Year Established 1995

Type of company Privately Held

Owners/Directors Mr. Sudhir Dhingra

Mr. K. K. Kohli

Mr. Anoop Thatai

Mr. Ravi Dhingra

Mr. Vikas

Mr. Sahil Dhingra

Mrs. Manju Dhingra

Annual Turnover F.O.B. US $ -------- Million for 2003-2004

Minimum Order Quantity 200 Dozen per Style

No. of people Employed 8500 in-house

Production Capacities 50000 Dozen Per Month (Woven)

50000 Dozen Per Month (Knits)

Major Export Markets U.S.A. E.E.C., Canada

Major Products Blouses

Skirts

Pants and shorts

Dresses

Jackets

Outwear

Men's Shirts

Kids wear Co-ordinates

Knitted Shirts/T-Shirts

Major Customers Dillards Stores

Loft

Gap

Tommy Hilfiger

J-Crew

Liz Claiborne

Susan Bristol

Next Retail Ltd.

Nike

Dockers

Ann Taylor

Banana Republic

J. G. Hook

Ralph Lauren

Jones of New York

Levi's

Lands End

Abarcrombie and Fitch

COMPANY ENVIRONMENT OF 7D & 7A

Company is situated in approximately 10 acres of land. It is having a beautiful garden in front and is surrounded by various decorative plants. Interior is well facilitated for normal working conditions. Nearly 3500 people are working here. Among them most of them are very co-operative, well behaving with outsiders. Company is giving all type of facilities to its employees like transport, canteen, medical and other incentives. The new HRD and labor welfare department of this company on one side playing a great role by tuning every department, to get maximum benefit to the company and on the other it is taking care of all employees and workers, it is also giving chance to new people to build their career as strong as possible in their reputed company.

The production part of this factory is divided into six units. Here no. of machines are more than 1000. Ground floor is called basement or 2nd unit. Here cutting, finishing, sewing are simultaneously going on. Next to 2nd, unit 1 is present where cutting, sewing as well as finishing takes place. Above 1st unit 3rd unit is there, which is also known as 100% EOU, Where only production is going on i.e. sewing and finishing. Above 3rd unit 4th unit is there, there also only sewing and finishing takes place. The top floor is called as 5th unit where sewing, finishing and embroidery is also going on. The last unit in 7A is called 6th unit where sewing and finishing takes place.

In the present scenario of stiff competition of quality and price in the international market, the Indian garment industry is not in the position of producing an expensive and lower quality product. Looking at the present market demand of producing inexpensive and lower quality product, Orient Craft have to increase the productivity, lower the wastage's on production floor and make use of attachments, folders, special machines and equipment to have a good quality product, in all these activities industrial engineer plays an important role. Today the industrial engineering has become the back bone of the garment industry.

In Orient Craft Ltd., Industrial Engineering Department consist of an I.E. head, eight I.E. executives reporting to Mr. Brian Long (VP Technical). Each I.E. executive is assigned the particular production floors, thus this department is covering all the floors of 7-D, 6-C, 14-A, Home furnishing and sampling department. Besides working on enhancing the productivity and quality, lowering wastage's, proper utilization of resources like special machines and equipments, this department is also assigned the project like designing the floor layouts for the new production floors and to develop new production techniques to increase the productivity.

RULES AND RESPONSIBILITY OF INDUSTRIAL ENGINEER IN ORIENT CRAFT LIMITED

Sampling Re-Engineering- The work of an industrial starts with sampling re-engineering at the proto-stage so as to get to best possible construction and the use of folders and attachments in the style.

Pre-production planning- Pre-production planning starts with the receiving of a sample from the merchant of the stages of the two pieces, which is to be made on the production floor. After receiving the sample the initial operation bullet layout and new style requirement sheet is made. The purpose of making initial o/b, and layout is to know the quantity and type if manpower, machines, attachments, presses, bucks, profiles, dies etc required in the style and make sure everything is in house at the pilot stage.

Target setting- After having a rough idea of manpower and machines required from the initial o/b the company has to find out exactly how many machines and manpower is needed in the style. For this 5 pieces of cutting is taken and time motion study of that 5 pieces with R&D department using the proper method, motion and rating is done.

Final operation bulletin and layout- After tune and motion study the company make final operation bulletin and layout from this finally the company come to know the number of manpower and machines required to meet the targets. This operation bulletin and layout has to be cross checked by I.E head and then it is signed by R&D head and then it is passed to production manager.

Line setting- Line setting is the implementation of the layout and operation bulletin, which is done in conjunction with line in charge, supervisor, mechanic, Q.A and technician.

Bottle neck identification- After line setting the next job is to know the bottleneck of the line due which targets are not met. 

Follow ups- This is one of the important job of industrial engineer, to do the follow up of machines folders attachments, dies, profiles whether they are in house or not before the production starts and to be in correct with concerned persons for that and to make sure everything in house before the production.

Use of modern equipment- To know and develop attachments and folders, which can be used on production floors to enhance productivity and also to make sure the proper utilization of modern machines and equipment on the production floor.

Projects- Besides all the above activities we are also handle projects on plant layouts, settings up of pre-assembly section etc.

Reporting- This includes the reason why the targets are not met and action taken by production manager to eliminate it. This report is given to I.E head on the daily basis.

INTRODUCTION OF THE QUALITY DEPARTMENT

Its gives immense pleasure in introducing Orient Craft as one of the quality department in Hand Embroidery, Adda Embroidery, Computer Embroidery, and Machine Embroidery & Schiff lie Embroidery.

This department has a modern and very sophisticated design which give a good quality to production to ensure consistency in quality of Garments with our embroider and in house sampling works.

Embroidery Department has been in the forefront with other department in creating the good quality and acceptability. Over the year Embroidery Department has stepped up in the quality ladder and is today giving good quality that are increasingly finding acceptability with buyers.

“In the prevailing situation, the company needs all rounder, not specialist. These all are created with the help of the existing team of the company. The team supports each other and with the help of training team gets confidence. Today, orient Craft is more comfortable in handling both quality as well as quantity.

And sure, with an excellent team of people, the department is set to cruise higher altitudes in future.

ROLE OF THE EMBROIDERY DEPARTMENT

This Department is now very supporting in Orient Craft Ltd. Representing the company from the last few years Embroidery department provides the resources expertise and dedication support to production, and the company employ has dedicated themselves in making an acceptability quality for Buyer.

Embroidery Department has been helping to production department dramatically grow their business for the company, as a part of their commitment to being a value adding department of Orient Craft Limited.

Embroidery Department has over the year acquired strong and meaningful business relationship with production, Merchant & Cutting department the company always been in vogue with the fashion trends.

Orient Craft is now trying to emphasize on converting the quality to make the process, trouble free for the production department.

The company is assuring the quality and total standard action with its in-house production.

So now it can be said that this department is playing a very important role in Orient Craft Limited.

DOCUMENT USED IN THE COMPANY

Material Transfer Slip (MTS Book) is very important document for the maintaining the records of whichever style run in Embroidery department.  All records can be maintained properly with MTS books as it is very important for the company.

ROLE OF THE CANDIDATE

The attitude of the company with the new joiner person is very supportive and cooperative with that person. To achieve the better quality and better embroidery design, the company higher officers should have better understanding of the workers need and priorities. One should be more dedicated towards their commitments of work. And this can be only achieved if the company has the right people and their processes are transparent and continuously optimized to achieve higher quality at lower cost.

ITS FLOW CHART

Stitch Pieces--------------------------Cutting Dept-------------------------Unstitch Pieces

Prod Dep Emb Dep

 

Emb Dep Issue to Embroider

 

Issue to Embroider Reed after Emb.

 

Reed after Emb   Quality Checking

Quality Checking Cutting

 

Production

& Finishing

CENTRALIZED CUTTING ROOM AT ORIENT CRAFT LIMITED

SIGNIFICANCE OF AN ORGANIZED CUTTING ROOM:-

On average a garment had approximately 50%-60% of its total allocated to fabric and yet, most manufacturing units have no quality and production system monitor the inspection, spreading and cutting of it. The sewing department on the other hand only makes up to 20%- 30% of the total cost of a garment but accounts for nearly all the monitoring and productivity costs.

INTRODUCTION:-

Orient Craft Ltd. has centralized cutting facilities. The cutting room is feuding to all the swing floors situated in Udoyg Vihar. The company follows comprehensive production and quality procedures in cutting room.

FORMATES USED IN CUTTING ROOM

  • Approval for cutting go ahead
  • Call out for cutting
  • Cutter efficiency chart
  • Daily cut plan
  • Monthly cut plan
  • Cutting file checklist
  • Fabric relaxation
  • Approval additional cutting
  • Bundle control system
  • Color code for different shrinkage
  • Cutting R&D
  • Hourly report
  • Fusing system

CUTTING ROOM PROCEDURES IN ORIENT CRAFT LIMITED:-

Pre -production meeting is organized to discuss all the aspects of a style. All the concerned persons, for example - merchandiser, production manager, IED, cutting manager, pattern master etc is present in this meeting, to discuss the technicalities. In the cutting department there are three cutting teams. Master prepares a cut order plan and after job order is received from the production manager, master gets the fabric from the fabric stores and maker from the CAD department.

Most common considerations during cut order planning

  • No of sizes in order
  • No of color in the order
  • Maximum/minimum no of sizes allowed in marker
  • Maximum spread length
  • Maximum ply height
  • Fabric cost per yard
  • Cut table fabric width
  • Width variation
  • Fabric utilization report
  • Fabric inspection report
  • Lot card
  • Shrinkage report

Fabric having Lycra, spandex, wool blend are relaxed for 10 to 12 hours, prior to spreading.

Quality assurance inspector conducts inspection after spreading and cutting.

He checks the layer for following defects:-

After spreading

  • Marker placing
  • Tension
  • Miscut
  • Notches
  • Bowing
  • Leaning

Others

After cutting

  • Accuracy
  • Matching the top, middle and bottom ply with pattern
  • Notches/drill holes

Fabric layering system:-

Spreader in the cutting room receives layer spreading cutting job card from the master. This document has all the details for the spreading of each lay. From this document the spreading personnel can make sure that the following fabric details are correct before beginning to spread

  • Fabric type
  • Fabric name
  • Fabric width
  • Shrinkage
  • Color
  • Lot no
  • Layer length
  • No of pieces
  • Total pieces

Quality control of the spreading:-

As soon as the spreading of a lay is finished the quality assurance inspector is asked to check it before cutting can commence. The quality control inspector in the cutting room will receive the spreading and cutting report from the cutting room manager. This document has all the relevant details for the inspector, to ensure that the spreading is right.

The quality assurance inspector ensures the following:-

  • Fabric
  • Number of piles
  • Lay length
  • Ends
  • Tension
  • Remnant
  • Splices
  • Pattern

Quality control of the marker:-

The quality control inspector would check the following:-

  • Correct marker
  • Ratio
  • Pattern

Missing pieces on the marker is quite a common problem in cutting rooms especially if number of components in a garment is more. That is why the total no of the pattern pieces is checked. There must be no overlapping of the pattern pieces on the marker either.

Once the fabric is cut there is no question of taking it back for a change or refund. All possible precautions must be taken in the cutting room to ensure that once the knife cuts into the fabric everything is correct.

Quality control of cutting:-

After the quality assurance inspector approves the spreading, the lay is ready for cutting. The cutter can also make sure that the following marker details are correct before starting to cut the fabric.

  • Cut number
  • Marker number
  • Marker length
  • Fabric spreading length

The cutting personnel ensure that the markers have been placed in the correct direction on the fabric. Areas for checking are as follows:

Ensure that all the edges of the marker have fabric underneath them-ends and sides.

Ensures that the marker is laid square to the fabric and not-at an angle to the fabric. If this not controlled then it will create problems in the sewing section.

Fusing system:-

A properly trained supervisor is appointed to check temperature, pressure and timing cycle each morning, noon, mid afternoon and at critical fabric changes. Check for consistent temperature and across fusing head. The quality control department on daily basis reviews results. Quality assurance department evaluates fusible parts for defects such as color change, surface appearance and hand feel. Fuse line temperatures are established using temperature papers. Fuse line temperature is the temperature between the shell fabric and the fusible product at the time of fusing. Some times due to special finishes on the shell fabric, fusing machine is adjusted accordingly.

Numbering system:-

This is probably one of the most important control points in the manufacturing process. All the components are numbered including parts of the garments that have embroidery, fusing or washing and other value addition. If numbering is not done, then the problems of shaded garments, incorrect sized garments and garment pieces occur. These entire problem can be avoided using number system.

The company is having separates numbering tables. Once cutting is carried out, the cut parts are put on the trolley and moved to the numbering table. Separate numbering tables are the best as they allow the cutting table to be cleared immediately after the cutting of the fabric has taken place.

Stickers can be located on either the right or wrong side of the fabric depending on whether the garment will have interlining attached to it. It should be noted that if the stickers are attached to the right side of the fabric, then snickering not left on the fabric.

GARMENT PROCESSING UNIT

Aim: - To work towards most moderate washes while striking a right balance of handwork and chemistry. Also to achieve/generate consistency of shades and quick production techniques keeping in view the requirement of our esteem clientele.

Capabilities :- well starting with neat rinse washes, silicon sand wash, peach hand brushing on party wears, whickering coupled with Laser sand Blasting and tinting on Denims.

Garment overdyes : -we have to our experience, Heavy canvas Garment overdyes added with stone enzyme wash to give it a weathered look; vintage Granny's garment looks are possible. We do garment over dyes on Linen, Denims, canvas, Twills and the list is being added upon every day at our R&D section. Range of colors is available

On demand, shade bands are well taken care of.

For twills, we have facility to do BIOPOLISHING which added with sand wash, silicone wash, gives fabulous hand feel, and a strong crisp as and how desired.

Laser :- The design made over the surface of fabric by laser engraving technology are being strongly pursued by various customer of OCL this fashion is yet to Explored by masses as it is a Rare Technology. Well seeing believes and only few of special clientele of orient craft saw this machine creating designs on various denims, canvas, jersey, and especially overdye's left speechless, yet smiling.

STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE FOR TRIMS

Receive Indent from Merchandiser

Ensure that work sheet describes the complete specifications of accessories.

Decide the vendor to whom order is to be placed based upon rates.

Prepare the purchase order

Place the P.O. to the vendor and enter the details in purchase register

RECEIPT

Receive information of material arrival along with bill/challan

Verify the description and quantity of bill with relevant P.O and P.O register

Verify the quantity with bill

Send one piece of the accessory on the approval card to the concerned merchandiser. However, approval is not required for production equipments and consumables

Enter the details of consignment in store receipt

Update stock register and style sheet in file

ISSUE

Receive requirement of material on requisition slip and verify authorized signatures

Prepare challan for the items to be issued

Issue the material and get acknowledgement on the challan

Update stock register and style sheet in file

Receive the material returned from production along with style number indicated on return challan

Verify that the material is not damaged. If so, indicate on challan

Update stock register

STORAGE & PRESERVATION

Keep the rejected material in the area defined for it

Keep the approved material at defined location

Ensure that adequate preventive measures are taken to safe-guard the material against damage

LITERATURE REVIEW

MEANING AND NATURE OF JOB SATISFACTION

The term ‘Job Satisfaction' is of great relevance in the field of human resource management. So we can define Job Satisfaction a:

“Job Satisfaction is a set of favorable or unfavorable feeling which employees view in their work.

Job Satisfaction is the fulfillment and gratification that comes from work. It is not the money, the benefits or the vacations. It is the good feeling one receive from doing his work itself. Anyone who works in an organization develops a set of attitude about work which is usually referred under the term job satisfaction. Like other attitudes Job Satisfaction is composed of emotional informational and behavioral elements can vary in intensity and consistency can be acquired from a variety of sources. Virtually every job can provide a level of satisfaction.

Job Satisfaction comes when one accept a job for what it is and exploits the sources of satisfaction that comes with it. Many different sources of satisfaction are tied to the same job. Good feeling can come from high performance, quality work, learning new skills, working as a part of a team, assisting coworkers, and receiving compliments.

Job Satisfaction is achieved daily by digging out ‘satisfiers' wherever they can be found. This is true even if an individual is marking time until he or she gets into a better carrier area. The trick is to enjoy your present job while you prepare for a better one. Many people gain considerable satisfaction from doing ordinary jobs. They make quality time out of their working hours no matter what their assignment may be.

So, from the discussion we can say that job Satisfaction and different aspects of their job. It is the extent to which people like (satisfaction) or dislike (dissatisfaction) their jobs. As it is generally assessed, job satisfaction is an attitudinal variable. In the part, job Satisfaction was approached by some researcher from the perspective of need fulfillment- that is whether or not the job meets the employee's physical and psychological needs for the things provided by works such as pay.

LEVELS OF SATISFACTION

Job Satisfaction varies. Researcher suggests, the higher the prestige of the job, the greater the job satisfaction. But, many workers are satisfied in even the least prestigious jobs. They simply like what they do.

-Most workers like their work if they have little supervision.

-The list satisfied workers are those in service occupations and managers that work for others.    

-Ethnic and religious orientation is associated to work attitudes and Job Satisfaction is related to education.

EFFECTS OF JOB SATISFACTION ON ATTITUDES OF THE EMPLOYEES

The term ‘Job Satisfaction' and ‘Job Attitude' are used interchangeably. Both refer to effective orientations on the part of the work that the individual is presently doing. Positive attitudes towards the job are conceptually equivalent to job satisfaction and negative attitude toward the job indicates job dissatisfaction.

However, there is some difference between the terms ‘attitude' and ‘satisfaction'. Attitude refers to predisposition to respond. But job satisfaction, relates to performance factors. Attitude reflects one's feeling towards individuals, organizations and objects. But satisfaction refers to one's attitude to a job. Attitudes are generally enduring. But, Job Satisfaction is dynamic; it can decline even more quickly than it developed.

RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN JOB SATISFACTION AND PRODUCTIVITY OR PERFORMANCE

The traditional view that ‘a happy worker is a productive worker' does not support today's complex relationship between job satisfaction and productivity.

Performance leads to two kinds of rewards-intrinsic and extrinsic. The intrinsic rewards such as growth, challenging job, etc stem from the job itself and extrinsic rewards are under the control of management such as salary, bonus etc. Intrinsic rewards are more closely related to satisfaction. For instance, if a worker performs well on a challenging assignment, he gets an immediate feeling of satisfaction.

In practice, there may not be a direct cause and effect relationship between job satisfaction and productivity at lower levels because productivity is determined by outside factors like speed of machine, quality of materials, type of supervision, etc. However, the satisfaction-performance relation may be stronger for people working as professionals, or in supervisory and managerial positions.

IMPACT OF JOB SATISFACTION ON ABSENTEEISM

Absenteeism:

By absenteeism we mean a condition that arises when an employee fails to come to work when he is scheduled to work. The study of absenteeism is very important because excessive absenteeism tells upon the productivity of the organization. At the time, when production is at the peak and skilled labour is scarce, the absence of some employees will be very much disruptive÷ to production schedule. Excessive absenteeism involves a considerable loss to the organization because work schedules are upset and delayed, and management has to give overtime wages to meet the delivery dates.

Impact:

There is a negative relationship between satisfaction and absenteeism, through the correlation is not high. It makes sense that dissatisfied workers are more likely to abstain from work as compared to the satisfied workers. But even the satisfied workers may absent themselves from work-place to enjoy a thee-day weekend or to watch a five-day cricket match. That means outside factors can act to reduce the correlation between dissatisfaction and absenteeism.

IMPACT OF JOB SATISFACTION ON EMPLOYEE TURNOVER

“It is predicted that under different economic cycle, different Human Resource Management practices have differential impact on employee turnover. Mainly in an economic recession, employees are less willing to quit their jobs because there are fewer employment options available.

Unlike the relationship between satisfaction and productivity, the connection between job satisfaction and employee turnover is established beyond doubt. It has been demonstrated that workers who have relatively low levels of job satisfaction are the most likely to quit their jobs and that organizational units with the lowest average satisfaction levels tends to have the highest turnover rates. When employees identify with organizational goals, they are less likely to leave the organizations to work for other. So in order to survive for a firm in a global economy, it is necessary to design effective human resource management that encourages the retention of high-performing employees, particularly among skilled employees.

FACTORS AFFECTING JOB SATISFACTION

Several elements contribute to job satisfaction. These are discussed below:

  1. Nature of work- Job Satisfaction is related to the aptitude of the employee. If the employee is given a work for which he has no aptitude, the job will provide no attraction to him. Hence the question of contribution, creativity or motivation does not arise. It is for the management that each worker gets the job of his own choice.
  2. Type of supervision- the employee-centered supervisory style enhances job satisfaction as the leader looks after subordinates carefully, displays friendship, respect and warmth etc., towards them. On the other hand, production-oriented leader may cause low job satisfaction to the employees and may affect the turnover and absenteeism adversely. Of course, it all depends on the situation.
  3. Working condition- Job Satisfaction is related to working conditions also. The work is more attractive if working conditions involve such facilities as adequate light, comfortable temperature, attractive surroundings, etc.
  4. Avenues of promotion- Promotional opportunities affect Job Satisfaction considerably. The desire for promotion is generally strong among higher level employees as it involves change in job content, pay, responsibility, autonomy, status and the like. It is no surprise that the employee promotion as the ultimate achievement in his career and when it is realized, he feels extremely satisfied.
  5. Nature of work-Group- It is the work-group that fulfils the need for social interaction of the members. If the worker has good relations with the fellow employees and the supervisor, he will feel satisfied. If the work-group enjoys a higher status, his Job Satisfaction will increase further.
  6. Employee Morale- If the employee morale in an organization is higher, satisfaction with job is likely to be higher and vice-versa. The workers will be loyal to the organization if their morale is higher. The rates of absenteeism and labour turnover will also be low because of psychological satisfaction from the job.
  7. Rewards System- Economic rewards ply a significant role in influencing Job Satisfaction. This is because of two reasons. First, money is an important instrument in fulfilling one's need; and secondly, employees often see pay as a reflection of management's concern for them. Employees want a wage or pay system which is simple, fair, and in line with their expectations. When pay is seen as fair, based on job demand, individual skill level, and community pay standards, satisfaction is likely to result. What needs emphasis is that it is not the absolute amount paid that matters, rather it is one's perception of fairness of compensation.

Employee Satisfaction is So Vital to Customer Delight

A consistently high level of employee motivation and commitment are the key factors in developing a positive working environment for any business, claims Jonathan Crookall, group talent and learning director at Lloyds TSB in London.

He says: “A positive work environment starts with people having a clear sense of purpose and direction, as well as having the opportunity to participate, engage and be involved in that process. This includes giving your staff some degree of self-determination, and making sure that they know their objectives and specific goals.

“Clearly, an open environment of feedback, support and challenge from their boss and from the people around them is vital. We all spend a lot of time at work but if there is a clear sense of success, output and delivery connected to a clear goal and purpose then people will feel a lot more engaged and committed to what they are doing. Essentially, the overall workforce will be highly motivated if the alignment between what the organization is trying to achieve as a whole and what the individual employee is trying to do within their particular role is strong and coherent.”

In this context, it is particularly important for managers to be aware that the simple motivational tools of material reward and remuneration are only very basic factors in term of what attracts people to want to work at and commit to a particular organization, advises Crookall.

“As well as pay levels, research by the Corporate Leadership Council (CLC) found that people also joined organizations on the basis of career opportunity, organizational stability and its future prospects.

When it comes to employees deciding whether or not to stay at a company, they are very much influenced by how they are developed as individuals, how they perceive the career path ahead of them, whether they work in a collegiate and supportive working environment, and of course, whether they have a good boss. A good boss can best be defined as someone who is clear about direction but also provides headroom for someone else in the team to come up with ideas and add something of them into the role. They must be able to strike a balance between being a good coach - helping people to develop and see their way through problems and opportunities - and a good role model with values that they practice as well as preach.

“Finally, a good boss will also have the ability to maintain a constant flow of feedback, communication and debate with their employees, which means regular one-to-ones and team meetings, and an open door, approachable style.”

Of course, it is not only individual employees who can benefit from productive working environments - it is an organization's customer too, according to Crookall. He says: “The direct correlation between levels of positivity within the workplace and individual customer satisfaction is crucial to Lloyds TSB's business operations. There's no doubt that if employees are feeling good about their working environment then the customer feels it too.

“In other words, we are far more likely to satisfy a customer's needs if we feel empowered and have the requisite authority to make decisions that can positively impact the customer. Indeed, the people who are committed and switched on to their organization's goals are more inclined to provide a positive customer experience.”

[Jonathan Crookall, as Group Talent and Learning Director at Lloyds TSB, is responsible for the bank's talent management programs, leadership development strategies and approach for performance management]

Employee Satisfaction & Customer Satisfaction Are Closely Linked

In the highly competitive business environment of today companies spend large amounts of money on marketing to increase their customer base but sadly they do not make efforts to increase employee happiness or satisfaction. They fail to realise that disgruntled staff equals loss of valuable customers. Companies often overlook the fact that their success lies in the happiness of their employees.

Many organisations never attempt to find out if their employers enjoy and derive satisfaction from their work and if they are happy with their roles or feel valued and appreciated for their work. Their response to these queries will be a major influence in what employees say and do within and outside the company that can affect its image.

Employers who do not undertake such employee surveys are unaware that employees impact the bottom line and satisfied employees will be committed and loyal. They will project a positive image of the company and willingly do their best to satisfy customers.

Many research studies have highlighted the correlation between employee satisfaction and good customer service and as a consequence more profits. The studies reveal a distinct link between these factors.

Some key findings:

Customer satisfaction and loyalty directly impact profit and growth of the organisation

Better customer service means customer satisfaction and based on positive interactions with employees by customers, advocacy of the company by them to others

Satisfied employees provide better customer service

Congenial work environment translates to employee satisfaction

In essence, employers should have employee and customer satisfaction on their priority list when planning for business growth. For formulating such plans they need constant feedback from both. Any strategy for growth should be based on the belief that if employee satisfaction, loyalty and commitment can be gained then it will automatically lead to customer satisfaction and loyalty and consequently the growth of the business.

The link between happy employees and customer satisfaction is termed as the "value profit chain". An important aspect of this chain is the role of employees. Without doubt employee behaviour and attitude to work has a lot to do with the work environment. A positive environment leads to greater employee satisfaction whereas a negative one mars employee performance.

A Gallup survey of employees on workplace conditions that created a positive environment revealed the following:

Employees are happy when they are allowed to do what they are good at

When their opinion is taken into account

When there is a correlation between employee goals and organisational goals

Above all employees need to feel valued for their contribution to the company's growth. Fair compensation with employee participation in the decision making process will increase employee engagement. Open communication lines between the employer and employee are equally important.

Information regarding the company's performance and its vision will provide employees motivation and a cause to work for.

The belief that money is the sole motivating factor for employee happiness is outdated and also the belief that they should be thankful for having a job.

Employers who think that any investment or effort towards increasing employee satisfaction is a waste will see little growth of their business unlike those who adopt a more holistic approach and work towards increasing employee happiness. These smart employers will ensure their company's growth.

Some pointers to increase employee happiness:

The management should identify the factors that motivate employees to come for work and help them in achieving their goals

They should be empowered to do the work they are hired for. Constant monitoring and micromanaging can be stifling and hamper performance. They need to be given some autonomy and treated with respect.

Employees need to be kept informed and their involvement in the decision-making should be encouraged.

The management has to clearly communicate its expectations to the employees regarding the quality of work, honesty, performance standards and work ethics. Those who are above par must be given due recognition.

The best talent should be hired and after providing them the initial guidance, they should be allowed to work on their own.

These measures can ensure employee happiness, which will be obvious from the way they handle customers. Amiable relationship with clients/customers results in happy customers who give positive publicity to the company.

This is a continuous and mutual process because employee attitude and behaviour results in satisfied customers and when they are happy employees are inspired to work better and improve the quality of service.

The first priority of any organisation should be to make employees happy and customer satisfaction will naturally follow.

RESEARCH OBJECTIVES

OBJECTIVE:

The main objective of this Dissertation is to study the level of employee satisfaction in the Orient Craft (A Garment Export organization, based in Gurgaon).

Therefore the main objectives of this research study are:-

  1. To assess and evaluate the level of satisfaction (high or low) of the employees of Orient Craft
  2. To know the factors/reasons from the employees of Orient Craft which are necessary for increasing their satisfaction level

LIMITATIONS AND SCOPE

  1. It was very difficult to catch most of the employees at a time when they were needed.
  2. All the employees could not be contacted for the survey
  3. Issue of biasness can not be denied

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

Small Introduction: “Research methodology is a way to systematically solve the research problem. When we talk about research methodology we not only talk of the research methods but also consider the logic behind the method we used in the context of our research study and explain why we are using a particular method or technique and why we are not using others so that research results are capable of being evaluated either by the researcher himself or by others”.

Most common Methods and Techniques of research are as:

  1. Library Research
    1. Analysis of documents
  2. Field Research
    1. Non participant direct observation
    2. Questionnaire
    3. Personal interview
    4. Group interview
    5. Telephone survey

Asfar as this dissertation concerns my study was based on to measure the employee satisfaction level among the employees of Orient Craft. Hence, for that purpose I need to use ‘Field Research Method' under this method I have used ‘Questionnaire', ‘Personal Interview' and “Direct observation” techniques for perfect results

MANAGERIAL USEFULNESS OF THE STUDY

This study was very much useful for me to understand the management functioning and its applicability in the organization. During this survey I have interacted with most of the employees personally and observe lot of things and must say learnt a lot of practical thing from those people. But as we are talking about managerial usefulness of this study so, as I conducted survey with the help of well-formatted questionnaire, all feedbacks were kept by the management for their future studies as secondary data which will be used during promotion, while introducing new policies, decision making etc. My over all study was taken very seriously and management also asked me about my interpretations and its usefulness. So, finally overall study and surveys were really useful and enjoyed by me and the management also showed their interest in the whole study and gave me positive response all the time.

SELECTION OF SAMPLE (Sample size)

As for as sample size is concerned, I tried to target all the employees of my organization as a sample, but only succeeded in getting the responses from 60 employees

DATA COLLECTION

For the data collection I have followed field survey method's questionnaire technique, personal interview and direct observation methods to collect the data. 

RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS FORMULATION

HYPOTHESIS FORMULATION

In this section the research questions are based on the question forming the hypothesis to find the degree of correlation between various independent factors.

HYPOTHESIS 1:

To find out whether there is a relationship between the job satisfaction and employee productivity.

NULL HYPOTHESISHO:

A HAPPY WORKER IS NOT A PRODUCTIVE WORKER

ALTERNATE HYPOTHESISh3:

A HAPPY WORKER IS A PRODUCTIVE WORKER

The calculated value (10.9) is smaller than the observed value (9.22). Hence, Null hypothesis rejected.

It means that there is a strong relationship between the job satisfaction of an employee and his/her performance. That is to say that a happy worker may become a productive employee. This relationship of job satisfaction and employee productivity has been clearly stated, proved and presented under the section data analysis through graphs.

DATA ANALYSIS

1) NUMBER OF YEARS SPENDS IN THE COMPANY

TOTAL NO OF YEARS

NO OF RESPONDENT

PERCENTAGE

0-05

30

60

05-10

10

20

10-15

06

12

15-20

04

08

Interpretation: From the above graph we came to know that 60% of the employees were working in Orient Craft from 0-05 years, 20% from 05-10 years, 12% from 10-15 years and 08% from 15-20 years

2) SATISFACTION FROM CURRENT JOB

SATISFACTION

NO OF RESPONDENT

PERCENTAGE

YES

42

84

NO

08

16

Interpretation: From the above data we came to know that 84% of employees were satisfied with their current job and only 16% were dissatisfied.

3) SATISFACTION FROM COLLEAGUES

SATISFACTION

NO OF RESPONDENT

PERCENTAGE

YES

40

80

NO

10

20

Interpretation: From the above data we came to know that 80% staffs were satisfied with their colleagues and only 20% were dissatisfied.

4) INFLUENCE TO DO THE BEST JOB IN THE ORGANISATION

INFLUENCES

NO OF RESPONDENT

PERCENTAGE

IMMEDIATE BOSS

36

72

SUBORDINATE

00

00

CEO/MD

08

16

INNER MOTIVATION

06

12

Interpretation: From the above data we came to know that 72% of the employees were influenced with their immediate boss, 16% from CEO/MD, 12% from their inner motivation to do the best job in the organization.

5) MOTIVATION BY THE SUPERIOR

RESPONSES

NO OF RESPONDENT

PERCENTAGE

STRONGLY AGREE

28

56

AGREE

16

32

NEUTRAL

06

12

DISAGREE

06

00

STRONGLY DISAGREE

00

00

Interpretation: From the above data we came to know that 56% of the employees strongly agree, 32% agree, 12% were neutral in saying that they are motivated by their superior.

6) FAIRLY EVALUTION OF PERFORMANCE

RESPONSES

NO OF RESPONDENT

PERCENTAGE

STRONGLY AGREE

14

28

AGREE

20

40

NEUTRAL

12

24

DISAGREE

04

08

STRONGLY DISAGREE

00

00

Interpretation: From the above data we came to know that 28% of the employees strongly agree, 40% agree, 24% were neutral and 08% disagree in saying that their performance is fairly evaluated.

7) PERFORMANCE AND LOYALTY ARE RELATED TO REWARDS BY THE SIDE OF THE ORGANISATION

RESPONSES

NO OF RESPONDENT

PERCENTAGE

STRONGLY AGREE

10

20

AGREE

18

36

NEUTRAL

16

32

DISAGREE

06

12

STRONGLY DISAGREE

00

00

Interpretation: From the above graph we came to know that 20% of the employees strongly agree, 36% agree, 32% were neutral and 12% disagree that their performance and loyalty are related to rewards by the side of the organization.

8) SATISFACTION WITH INCENTIVES

SATISFACTION

NO OF RESPONDENT

PERCENTAGE

YES

30

60

NO

20

40

Interpretation: from the following data, we came to know that 60% of the employees were satisfied with their incentives and 40% were dissatisfied.

9) SATISFACTION WITH THE POLICY OF THE COMPANY

SATISFACTION

NO OF RESPONDENT

PERCENTAGE

MORE SATISFIED

10

20

PARTIALLY

34

68

NOT SATISFIED

04

08

Interpretation: From the following data, we came to know that 20% of the staffs of Orient Craft were more satisfied, 68% were partially satisfied and 08% were not satisfied with the policy of the company.

10) WORKING CONDITION INSIDE ORGANISATION COMFORTABLE OR NOT

RESPONSE

NO OF RESPONSES

PERCENTAGE

YES

46

92

NO

04

08

Interpretation: From the following data, we came to know that 92% of the employees were comfortable with the working condition inside the organization, while only 08% were not comfortable.

12) ENJOYING DOING WORK MORE INNOVATIVELY

RESPONSES

NO OF RESPONDENT

PERCENTAGE

STRONGLY AGREE

16

32

AGREE

24

48

NEUTRAL

10

20

DISAGREE

00

00

STRONGLY DISAGREE

00

00

Interpretation: From the above data we came to know that 32% of the employee's strongly agree, 48% agree and 20% were neutral in saying that they are enjoying doing their work more innovatively.

13) FLEXIBITITY AND INDEPENDENCY ALLOWED IN TAKING DECISION IN JOB

SATISFACTION

NO OF RESPONDENT

PERCENTAGE

HIGHLY SATISFIED

18

36

PARTIALLY

30

60

NOT SATISFIED

2

4

Interpretation: From the above data we came to know that 36% of the employees were highly satisfied, 60% were partially satisfied and only 04% were dissatisfied in saying that flexibility and independency is allowed in taking decision in their job.

14) SKILLS ARE PROPERLY UTILISED OR NOT

SATISFACTION

NO OF RESPONDENTS

PERCENTAGE

HIGHLY SATISFIED

16

32

PARTIALLY

20

40

NOT SATISFIED

12

24

Interpretation: From the following data we came to know that 32% of the employees were highly satisfied, 40% were partially satisfied and 24% were not satisfied in saying that their skills are properly utilized.

15) FREQUENT STRESS OUT AT WORK

RESPONSES

NO OF RESPONDENTS

PERCENTAGE

STRONGLY AGREE

10

20

AGREE

18

36

NEUTRAL

08

16

DISAGREE

08

16

STRONGLY DISAGREE

06

12

Interpretation: From the following data we came to know that 20% of the employees strongly agree, 36% agree, 16% were neutral, 16% disagree and 12% strongly disagree in saying that they got frequent stress out at work.

16) FULFILLMENT OF CARRIER GOALS AND ASPIRATIONS BY THE ORGANISATION

RESPONSES

NO OF RESPONDENT

PERCENTAGE

STRONGLY AGREE

12

24

AGREE

22

44

NEUTRAL

08

16

DISAGREE

08

16

STRONGLY DISAGREE

00

00

Interpretation: From the above data we came to know that 24% of the staffs of orient craft strongly agree, 44% agree, 16% were neutral and next 16% disagree in saying that this organization is fulfilling their carrier goals and aspiration.

17) SATISFACTION WITH THE METHOD OF CONFLICT MANAGEMENT IN THEORGANISATION

SATISFACTION

NO OF RESPONDENT

PERCENTAGE

HIGHLY SATISFIED

12

24

PARTIALLY

28

56

NOT SATISFIED

10

20

Interpretation: From the following data we came to know that 24% of the employees were highly satisfied, 56 were partially satisfied and 20% were not satisfied with the method of conflict management in the organization.

18) SATISFACTION WITH THE PROMOTIONAL POLICIES

SATISFACTION

NO OF RESPONDENT

PERCENTAGE

YES

36

72

NO

14

28

Interpretation: From the above data we came to know that 72% of employees were satisfied with the promotional policies of the company. While 28% were dissatisfied.

19) SUGGESTION FOR CHANGES OF HR POLICY FOR THE COMPANY

SUGGESTION

NO OF RESPONDENT

PERCENTAGE

PAYROLL REVISION

10

20

PROMOTION

10

20

TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT

16

32

OTHERS

14

28

Interpretation: From the above data we came to know that 20% of the employees suggests for payroll revision, next 20% for promotions, 32% for training and development and remaining 28% for other changes of HR policy of the company.

SWOT ANALYSIS

SWOT analysis is a tool for auditing an organization and its environment. It is the first stage of planning and helps marketers to focus on key issues. SWOT stands for strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats. Strengths and weaknesses are internal factors. Opportunities and threats are external factors. SWOT analysis can be extremely beneficial to those who objectively analyze their company.

STRENGTHS

WEAKNESSES

OPPORTUNITIES

THREATS

STRENGTHS   WEAKNESSES

1) High quality of products with  1) Wastage of garments while the use of high technologies manufacturing.

2) Primary aim is customer satisfaction. 2) Dissatisfaction among some of the employees due to company policy.

OPPORTUNITIES THREATS

1) Upcoming technologies for 1) arrival of new competitive advancement products in the market.

2) Upcoming new customers. 2) Implementing new regulations in the company.

CONCLUSION & IMPLICATIONS

In my study, as I have done a research work through a survey in which I have interacted with many employees of the company of Orient Craft Limited. I conducted my survey through questionnaire of sample size of 50 employees. As my project was to find the job satisfaction level of the employees, I interviewed the employees.

Then the information I have got I tried to assemble those data, which I have collected in most appropriate manner. After the findings I have tried to come out in with analysis that is represented in the pictorial form that is bar diagram and pie chart then made the percentage of the employees who are satisfied and those who are dissatisfied with their job.

After analysis I found that maximum staffs working in Orient Craft are satisfied with their job. However, few of them are also dissatisfied because of the lack of good policy of the company.

In concluding remarks, it will be appropriate to say that most of the employees are satisfied with their current job in Orient Craft Limited. I came in contact with some employees who were working for 15-20 years in the company. When I asked are they satisfied with their job?

Reply I got was “I am fully satisfied that's why I am here from last 20 years.”

From my study I came to know that 84% of the employees are satisfied with their job and only 16% are dissatisfied.80% employees are satisfied with their colleagues and only 20% are dissatisfied. 72% employees were influenced by their immediate boss, 16 from CEO/MD, and 12% from inner motivation. 56% strongly agree, 32% agree and 12% are neutral in the reply that their superior is properly motivating them. 60% employees were satisfied from their incentive and 40% were dissatisfied. 20% are satisfied, 68% are partially satisfied and 08% are dissatisfied with their company's policy. 32% strongly agree, 48% agree, 20% were neutral in saying that they enjoy doing their work more innovatively. 32% were highly satisfied, 40% were partially satisfied and 24% were not satisfied in saying that their skills are properly utilized. 24% strongly agree, 44% agree, 16% were neutral and 16% were disagreeing with the concept that organization is fulfilling their carrier goals and aspirations. 72% are satisfied with the promotional policies of the company and 28% were dissatisfied. 20% employees suggests for payroll revision, 20% for promotions, 32% for Training and Development and 28% for other type of changes for the company HR policy.

It is time companies accepted the fact of competent employees leaving the organizations as and when they find more stimulating new jobs. There is no single reason that can be attributed to such migration, for each employee is driven by his intrinsic motivation.

Hence compensation however attractive it might be, fails in retaining the talent on its own. Managing retention of talent has thus become a big challenge, though all is not lost. Companies must hook up their HRM practices to transform their workplace into exciting place so that no employee ever feels like leaving the organization. The top management team needs to first identify the causes behind the exodus and understand them. It is only after this that some good retention strategies can emerge.

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