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Quality Circle Activities at Hindustan Zinc Lilmited

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Published: Tue, 06 Feb 2018

A PROJECT ON VALIDATING “COMPETENCY MAPPING” FOR ATTAINING THE BEST “QUALITY CIRCLE PRACTICES” AT HZL

Executive Summary

Successful quality circles offer a wide variety of benefits for businesses. They talk about the perceptions as well as employee’s awareness, increase management’s awareness of employee ideas, as well as employee awareness of the need for innovation within the company. Adding on, quality circles can improve a business’s competitiveness by reducing costs, improving quality, and promoting innovation.HZL with the above motives, implemented the Quality Circles. The Quality Circles lead t self development, mutual development, quality improvement , cost reduction, waste reduction, productivity improvement, improvement in safety, job satisfaction , problem solving opportunities, people involvement and participation in team building. But, at present the Quality Circles are not able reciprocate the same.

Therefore the present study aims at two basic objectives

Phase I:

  • To understand the Quality Circle activities at Hindustan Zinc Lilmited.
  • To understand the perceptions of the Quality Circles facilitators and leaders in respect to the formation of the of the Quality Circles

So the quality circles being not up to the mark ,the project aims to streamline the Quality Circle activities at Debari and to provide impetus so that the members get onto self-motivated mode. Further, to facilitate the environment for the activities and conduct appropriate guidance structures at Hindustan Zinc Limited .There must be support based on the respect of humanity, aiming at participation by everybody .Also, to develop capabilities and capacities of the Quality Circle members and to make the work place full of vitality.

Phase II:

The second phase explored Competency Mapping of the employees.Competency plays an important role in shaping up the perceptions of the employees.It is basically a measure to avoid making the mistake of hiring a round peg for a square hole. One of the underlying principles of Competency Mapping is finding the right person for the right job (specially the Facilitators of the quality circles).

After the detailed study on reasons behind the non effectiveness of Quality Circles, Competency Mapping Study was taken up. The facilitator’s competencies were taken into account for the same. An effort was taken up to relate the individual competencies to the competencies required for the best Quality Circle Practices at HZL.

Identifying, assessing and linking people competency with the Quality Circle competency from the core mapping. Competency Mapping is a process of identifying key competencies for a particular position in an organization. Therefore, the executive’s opinion about the competencies required for the Quality Circles was taken into account. The relevance and role of HR Managers is going through a flux. The new generation HR Manager attempts to link their individual competency with those set of competencies, which make them successful in their leadership role. In the present study, executives from various departments were selected randomly and were included in the sample. Questionnaires were filled by only those executives who had a free will. The find outcome of this project is in the development of a suggested framework to unable them to bridge the gap between the prevalent and required set of competencies. Hindustan Zinc Smelter (Debari) at present is not making use of the Competency Mapping tool. Therefore the executives were made aware of this tool of HR and to make them know the benefits of Competency Mapping as a tool to help their growth in an organization. Various formats to get the Quality Circles get streamlined are also suggested which include Evaluation Criteria, Format for the meetings and the minutes ,Introduction for of the commandments of QC’s, relating awards and recognition to the same. As a result the company organized a Quality Circle gathering with a lunch in which a briefing for the Quality Circles was again given ,besides bags to all the quality circle members were given so as to give them recognition by differentiating them from the non members.

Certificate From Industry Guide

Certificate From Faculty Guide

This is to certify that, Ms Arushi Chauhan from MBA (HR) class of 2009 is a Bonafide student of Amity Business School, Amity University – Uttar Pradesh and is presently pursuing a Post Graduate Programme in Management.

Under my guidance, she has submitted her project titled “Validating Competency Mapping for Attaining Best Quality Circle Practices at HZL”, in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the summer internship project from Hindustan Zinc Limited, Udaipur, from May 1, 2008 to June 30, 2008 during the Post Graduate Programme in Management.

This report has not been previously submitted as part of another degree or diploma of another business school or university.

(Date July 24, 2008)

Dr. R. Sujatha

Senior Faculty (HR)

Amity Business School

CHAPTER: 1

INTRODUCTION

  • Company Profile
  • Introduction to Quality Circles & Competency Mapping
  • Objective & Rationale

COMPANY PROFILE

VEDANTA GROUP

Welcome To The Vedanta Group

  • Vedanta an over US $ 8.2 billion, Vedanta Resources plc (“Vedanta”) is a London listed FTSE 100 diversified metals and mining major. The group produces aluminium, copper, zinc, lead and iron ore and also commercial energy. Vedanta has operations in India, Zambia and Australia and a strong organic growth pipeline of projects. With an empowered talent pool of 30,000 employees globally, Vedanta places strong emphasis on partnering with all its stakeholders based on the core values of entrepreneurship, excellence, trust, inclusiveness and growth.
  • Chairman – Mr. Anil Agarwal
  • Deputy Chairman – Mr. Navin Agarwal
  • Chief Executive Officer – Mr. Kuldeep Kumar Kaura
  • Vedanta Group is a well established name in the corporate world.
  • Vedanta has a strong track record in managing operations and improving costs and output. Its zinc and copper operations rank in the top quartile of global cost efficiency.
  • Its principal operations are located in India, where they have a major market share in each of their main metals: aluminum, copper, zinc and lead. There are also substantial copper operations in Zambia and a copper mine in Australia.
  • Vedanta Resources plc was listed in London in December 2003.
  • At the time of listing, Vedanta set out a carefully structured strategy, to which the board and management remain committed.
  • The group comprises three major businesses: Aluminium – comprising bauxite mining, alumina refining & aluminium smelting operations in India. Copper – comprising smelting & refining operations in India, copper ore mining in Australia, & an integrated copper production in Zambia. Zinc – comprising zinc-lead mining & smelting operations in India.
  • Sterlite Industries is an important segment of Vedanta Group.
  • Sterlite Industries (India) Limited was acquired in 1986, bringing together several metal related activities managed by the Agarwal family.  In 2001 it acquired a 26% stake in Hindustan Zinc Ltd., an integrated zinc and lead producer, from the Government of India and a further 20% through a compulsory open market offer.
  • Vedanta is successfully operating in India in collaboration with Hindustan Zinc Ltd (HZL).
  • The Zinc business of Vedanta is managed within Hindustan Zinc Limited.  HZL is India’s only integrated Zinc Company, operating from mine to finished metal and supplied around 80% of India’s zinc requirements in 2007-08.

Vedanta Resources Plc – A Snapshot

  • National presence
  • Hindustan Zinc Limited (HZL)
  • Sterlite Industries (India) Ltd (SIIL)
  • Bharat Aluminium Company Ltd (BALCO)
  • The Madras Aluminium Company Ltd (MALCO)
  • Vedanta Aluminium Ltd. (VAL) Lanjigarh
  • Sesa Goa Limited
  • Sterlite Energy Limited

2) Global presence

  • Copper Mines of Tasmania, Tasmania
  • Konkola Copper Mines, Zambia

3) Sterlite Group has also strong presence in Optical cables business through

Sterlite Optical Technologies Ltd. (a non Vedanta Company)

4) A leading producer of key commodities in India

  • FY2007-08 Group turnover :

US $ 8,203 million

  • FY2007-08 Group EBITDA :

US $ 3,010 million

  • $7.5 billion investment programme. First phase of $2.2 billion completed on time and within budget. The next phase of $5.3 billion under implementation and on schedule.

STERLITE INDUSTRIES

Sterlite Energy Limited (SEL) is a part of Vedanta Resources plc , a London listed metals and mining major with Aluminium, Copper, Zinc and Iron ore operations in India, Australia and Zambia, and a subsidiary of Vedanta group flagship company, Sterlite Industries (India) Limited. SEL was established to develop, construct and operate power plants and seeks to become one of India’s leading commercial power generation companies. SEL is well positioned to capitalize on India’s economic growth, power deficit and large coal reserves to develop a commercial power generation business. It shall benefit from Vedanta group’s experienced and focused management with strong project execution skills, experience in building and operating captive power plants, substantial experience in mining activities and the capacity to finance world-class projects.

Various objectives of Sterlite group regarding HZL are:

  • To make Chanderiya Smelter, Rampura Agucha mines known for its world class operations.
  • To make Zawar mines, RDM, ZSP and ZSV internationally competitive

HINDUSTAN ZINC LTD. PROFILE

  • Hindustan Zinc Limited (HZL) is one of India’s leading Zinc-lead producers and exceptional in its extent of its technology coupled with vertical integration in other non-ferrous metals.
  • Hindustan Zinc Limited was incorporated from the erstwhile Metal Corporation of India on 10th January 1966 as a Public Sector Undertaking.
  • Hindustan Zinc is a vertically integrated company with mining and smelting operations located mainly in the State of Rajasthan and in the State of Andhra Pradesh.
  • Hindustan Zinc is India’s only integrated producer of Zinc and Lead and is among the world’s leading integrated Zinc and Lead producers.
  • Its metal production capacity is currently 754000 tones per annum.
  • The smelters are situated at Chanderia, Debari and Visakhapatnam .The mines are situated at Zawar, Dariba and Rampura Agucha

VISION OF HZL

  • To be a world-class zinc company, creating value, leveraging mineral resources and related core competencies.

MISSION OF HZL

  • Be a lowest cost zinc producer on a global scale, maintaining market leadership
  • One million tones zinc-lead metal capacity by 2010
  • Be innovative, customer oriented and eco-friendly, maximizing stake-holder value

Introduction to Quality Circle

A Quality Circle is a small group in which people who work in the first line work place, continually improve and maintain the quality of products, services, job.

This small group promotes the activity in such a way as to autonomously administer it, utilize the QC concept and technique and others, display creativity and make self development and mutual development.

This activity intent to:

•Develop workers capability; perform the self-actualization for QC Circle

members, make the work place full of brightness and vitality.

•Enhance customer satisfaction and make a social contribution.

The executives and the mangers in order to make QC Circle activities successful, contribute to improving the enterprises, constitute and implement company wide TQM or similar one by themselves. Facilitate the environment for the activity and continually, conduct appropriate guidance and support based on the respect for humanity, aiming at the participation by everybody and positioning the activity as important for human resources development and work place utilization

Quality Circles Functioning:

A typical quality circle consists of 5 to 10 members from the same working area. A leader is either elected by the members or the senior most people assumes the leader’s role.

The quality circle meets once every week, usually outside working hours. The meeting lasts for half hour to one hour.

The quality circle is assisted by a facilitator or a coordinator, who is from the executive cadre.

The facilitator helps in ensuring that the requirements for the quality circle meetings are met. He also is the contact between the quality circles and the senior management. In many cases, the facilitator helps the team in case they face difficult in solving a problem.

MANAGEMENT ACTION FOR SUCCESSFUL IMPLEMENTAION OF QUALITY CIRCLE CONCEPT

  • FORMATION OF APEX LEVEL STEERING COMMITTEE.
  • ABOVE COMMITTEE WILL DECIDE TO FORM ZONE WISE STEERING COMMITTEE (TWO TO FIVE SUCH COMMITTEES MAY BE FORMED DEPENDING UPON ORGANISATIONAL SET UP).
  • NOMINATE ZONE CHAIRPERSON FOR EACH ZONE. ZONE CO-ORDINATOR AND OVER ALL CHIEF CO-ORDINATOR.
  • DECIDE DATE/DAY OF MONTHLY AREA STEERING COMMITTEE MEETING. APEX LEVEL STEERING COMMITTEE MEETING MAY BE HELD BI-MONTHLY.
  • PROPOSED AGENDA MAY BE:

ADOPTION/FOLLOW-UP OF PREVIOUS MEETING MINUTES.

  • IN APEX LEVEL STEERING COMMITTEE CHAIRED BY HEAD OF PLANT, CHAIRMEN OF AREA STEERING COMMITTEE WILL PRESENT THE STATUS OF QUALITY CIRCLES STATUS IN THEIR RESPECTIVE AREAS.
  • STATUS OF CIRCLE ACTIVITIES IN EACH ZONE FOLLOWED BY IMPLEMENTATION STATUS OF APPROVED PROJECTS.
  • TRAINING PROGRAMME/REFRESHER PROGRAMME STATUS.
  • PROJECT FOR APPROVAL
  • ANY OTHER POINTS
  • IN CASE OF “PROJECTS FOR APPROVAL” CIRCLE WILL PRESENT ONE BY ONE. THEY WILL SIMPLY EXLAIN THE PROJECT TAKEN, HOW THEY HAVE SOLVED AND GAINS (WITH IN 5 TO 7 MINUTES). A GROUP OF NOMINATED EXECUTIVES WILL AUDIT THE SAME AT WORK PLACE. THEY WILL ASK FEW QUESTIONS TO THE EMPLOYEES OF THAT AREA TO ENCOURAGE THEM. PROJECT MAY BE APPROVED AFTER SEEING THE IMPLEMENTATION STATUS, IF NO FURTHER MODIFICATION IS REQUIRED.
  • IF PROJECT IS APPROVED, THIS SHOULD BE PRESENTED IN PROPER WAY. A TOKEN GIFT MAY BE GIVEN TO EACH MEMBER INCLUDING FACILITATOR/ DY. FACILITATOR. THIS GIFT MAY BE RESTRICTED TO THOSE WHO HAVE ATTENDED 60% OR MORE MEETINGS HELD FOR THIS PROJECT DURATION. THIS WILL ENCOURAGE THE MEMBER TO ATTEND MAXIMUM NUMBER OF MEETINGS.
  • AFTER APPROVAL OF THE PROJECT, STEERING COMMITTEE OF THAT ZONE WILL ASK THE HOD OF THAT ZONE, TO MAKE TENTATIVE PLANNING OF IMPLEMENTAION OF PROJECTS IN TOTALITY.
  • EVALUATION OF EACH AREA AND BEST CIRCLE IN EACH AREA MAY BE DONE EVERY SIX MONTHS VIZ. JANUARY TO JUNE AND JULY TO DECEMBER OF EACH YEAR AS PER PRE FIXED CRITERIA.
  • A RUNNING SHIELD TO BEST, AREA AND PRIZES TO BEST CIRCLE IN EACH AREA MAY BE GIVEN ON THE BASIS OF SIX MONTHLY EVALUATION ON 15TH AUGUST AND 26TH JANUARY RESPECTIVELY.
  • QC MELA, QUIZ COMPETITION, KAVI SAMMELAN, POSTER/ESSAY/SLOGAN/POEM COMPETITION ETC. MAY BE ORANISED BY QUALITY CIRCLE INITIATIVE
  • TRAINING/ REFRESHER PROGRAMME, FACILITATORS MEET, LEADERS MEET ETC. MAY BE ORGANISED AT REGULAR INTERVAL.
  • TO CREATE QUALITY CIRCLE ENVIRONMENT, TRY TO ENCOURAGE QC IN HOME, COLONY, HOSPITAL, SCHOOL TEACHER, STUDENT ETC.
  • SURRONDING VILLAGES MAY BE TAKEN TO IMPLEMENT QC CONCEPT IN VILLAGES

Quality Circle Policy at Hindustan Zinc Limited

Introduction:

This policy provides objectives of the Company’s Quality Circle Program and outlines a broad framework for operations of quality circles in the company for its continuity and consistency amongst the units. It provides the strategic direction for the efforts to achieve sustainable operations of quality circles in the company and qualitative aspects embedded in the company’s vision and mission statements. It incorporates the basic approach of quality circles concept appropriately to improve the work culture.

Objectives:

The quality circles will have the following objectives:

  • To enhance employees job satisfaction and belongingness.
  • To provide an effective platform to the employees to contribute through their ideas & knowledge in a healthy environment so as to use their full potential.
  • To promote team work and improve communication at all levels.
  • To develop problem solving analytical approach at shop floor to solve day to day problems.
  • To improve work culture through reduced waste and enhanced quality and productivity.
  • To further expand employee development through education and awareness.

The Set Up:

QC BASICS

  • Quality circles will have four to eight workmen of same work area involved in doing similar kind of activities as members.
  • They will meet as per schedule preferably at least once in 21 days, and identify, select, prioritise the problems.
  • Analyze the causes of problems after discussions in the meetings and then make recommendations of solutions through discussions a nd /or brif Presentations.
  • The QC members will then work together to implement the approved solutions in their work area & would be facilitated by the management wherever necessary.

Role of QC Leader

  • The leader of the QC will be chosen from the group by the group members only.
  • QC can have different leaders for different problems.
  • The leaders of the QCs will be given necessary inputs by the shop flor facilitator so the leader becomes competent enough to take responsibility for the operation of the QC and can explain proper uses of QC techniques to the circle members.
  • The leader should ensure that the meetings are held as per schedule and a report of each QC meeting is made covering all aspects.

Role of Facilitator

An executive of shop floor will facilitate each QC.This executive – The Facilitator – will be responsible in following ways:

  • Be primarily an advisor to the QC of his department /Section/Sub Section.
  • Be active and helpful to the extent the group wants his involvement and keep him informed through interactions / reports of the QC meetings etc.
  • Constantly promote & encourage the circle concept & extend all facilities to QCs for organizing meeting as per schedule. These facilities will include meeting place, stationary & other material for arranging presentations.
  • Maintain liaison, contacts and provide feedback on requests in a timely manner towards ‘Solutions-implementation.’
  • Educate & encourage other employees of the area to join the QCs /Form new QC.

Role of Convenor

For overall coordination & facilitating jobs at unit level, the HOD of Unit I.E. Dept. will act as the UNIT convenor (s) to expedite the coordination process. He will be responsible for:

  • Smooth and uninterrupted operations of Unit Quality Circle Program.
  • Education / Training to facilitators, Leaders and Members.
  • Coordinating circle operations by acting as an interface between facilitators /circles and Unit Steering Committee Unit Management.
  • Providing feedback to steering Committee and extend help as and when required by the facilitators/circles.
  • Maintaining records of all QCs of the unit based on QC meeting.
  • Helping facilitators /HODs in evaluation of QC performance.
  • Organizing Unit’s Annual QC Convention preferably in the quality month i.e. November and declaration of the best quality circles of the year.
  • Attending circle meetings occasionally and organizing QC leader meetings periodically.
  • Coordinating with Convenor of Corporate QC Steering Group.(CQCSG)
  • Sending a monthly report to the convenor of CQCSG i.e. HOD of Corporate IE Department Corporate office giving all the details regarding Unit Quality Circle operations .The details will include number of QCs ,their strength ,meeting frequency ,areas identified / approved for analysis, Q.C. Techniques employed, presentations made, No. of improvements effected & their brief details ,designation of Sr. Level Officers of the unit who extended visible support ,the evaluation sheets of QCs performance etc.

Unit Steering Group (USG)

  • USG will be chaired by Unit Head and will consist of HODs of major functions of the unit viz. production, maintenance, personnel, accounts, stores etc.
  • USG will be responsible in conformance to unit’s operational requirements consistent with broad guidelines of QC Policy.
  • USG shall provide guidance & direction to QC program within the unit.
  • USG will also publicize the circle activities /achievements within & outside the unit .Their objective will be to promote QCs in all areas of the unit.
  • The members of the group will show their visible support by attending meetings regularly with the facilitators and the circle members for encouragement & advises. They will also allocate higher priority for attending presentation of quality circles as & when requested.

CQCSG:

Corporate support to all QC activities in the Units would be extended through a Corporate QC Steering Group.

The Operative Framework:

  • The membership of the circles will be open to all workmen on voluntary basis
  • QC members will work in coordinated team manner to accomplish the activities taken on their own initiative by sharing responsibilities among themselves.
  • QC members will identify, select, prioritize and analyze the problems.
  • QC members will participate in all QC activities including presentation & set for other fellow workmen to emulate.
  • QC members will be in constant touch with the facilitator.
  • QC members will set up schedules for meetings and presentations within the framework of known company work loads in consultation with the facilitator & send minutes of meetings promptly to the Unit Convenor with a copy to the facilitator.
  • The circle will maintain continuous communication amongst all members.
  • QC members will present the identified problems along-with alternative solutions to management for acceptance.
  • QC members will pursue to implement the solutions of the problems as approved by management.
  • QC members will make presentation on the progress of implemented solutions to management.
  • Circles will not address the following subjects:
  • Employees Complaints
  • Personal Grievances
  • Personality related issues

Role of Unit Steering Group:

  • USG may participate in circles’ actions and will address to circles’ requests.
  • USG will also support all implementation activities.
  • USG may also suggest problems to the quality circles for further exploration.
  • USG will encourage formation of quality circles on other areas of the unit.

Performance Evaluation:

The performance of each quality circle will be evaluated based on following guidelines:

  • Evaluation Period: 1 Year
  • Parameters Weightage %

(a) No. of Meetings (Frequency at least once 15(Maximum 17

in 21 days) meetings in a year)

  • Attendance of members 15

(in percentage)

  • Regular submission of minutes of 10

meetings/reports to Unit Convenor

  • No. of new problems identified and their 10

selection process

  • Analysis ,effective use of QC tools, 10

workload distribution among the members

  • Quality of solved problems with respect to 10

potential of the groups

(g) No. of solutions implemented 10

(h) No. of presentations made, quality of 20

presentation, participation of members

special features in the presentation.

Comparison among circles will be done on the basis of the marks scored by different QCs of the unit.

Recognition & Facilitations Aspects:

The efforts of circles attract non -financial awards only which could be in terms of recognition /publicity and the others as outlined below:

i) At the time of formation & registration of quality circles:

  • Inauguration of QC by Unit Head.
  • Introduction of QC members to Unit Head in presence of their Departmental Head.
  • Displaying the details of newly formed QC on all notice boards of the Unit.
  • Provision of stationary (writing pad, pen/pencil) to QC members.

ii) After 10 meetings or completing at least one useful project whichever is

later – inviting QC members with spouse on a ‘tea” by HOD.

iii) After 1st presentation to HOD of Respective Department, a certificate would

be given to all QC members on a tea-get-together of the department.

iv) Presentation of selected QCs to Unit Head in presence of all QCS of the unit

where certificates shall be awarded to circle members signed by Convenor &

chairman of USG together.

v) Honour at important occasions where QC member could be invited with the

spouse.

vi) QC page will be included in monthly departmental and unit report giving

highlights of implemented solutions.

vii) After annual performance review of QCs in the unit publication of details of

completed projects by QC members with their photographs for circulation in all

the units of HZL.

viii) Two best QCs will be selected in the unit convention after 1 year of their

operations based on performance criteria & will be awarded accordingly

(Preferably in quality month i.e. November).

ix) Awarding QCFI membership to members of best two circles judged by evaluation

committee constituted by Unit Steering Group Subject to eligibility.

x) Sending Unit’s best two QC’s to other units for presentation on some important

occasion of the unit.

xi) Recognition to QCs standing 1st or 2nd in Unit consecutively for two years by

CQCSG.

xii) Best quality circle judged by CQCSG at Corporate level matching with corporate

image be considered for sending for participation in national competition

organized by QCFI when the opportunity comes.

Introduction to Competency Mapping

In the modern competitive world, business managers are required to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of the business operations. As there are several factors that affect efficiency and effectiveness of operations the improvement is required to be carried out in every factor. These factors are required to bring every factor in synchronization with other factors. To improve synchronization between different elements is an important approach to improve effectiveness and efficiency of the operations.

Manpower, technical and managerial abilities are the most important resource of any organization .The most important resource is the most difficult to manage as no two persons are similar. Every person has different Qualities, attitude, motives, personality traits, skills, knowledge etc. which has effect on their performance at work. Organizations in order to facilitate excellence in the performance of the people in the organization are required to identify the right person for every job. This matching between jobs and people is an important avenue for organizational improvement efforts.

HR professional are entrusted with the responsibility for selection, training and development, administration deployment support, performance appraisal and performance diagnostics of the employees. The most important part of these responsibilities is assessment of the individuals for their superiority for different functional tasks, and development of their potential to be effective and excel in the assigned tasks.

Currently most of the organizations are using personal interview, written tests and group discussion for the purpose of assessment. These approaches were mostly based on personality tests/psychometric tests. These tests have improved assessment of candidates but still the reliability of the results is not adequate to forecast effectiveness of the selected candidate for the job.

Research conducted by Industrial and organizational psychologists have found that effectiveness of a person to carry out a job depends not only on single or isolated factors but on set of many different factors. Such set of factors that help the possessor to be effective in a particular job is termed as competency for that particular job is termed as competency for that particular job.

HR function entrusted with the responsibility of finding right person for every job and development of the employed person to do the assigned job effectively, have found competency mapping assessment as a very effective tool.

Definition:

Competency mapping is the process of identification of the competencies required to perform successfully a given job or role or a set of tasks at a given point of time. It consists of breaking a given role or job into its constituent tasks or activities and identifying the competencies (technical, managerial, behavioral, conceptual knowledge, an attitudes, skills, etc.) needed to perform the same successfully. Competency assessment is the assessment of the extent to which a given individual or a set of individuals possess these competencies required by a given role or set of roles or levels of roles. Assessment centers use multiple methods and multiple assessors to assess the competencies of a given individual or a group of individuals. In order to enhance objectivity they use trained assessors and multiple methods including psych


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