Role of Human Resource Managers in Diversity Management
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CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION
This chapter presents the background of the research on “How can international human resources managers effectively manage diversity in multinational company?”- Case study Tesco. The company overview of Tesco in UK, background of the research, organisation background, rationale statement, research questions, and purpose of the research conducted the aim and objectives of the research identified by researcher. The structure of the dissertation is described at the end of the chapter.
1.1 Background of the Research
1.1.1 Managing Diversity
Managing diversity means maximizing diversity's potential benefits such as greater cultural awareness and broader language skills, while minimizing the potential barriers such as prejudices and bias that can undermine the company's performance. Dessler (2008, p.61) referred to diversity as potentially a double-edged sword. Generally diversity refers to the variety or multiplicity of demographic features that characterize a company's workforce, in terms of race, sex, culture, national origin, age and religion.
Many organisations have implemented various types of initiatives within the last few decades in an effort to deal with diversity. A possible missing link between how the human resource managers deal with diversity and its impact on the organisation is a diversity strategy that is executed using a planned approach to systemically manage diversity (Leopold & Harris 2009).
The increasing diversity and changing demographics of the UK workforce, the expansion of anti-discrimination legislation, legal rights for individuals with caring responsibilities and government policy commitment to the work-life balance have created new challenges for employers across employment sectors. This research explores some of the issues that arise for employers, managers and employees in the development and application of multinational organisational human resourcing policies which are intended to promote equality of treatment and recognize diversity in the workforce. The 2004 WERS survey (Kersley et al., 2006) found that 73 percent of workplaces had a final written equal opportunities policy or a policy on managing diversity compared to 64 percent in 1998. This figure increased to 98 percent in the public sector (97 percent in 1998) with the incidence of formal policy being higher in large workplaces which means that most employees work in establishments with a formal policy. This was evident in the 2007 CIPD annual recruitment and retention survey which revealed that only half of the 905 participating organisations had a formal diversity strategy although again the public sector is more proactive with 83 percent reporting a strategic approach to diversity (CIPD, 2007 a).
Today's business and service organisations are meeting the challenge which demands systematic efforts, as many of them have come to realize. Whether the multi-cultural character of the organisation arises from its international workforce and its local operations in various countries, from the mixed backgrounds of a workforce in a single location, the organisation must address this diversity if it is to be successful.
Groups of people see the world through their own set of assumptions, values, beliefs, customs, traditions and attitudes that are shared by an organisation's members. Learn about their culture and how it shaped them, and aim to understand how other culture work that can be an effective global manager.
1.2 Organisation Background
In this research, selected company will be Tesco Metro (Whitton, Branch) London outlet where different cultural people working. Tesco is one of the UK's major retail supermarkets. Tesco is an international retailer where there are working different countries and cross-cultural people. This research is a collection of how the Tesco Company has used diversity to support their business goals and valuable learning and what makes good diversity practice.
Tesco is the fastest and largest growing retail chain in UK as well as international arena. Tesco started its journey in 1919 in the East End of London. As a result, Tesco came as a national store across the country in 1970. To beat others and to reach top Tesco brings more innovative idea and implemented those from 1992 to 2004 like slogan “every little help”, Tesco value, Club card, 24 hours service, Online service and so on (A history of Tesco: The rise of Britain's biggest supermarket).
Tesco is operating in the UK set its position as a market leader with over £2 billion of profit with total 3728 stores around the world, where in the UK 2,306 stores and employing over 286,394 staff. It provides online services through its subsidiary, Tesco.com. The UK is the company's largest market where it operates under four banners of Extra, Superstore, Metro and Express. The company sells almost 40,000 food products, including clothing and other non-foods lines. The company's own-label products (50 percent of sales) are at three levels; value, normal and finest. As well as convenience produce many stores have gas stations, becoming one of Britain's largest independent petrol retailers (Tesco Annual Report & Review, 2009). According to market share Tesco's positions in number one in UK and third position around the world. Tesco is the market leader with 30.40% (March, 09) of market share though it's lost a bit of market share 0.5% in recent year due to credit crunch. Tesco market share is nearly two times higher than other retail shop like Asda (17.5%), Sainsbury (16.1%). (Retail Analysis)
Tesco has a very friendly and supporting approach in the routine ways that staffs at Tesco behave towards each other, and towards those outside the company that can make up the ways people do things, where at great place to work. The control systems and measurements are constantly under the management review to monitor the efficiency of the staff and managers' decisions. On-going meetings and communication at every level of the company's hierarchy represent a strong internal environment (Tesco's Value and Strategy).
Cultural web theory application (The cultural web theory is also an effective analysis for management in order to represent the underlying assumptions linked to political, symbolic and structural aspect of the company) is a useful tool in considering the cultural context for Tesco's business (Tesco's Value and Strategy). Culture generally tends to consist of layers of values, beliefs and taken for-granted actions and ways of doing business within and outside the company. Therefore, the concept of cultural web is the representation of these actions taken for granted for understanding how they connect and influence the strategy (Veliyath and Fitzgerald, 2000; Johnson and Scholes, 2003). It is also useful to understand and characterise both the company's culture and the subcultures in adaptation of future strategies.
1.3 Rationale statement
Generally, a self assessment for international human resource managers is to evaluate and improve their global management skills. But it also creates a challenge for individual managers who must manage with working across geographic and cultural areas; understand how issues of managing diversity inform and influence human resource strategies and evaluate the respective responsibilities of international human resource managers for managing diversity policies and practices.
The key concept of managing diversity accepts that different cultural workforce consists of a diverse population of people. The diversity management can recognize a wide range of individual differences and benefits to the employment relationship to individual needs which can lead to the organisational competitive advantage. This research explores the key principle of diversity in one of UK's leading super market named Tesco Metro (Whitton Branch) London. The researcher intends that how managers mange working with diversity people in workplace in Tesco, whereas equal opportunity focuses on different ethnic groups.
1.4 Research Questions
As human resource manager in a multinational company needs to consider the following major issues:
1. How people manage a group of different culture people?
2. What is the communication within work?
3. How do the managers manage diversity and equal opportunity within the service?
4. How can the manager influence team's performance?
5. How can the manager help people learn and develop?
6. How can the manager help people to manage change?
7. How he is motivating people?
8. How can the manager handle equal opportunity?
9. What strategy managers should apply to get a good result from employees?
How a human resource manager can handle all those areas and successfully the organisation's mission with different country's people.
1.5 Purpose of the Research
1.5.1 Research Aim
The aim of the dissertation is to analyse the competitive advantage of the organization that are managing people as assets which are fundamental. And to examine diversity, equality and discrimination issues in a multinational company, in the particular way of human resource managers to manage work with different culture people. Tesco has been used as a case study in this dissertation.
1.5.2 Research Objectives
1) An international human resource managers needs to know the way of managing people in the organisation. An overview of what a manager needs to do in relations to managing people in a changing environment which will be include at diversity issues and international human resource management policies.
2) To observe a multicultural company from the perspectives of diverse social peoples.
3) For an organisation to succeed on a global scale, radical shifts in business procedures are required. To become a successful global manager is to develop a global outlook.
4) A global manager needs to know what point an organisation has reached in the globalization process, and where it wants to go. Understand the process and recognize the strategies that will give the organisation a global advantage.
5) Understanding people as individuals and recognizing their differences as well as drawing up some general principles for managing them like motivates them, job satisfaction, and job design.
6) Recruiting, and selecting the right people.
This research will disclose some essential factors which help organisations to maintain their diversity effectively within the organisation and make a fair working environment of employees within the organisation.
1.6 Structure of the Dissertation
The dissertation report has been structured into the following chapters.
Chapter 1: This provides an introduction to the research, where justification of the research is presented and the purpose of the research is explained.
Chapter 2: The second chapter is the literature review of this dissertation concerned about, the works of various authors who have discussed relevant existing theories and policy of diversity and the different interpretations of diversity management which is based on secondary data. Those relevant theories and policy will help to find out the appropriate analyse of the following research.
Chapter 3: The third chapter will discuss the research methodology. Research method presents the research philosophy, approach and sampling, data collection procedures and shows the right direction to achieve an outcome. This chapter also explains the reasons behind the use of selected research method and the advantages by using the research approach.
Chapter 4: This chapter contains the analysis and findings. This part of dissertation informed the research findings quantitatively with the help of constructed research model and research hypotheses. It also shows the data gathered in the company through interview and questionnaire of Tesco's managers and employees, and analysis the data to provide a productive meaning of the research finding.
Chapter 5: This chapter encloses the conclusion of the dissertation within the research questions and objectives, describe limitation of research and recommends opportunity for further research.
CHAPTER 2: LITERATURE REVIEW
This chapter discusses the works of various authors and scholars who have highlighted theoretical exploration of the existing knowledge that is relevant to the diversity area. This chapter also focuses on similar and contrasting perspectives that researchers have used to approach this research areas.
2.2 What is Diversity
Diversity means relating and working with people who hold different perspectives and views and bringing different qualities to the workplace. According to (Kandola & Fullerton 1994, p.19) diversity consists of visible and non-visible differences which will include age, background, race, sex, disability, personality and lifestyle.
The concept of diversity means respect and acceptance, means understanding each individual is unique and recognizing our individual's differences. It can be the aspects of race, age, gender, ethnicity, sex, disability, religious beliefs, and political views and so on. It is also exploration of these differences in a safe positive and development organizational environment.
As the Wall Street Journal (2005) put about diversity, as companies do more and more business around the world, diversity is simple a matter of doing what is fair or good public relations which is a business imperative but diversity is supposed to enrich an organisation's human capital, whereas equal opportunity focuses on various ethnic groups.
Brewster (2002) defined that managing diversity tries to build specific skills and to create policies that derive the best from each employee and it is based on the assumption that diverse groups will create new ways of working together and have understanding in that group, profit and productivity will increase in the organisation. Where he found, diversity management is fast becoming a management approach that is being applied effectively within the organizations.
2.3 Benefits of Diversity
Diversity needs to be seen as an integral part of the business plan, essential to successful products and increased sales. This is especially true in today's global marketplace, as organizations interact with different cultures and people. Kandola & Fullerton (1998) identified the possible areas of diversity benefits, these are:
a) Creativity increases - when people with different ways of solving difficult problems work together towards a common solution and the more ideas can obtain from different people.
b) Productivity increases - when people are from all cultures pull together towards a single inspiring goal. Increased productivity is an obvious advantage of diversity in the workplace.
c) Provide strong leadership - they take strong stands on advocating the need for a diverse workforce and can handle effectively different cultural people.
d) New attitudes - are brought to the business by people from diverse cultures. In most other countries around the world time is for building relationships and an integral part of getting to know that are considering doing business with before starting a transaction.
e) Provide diversity training and education - are obviously needed in today's increasingly global market and diverse employees often have this ability. Every company needs specific knowledge or language skills where the international job seekers have the advantage.
f) New processes - when people are with different ideas come together and collaborate. In today's first moving world, employee must bring multiple skills to the working environment and adapt quickly to new situations. (Harris et al. 2003)
International human resource manager can make organisations more successful and productive by managing diversity in the work place. Diversity brings real benefits to business environment where employing a diverse workforce enables it to use a wider range of skills and lead to creativity and innovation.
2.4 Human Resource (HR) Policies
HR policies provide guidelines on how key aspects of people management should be handled. The aim is to ensure that any HR issues are dealt with the values of the organisation with certain principles. Armstrong (2009) defined the philosophies and values of the organisation on how people should be treated and all organisations have HR policies. HR policies can be expressed formally as overall statements of the values of the organisation or in specific areas. Kandola & Fullerton (1994), these values are espoused by many organizations in one form or another. HR policy on managing diversity recognizes that there are differences among employees and properly managed where will enable work to be more effectively.
2.5 Managing Workforce Diversity
Legislation and the high profile of equal opportunities in the UK has had both positive
and negative effects on the way people view each other, (Barker, 2000). On the one hand, there is now widespread recognition that discrimination at work on the grounds of gender, race or ability alone is unjust, although the practice still continues. However, the grouping of minorities such as women or ethnic or disabled has produced responses. More recent thinking has moved towards ‘managing diversity'-recognizing and valuing differences in people and their unique contributions to the workforce.
Managing diversity involves creating an environment that allows all employees to contribute to organizational goals and experience personal growth. This requires the company to develop employees that they are comfortable working with others from a variety of ethnic, racial and religious backgrounds. Noe et al. (2003) found that managing diversity may require changing the company culture. It includes the company's standards and how employees are treated, competitiveness, innovation and risk taking. Where management of diversity has been linked to innovation, improved productivity, lower employee turnover and other costs related to human resources, (Cox, 1993, p.24).
Price (1997, p.265) noted that the management of diversity goes beyond equal opportunity instead of allowing a greater range of people the opportunity to ‘fit in' the concept of diversity embodies the belief that people should be valued for their differences and variety. Diversity perceived to enrich an organisation's human capital. Whereas equal opportunity focuses on various disadvantaged groups, the management of diversity is about individuals and model of resourcing aimed at finding flexible employees. According to Harvard Business Review, managing diversity does not mean controlling or containing diversity, it means enabling every member of workforce to perform to their potential and getting from employees; everything right to expect and if it is well then thing they have to give, (Thomas, 2001).
The future success of any organisations relies on the ability to manage a diverse of capacity that can bring innovative ideas, perspectives and views to their work. The challenge and problems faced of workplace diversity can be turned into a strategic organisational asset if an organisation is able to make the most of diverse talents. Especially for multinational companies, who have operations on a global scale and employ people of different countries, ethical and cultural backgrounds.
Thus, a HR manager needs to be aware and may utilize a 'Think Global, Act Local' approach in most circumstances, (Jackson, 2002).
The goals of diversity training are eliminate values and managerial practices that restrain employee's personal development and allow employees to contribute to organisational goals within the cultural background, (Jackson & Associates, 1992). It is because of equal opportunity employment laws that companies have focused on ensuring equal access to jobs.
With a population attempt towards high technology and knowledge-based economy; foreign ability are tempt to share their expertise in these areas. Thus human resource managers have to undergo cultural-based human resource management training to further their abilities to motivate a group of professional that are highly qualified but culturally diverse.
2.6 Achieving Equality and diversity Approach
The diversity approaches argue that diverse workgroups generate wealthier ideas and solutions than homogenous groups where benefits of diversity management include a greater concern for socially responsible behavior in organisations and more flexibility in organizational policies, (Wentling & Palma-Rivas, 1998, p.237).
Ross & Schneider (1992, p.49) discussed the fundamental perspective from equality to diversity that employers will find competitive advantage in encouraging diversity at work. Equal opportunities should become internally driven not externally imposed and focused on individuals where the responsibility of all.
Fredman (2001) observes that traditionally equality laws have been informed by neutrality, individualism and promotion of autonomy principles. These principles aim to ensure that people are treated in the same way and appear to be the most consideration in the UK anti-discrimination framework which is an approach to workplace equality based on achieving fairness. Walsh (2007) in her analysis of the 2004 Workplace Employment Relations Survey findings points out that women's representation in senior management in UK workplaces had only marginally improved by 2 percent between 1998 and 2004.
So diversity is a concept which recognises the benefits to be gained from differences and equal opportunity has traditionally been a concept, which sought to legislate against discrimination. These two concepts have the following characteristics:.
Those characteristics suggest that how organisations can move from where most are at present to a situation in which diversity enters the majority.
2.7 How the Diversity Concept has developed
Changes in the social and economic landscape led to legislation covering equal pay, sex and racial discrimination in the 1970s, followed by disability laws in the 1990s, (Daniels & Macdonald, 2005). More recently discrimination of sexual orientation and religion has been added by the law. By 1990s, it was being recognised that they had limited success in achieving their goals. At around the same time, researchers were also finding that culturally diverse teams were more creative than homogenous teams and contributed more effectively to meeting organisational goals. Three separate commissions have promoted equality and particular aspects of the legislation: the Equal Opportunities Commission, the Commission for Racial Equality and the Disability Rights Commission. From October 2007, a new Equality and Human Rights Commission has been established to cover all equality issues as well as of human rights, from (CIPD, 2007).
From the recent survey, unemployment is twice as high among people from ethnic minorities, although in UK relatively more Asian and Black African graduates than white graduates where only 12 percent of white men are in professional occupations. Statistical survey found that 41 percent of white women in employment work part-time but only 7 percent of white men and as opposed to 38 percent of Bangladeshi men, (http://www.cipd.co.uk/surveys).
2.8 Diversity Policy
Changing workforce demographics and new organisational forms are increasing the diversity of work teams in general and decision-making teams in particular. The perspectives of diversity policy may lead to a variety of different consequences for decision-making teams in the organisation.
2.8.1 The Business Issues
Equal opportunities are often seen as meaning treating everyone in exactly the same way. Kandola (2006) argued that the social justice and business issues for diversity are complementary because unless people are treated fairly at work they will therefore under-perform. But diversity takes equality forward and evidence indicates that organisations that are serious about diversity show better overall financial performance. Diversity policies also help organisations to create an environment in which people from all backgrounds can work together.
2.8.2 People Issues
People are aspiring to work for employers with good employment practices and feel valued at work place. Dowling et al. (1999, p.262) states that to be competitive organisations need to derive the best contributions from everyone and need to create an inclusive workplace culture in which everyone feels valued. The HRM aspects are operating different countries as a way of illustrating the situation that may confront multinationals attempting to penetrate developing markets.
2.9 The Nature of Diversity in Decision-Making Teams
Many organisations use the term diversity to refer only to demographic differences among employees, with gender, ethnicity and age being the dimensions of greatest concern. Changing workforce demographics and new organisational forms are increasing the diversity of work teams in general and decision-making teams in particular. Diversity may lead to a variety of different consequences for decision-making teams.
2.9.1 Gender Diversity
Gender diversity in teams may indicate the extent to which team members form same gender relationships outside the team. Studies on social networks suggest that employees form relationships with each other based on their gender. In a study of male and female managers in an advertising firm, Ibarra (1995) found that men and women formed same gender networks that served both social and instrumental goals.
2.9.2 Ethnicity Diversity
Social identity and organisational demography suggests that people are preferred to interact with members of their own identity group rather than with members of other groups. Where white males tend to perform in higher positions, (Chow & Crawford, 2004) females and ethnic minorities tend to occupy more junior positions. Experiences of racism shared by women and members of different ethnic groups affect their attitudes and behaviours in the workplace.
2.9.3 Age Diversity
People within age groups share common experiences, attitudes and values (Lawrence, 1988), a person's age can act as an indication that triggers social categorization processes and promotes communication among group members.
Descriptions of workforce demographics usually emphasize the fact that the average age of the work force is increasing but the distribution of ages represented in the workforce is also changing. Following figure showing age distribution where non-white groups are younger:
White groups have an older age structure where the mixed group had the youngest age structure 50 percent were under the aged of 16. The Bangladeshi, other Black and Pakistani groups also had young age structures of 38 percent were aged 16. This was almost double the proportion of the White British group, where 20 percent were under the age of 16.
2.10 Managing Diversity is Different from Affirmative Action
Managing diversity focuses on maximizing the ability of all employees to contribute to organisational goals. Affirmative action focuses on specific groups because of historical discrimination, such as people of colour and women, (Kravitz & Klineberg, 2000). Affirmative action emphasizes legal necessity and social responsibility where managing diversity emphasizes business necessity. So it is much more inclusive and acknowledges that diversity must work for everyone.
Affirmative actions having the employer take actions in recruitment, hiring, promotions and compensation to eliminate the present effects of past discrimination. Affirmative action is still a significant workplace issue today. The incidence of major court-mandated affirmative action is down, but courts still use them. Furthermore, many employers must still engage in voluntary programs. For example, executive order 11246 (issued in 1965) requires federal contractors to take affirmative action to improve employment opportunities for groups such as women and racial minorities. EEO 11246 covers about 26 million workers about 22 percent of the US workforce, (Dessler 2008, p.63).
2.11 Organisational Context
Managerial approaches to diversity will inevitably be informed by the specific organisational context. Attracting different types of people to an organisation will be determined by people's perceptions of the industry in which the organisation operates. The image and reputation of the organisation as an employer will affect the types of people attracted to the organisation, (Markwick & Fill, 1997). The maternity and children specialist retailer who came 18th in the 2008 Sunday Times '20 Best Big Companies to Work For' list attribute their ranking to a number of factors to their employer brand. These include an emphasis on work-life balance, flexible working, better than average maternity pay and leave. These argue helps to attract and retain staff especially female employees, (Leopold & Harris, 2009).
If an organisation is able to employ a diverse workforce, the extent to which these individual differences are recognised in employment practices will be significantly affected by the size and structure of the organisation.
2.12 Diversity in Multinational Companies
As more and more organisations become global and people of different cultures and ethnic backgrounds work together, the need for multicultural understanding becoming obvious to many organisation. Harris et al. (2003, p.25) referred that a multinational team would be much stronger in communication which is vital aspect in business. Most of the multinational company gives priority to work with diversity people as a result they are success in international market. Ansari & Jackson (1995, p.12) described, multicultural teams led to more people from different culture and ethnic intermarrying. Globalisation and advances in communication and technology have reduced trade barriers and increased interaction among people. Companies and leaders who recognise the cultural diversity and find the right cultural mixture among the team can achieve comparative advantages.
To understand how diversity is managed in multinational company, in that case need to understand the concept of corporate culture which describe the organisational diversity programs and how to minimize conflict between employees.
2.13 Why Culture Counts
According to Mattock (1999) organisations have moved on from international to multinational to global. Multicultural teams have become very common in recent years. With cross border mobility becoming much easier the number of people moving from one country to another has grown significantly. As a manager need to successful interaction with others like sharing ideas, their needs and helping to improve performance, where need to consider cultural context.
A diverse multi cultural work place enables a company to handle diverse projects. Erlenkamp (2007, p.7) found, in the last decades many scientist tried to define intercultural difference to enhance the communication between different cultures. ‘The most important studies were conducted by Geert Hofstede, Edward Hall and Fons Trompenaars,' that shows the importance of multicultural workforce and HRM of many organisations do study these theories to implement it in their employee training.
2.14 Understanding Cross-Cultural Communication
Language issues can develop into a source of conflict and inequality within culturally diverse organisations becomes more and more multicultural, (Ansari & Jackson 1995). In the international business environment of today and tomorrow communication is a business necessity. The communication process contains five elements, the communicator, the message, the medium, the receiver and feedback. Business people from different cultures effectively and efficiently communicate in different skills, thinking and opinions with each other every business day. Those successful communications exhibit the following attributes (Ivancevice & Matteson 2002):
a) They have made it a point to familiarize themselves with significant cultural differences that might affect the communication process.
b) They make a conscious and concerted effort to put down away more culturally sensitive.
2.15 Key Theories of Culture
The most important key theories of culture were conducted by Geert Hofstede, Edward Hall and Fons Trompenaars (Erlenkamp 2007), which show the importance of multicultural workforce.
2.15.1 Hofstede and National Cultures
Hofstede theory can be defined as “the collective programming of the mind, which distinguishes the members of one group or category of people from another” (Bowe & Martin 2007, p.80). His theory is based on the assumption that countries can be compared with each other.
Hofstede (1997) describes the basic points of all cultural dimensions and score for 10 countries as follows:
1) Power-Distance Cultures - It shows with high and low power-distance cultures. High power-distance cultures encourage managers to be show and use power, e.g. Russia and China to follow figure: 1.3. And low power cultures put pressure on bosses to listen to subordinates, like Germany.
2) High and Low Uncertainty-Avoidance Orientation - High uncertainty-avoidance cultures try to reduce risks of something challenging the existing views of self or
3) Individual vs. Collective Orientation - Individualist cultures put more value on people thinking for themselves and taking action, USA. Collectivist focus strong family groups demand loyalty to the clean, like Indonesia.
4) Masculinity or femininity - Masculine cultures highlight winning, ambition and success through challenging and beating the competition, like Japan. Feminine cultures favour a natural balance to life and care and fairness for all and less aggressive, like Netherlands.
5) Long-Term Orientation - Cultures involving preserving status-based relationships and thrift, where environment, family and work are not separated.
2.15.2 Edward Hall Theory
Hall defines culture as a set of behavioural rules gained during the socialisation process which determine the way in which individuals perceive their environment and use verbal and non verbal communication, (Bluedorn 2002, p.51). He divides cultures into two types, according to its context and they are as followed:
1. High-context culture - Here context rather than content is of significance. Fewer legal documents are used in these cultures.
2. Low-context culture - With clear and explicit messages in which written words transmit most of the information. Legal documents are considered essential. Europe and the USA are examples of these cultures, (Hollensen 2007, p.220).
2.15.3 Fons Trompenaars Theory
Trompenaars (1994) is more concerned with the concept of culturally relative meaning at the individual level of analysis, afterwards defining seven dimensions of culture, which correspond well with national differences (Morrison, 2002). He identifies seven fundamental dimensions of culture, which are:
a) Universalism v particularism
b) Individualism v collectivism
c) Neutral v affective
d) Specific v diffuse
e) Achievement v ascription
f) Sequential v synchronous
g) Internal v external control
Mead (1998) believes relationships between people are focused in the first five dimensions, the sixth one is based on time orientation, and the final dimension is relation to nature.
The research of Hofstede and Trompenaars are focus on the diversity among national culture in the organisation, which is one best way of managing and organising people, (Schneider & Barsoux, 1997).
2.15.4 Compare and Contrast the Theories
Table below shows the common themes among the theories of the three researchers, Hofstede, Hall and Trompenaars. Each of the scholars has his own dimension for culture. There could be many comparison and contrast done between the theories, but only few will be mentioned here in brief.
Table 1: Compare and Contrast of Theories.
Culture, Organization and Strategy
Common themes across three Culture Models
Relationship with the environment
Source: Adapted from Steers & Nardon (2006, p.152).
This table shows that of the seven value dimensions of Trompenaars where two reflect closely to the Hofstede. Hall's Theory could assist managers to understand how members of different cultures develop business relationships. The theories of all these three researchers are being implemented by the HRM of organisations to have a better motivated and strong communicative workforce. So, the HRM could study and implement for building a stronger multi-cultural workforce for competitive advantage.
2.16 Managing Change
Today organisations are increasingly focusing on creating a high-performance culture to compete effectively in the knowledge-based and globalise business environment. According to French & Bell (1999, p.25) organisation development is a long-term effort, led by top management to improve an organisation's visioning, learning and problem-solving processes through organisation culture and change management. The effective management of change is a central and critical feature of organisation development.
Where organisational change is described as the intended rearrangement of the organisation's resources in order to show different characteristics and relate differently to its environment. Organisational development inevitably requires organisational culture change and change management where the strategic role that HR plays in organisational development and in achieving strategic objectives, (Mullins, 2005).
According to Crainer (1998, p.145) many managers refuse to accept the necessity of change. He suggests that the seven skills involved in managing change are:
a) Managing conflict
b) Interpersonal skills
c) Project management skills
d) Leadership and flexibility
e) Managing processes
f) Managing strategy and
g) Managing their own development.
The successful management of change is essential for competitiveness and continue performance. The organisational change system will influence people's attitudes, individuals and groups, and in that way the level of organisational performance.
2.17 Motivating Across Cultures
A global human resources manager needs to identify the needs of individual employees, within the context of the culture in which he or she is working. Recognise the personal priorities of the diverse individuals in the team and apply the appropriate motivational tools. Kreitner et al. (1999) suggest that motivation is a necessary contributor for job performance and also a combination of level of skill, where performance is ability and motivation level.
The level of motivation focuses on the three basic needs that occur in any workforce. These are:
1. Autonomy cultures tend to be motivated by desire to achieve.
2. Consensus cultures are usually motivated by the wish to gain affiliation.
3. Status cultures are often motivated by the desire for power.
To understand fully what motivates an individual, you must take personal circumstances into account and allow for cultural changes, (Armstrong, 2006).
2.18 Diversity Training
Managing diversity accepts that the workforce consists of a diverse population of people. Diversity training designed to change employee attitudes about diversity and develop skills needed to work with a diverse workforce. The effective organisational performance are demand an understanding of diversity and need to manage diversity in a manner that benefits of all members of staff. Diversity training will not be effective if recognised as a company initiative and part of the core value of the organisation (Mullins, 2007). To successfully manage a diverse workforce, companies need to ensure that:
a) Increasing the awareness and value of diversity.
b) Employees understand how their values influence toward others of different gender, ethnic and racial backgrounds.
c) The ability to communicate effectively with all members of staff.
d) Developing the skills of effective diversity management.
This can be accomplished through diversity training programs. Diversity training programs vary according to whether attitude or behaviour changes emphasized (Noe et al., 2003, p. 302).
The following chapter will provide the description and explanation about the research methodology applied in this dissertation, in order to meet the research objectives.
CHAPTER 3: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
This chapter will discuss the methodology used by the researcher in carrying out the research and will closely look at the different procedures and techniques used for this research. Research method presents the research philosophy, approach, design and sampling, data collection procedures and shows the right direction to achieve an outcome. Where the research strategy and the method will use for the data collection and analyse. After that, sample selection will describe the case company and respondents.
3.2 What is Research Methodology?
According to Creswell & Miller (1997) research methodology is a credence system or inquest pattern that provides a philosophical base or frame of reference for approaching research that complements a content area of inquiry. It is the overall approach to studying about topic and includes issues need to think about the constraints, analysis the principles of method and ethical choices within the research.
Methodology refers to more than a simple set of methods where the rational and the philosophical assumptions are motivating a particular study relative to the logical method, (Cohen et al. 2007).
Saunders et al. (2007) develops a conceptual ‘Research Onion' that provides the structure of research methodology. These research onions are as follows:
After realise the research onion, in this dissertation research methods will present the research philosophy, approach, design and sampling, a structured questionnaire is being used to data collection procedures and shows the right direction to achieve an outcome.
3.3 Research Philosophy
The research philosophy depends on the way a researcher thinks about the development of knowledge (Saunders et al. 2003) and there are different types of research philosophy different views the way in which knowledge is developed and being acceptable. This three are positivism, realism and interpretivism, have an important role in the process of management research.
The basic principle of positivism is that all realistic knowledge is based on the positive information gained from observable experience. Positivism involves producing general laws from the objective truth that can be used for prospective behaviour. Saunders et al. (2003) found that in positivism, researcher adopts philosophical attitude while working with observable social reality, where he developed a theory from observation. According to Bryman & Bell (2003, p.14) positivism is an epistemological position that advocates the application of the methods of the natural sciences to the study of social reality and beyond. So it is good to develop general idea but always need to be refined by proper critical analytical approach.
Realism shares two features with positivism that can principle of natural and social and should apply the same kinds of approach to the collection of data and to explanation, and a commitment to the view that there is an external reality attention Bryman & Bell (2003). Where Saunders et al. (2003) states that, realism depends which is free of human opinions and beliefs. Realism recognises the importance of the fact that understands overall social influences, the nature of people's visions and behaviours.
Here the researcher tries to find out how the social reality things appear to people, where the reality is relative to situation, time, location, culture and value of a society, experience of an individual, (Fisher, 2004).
It is more subjective because the reality is socially constructed. In repeatedly changing situations and vastly competitive environment, the ways should always be there to experiment new things.
The comparison between these three philosophies is summarized given below in Table 2.
Table 2: Comparison between three Philosophies.
Objective truth analysis
Socially constructed environment analysis
Subjective truth analysis
Value free data collection
People's accounts motives and intentions
Law link generalization
Social influences recognised
Complex and dynamic
Source: Adapted from Saunders et al. (2003).
In this study, the researcher followed the philosophical stance of interpretivism in the research because interpretivism is based on qualitative approach which is more subjective rather than quantitative approach. It focuses on analysing and reflecting on the intangible aspects of research subject such as values, attitudes, perception, emotion and feeling which is related with diversity.
3.4 Research Approach
Research approach is consists of two options that deductive and inductive. Saunders et al. (2007) In the research should use the deductive approach, in which way develop a theory or hypotheses and design a research strategy to test the hypothesis or the inductive approach, in which way collect data and develop theory as a result of data analysis.
3.4.1 Deductive Research
This is the scientific way of research. It involves the development of a theory that is subjected to an accurate test. It is the dominant research approach in the natural sciences, where laws present the basis of explanation (Collis & Hussey, 2003). Deduction processes have several important characteristics. These processes are represents the commonest view of the nature of the relationship between theory and research, the deductive processes are as follows:
Hypotheses confirmed or rejected
The deductive processes are the search to explain causal relationships between variables. It may be establish the reasons for high employee absenteeism in a retail store. So, consequently develop a theory or hypotheses and to test this hypothesis need to utilise the data collection, (Bryman & Bell, 2003).
3.4.2 Inductive Research
Research using an inductive approach is likely to be concerned with the context in which events were taking place. Therefore the study of a small sample of subjects might be more appropriate than a large number as with the deductive approach. In this approach researcher are more likely to work with qualitative data and to use a variety of methods to collect these data, (Easterby-Smith et al., 2002).
Inductive approach of research emphases on critical study of problem and tries to find out the alternative set of variables that relate to the problem. It is gaining an understanding of the meanings humans attach to events and more flexible structure to permit changes of research emphasis as the research progresses. Inductive research can be much more protracted. Data collection is based on a much longer period and analysis has to emerge gradually, (Saunders et al., 2007).
3.5 Research Design
The research purpose is most often used in the research methods into mainly three types: exploratory, descriptive and explanatory research.
3.5.1 Exploratory Research
According to Robson (2002, p.59) an exploratory research is a valuable means of finding out; what is happening, to seek new insights, to ask questions and to assess phenomena in a new light. It is particularly useful if clarify the problem. Saunders et al., (2007) described that exploratory research can be linked to the activities of the explorer and great advantage is that it is flexible to change the direction as a result of new data. Typical techniques used in exploratory research include case studies, observation and historical analysis, which often does not provide any conclusive answers but gives guidance for future research.
According to Saunders et al. (2003) exploratory research is suitable for new studies and useful for clarifying understanding of the findings of the research question. Where the researcher are adapted this research and clarify the understanding about the diversity issue; and enable to compare and contrast the findings from the literature review.
3.5.2 Descriptive Research
Robson (2002) defined the main objective of descriptive research is to depict an exact profile of a situation, incident or a person. This may be an extension of a piece of exploratory research. It is necessary to have a clear image of the phenomena on which one desire to gather data before the collection of data. Sometimes this research is known as archival analysis, are intended for answering the questions e.g. who, where, how many and how much. Descriptive research design is beneficial when the research goal is to describe the incidence of a phenomenon. It tends to favor survey strategies or the use of archival records, (Yin, 2003).
3.5.3 Explanatory Research
Explanatory research that establish is causal relationships between variables. It deals with studying or investigating a situation or a problem in its entirety that connection between two or more variables involved. In this research can use the data to statistical tests such as correlation in order to get a clear view of the relationship and this often used when one is interested in having insights into a certain problem, (Saunders et al., 2007).
3.6 Research Technique
The various techniques are used in the research but it can be eminent between two main categories, which are: 1) Quantitative research and 2) Qualitative research.
3.6.1 Quantitative Research
Quantitative research is focuses on gathering numerical data and generalising it across groups of people. It is more objective and scientific than qualitative data. It involves the implication that what is being researched can be quantified and measured, (Lancaster, 2005). Where Ghosh & Chopra (2003) described that quantitative research is number-based or can be expressed numerically as well as classified by some numerical value. Where in this data collection method is use well structured questionnaire.
3.6.2 Qualitative Research
According to Lancaster (2005) qualitative research is common in social and behavioural sciences and who want to understand human behaviour and functions. It is more subjective and involves information that cannot be numerically analysed; for example- social sciences. That is to say, the reality is relative to time, situation, location, culture and value of a society. Where, the purpose of research is aimed to understand the human nature and behaviour.
The researcher is used qualitative technique in this research because this technique provides useful methods for exploring and examining organisational procedures such as diversity. Qualitative research to data collection and analysis can give the flexibility required for attaining an in-depth understanding of individual employee experiences of working with different culture people and relationship.
3.7 Methods of Data Collection
Data collection method is an important stage of the research and must be well planned. In order to plan and organise data collection thoroughly of the various types of data depending on different approaches, methods and techniques of data collection is considerably required. In this research data comes in various forms, which can be secondary data for literature review and primary data from questionnaire, in-depth interview and main sampling conducting the qualitative research.
3.7.1 Secondary Data
Saunders et al., (2007, p.246) state that secondary data means the data that already exists because it has been collected previously by other researchers for some other purposes. It includes both raw data and published summaries. Most of the company collect internal and external records like payroll details, copies of latter, meetings, daily newspapers article, journals, internet, and official statistics and companies share prices. Secondary data will be collected from relevant books, library sources, journals, magazines, newspaper articles, company's data and the internet which will be used in literature review. It has some advantages which are time and cost is saving. Secondary data include of both quantitative and qualitative data and can be used in both explanatory and descriptive research.
3.7.2 Primary Data
According to Aaker et al. (1997) primary data is collected for the first time for the research. Primary data gathering is required when the researcher is not able to find the statistics which related with in the secondary sources. So primary data means the data that is able to be collected by the researchers themselves through a variety of data collection methods and techniques (Lancaster, 2005), which is questionnaire, in-depth interview and main sampling.
Questionnaire is widely used and valuable means of data collection. It facilitates the collection of data. Questionnaire can be divided into self-administered and interview-administered. The questionnaire used in this research is the combination of closed ended and open ended questions. Closed ended questionnaire will be given to the particular focus group in order to collect data. These kinds of questions are easy to put into a table or chart and analysis, (Saunders et al., 2007).
In this research the questionnaire was deeply to do the research more effective and efficient, and copies of the questionnaires are included in the Appendix. The questionnaire survey was conducted among the employees and the branch manager of Tesco Metro (Whitton, Branch) London outlet.
126.96.36.199 In-depth Interview
Respondent will be taken interview for a protracted period in order to explore topics, issue and responses in some depth. The interview will be structured instead of semi-structured (Saunders et al., 2007). Semi-structured or focused interviews are often used in case study research; in that case the researcher schedules interviews with people who passes relevant information on the case issues and follows particular structures in order to collect information. The researcher observes or records the behaviour of the people in the social setting and may collect additional evidence through formal or informal interviews.
188.8.131.52 Main Sampling
A sample is a small proportion of the population. Main sample of this study will be managerial level and employees from selected organisation Tesco Metro (Whitton, Branch) London outlet; where working with colleagues made it easier to access the data.
Sampling is a survey-based research where researcher needs to analysis the sample about population to answer the research questions and meet the research objectives, (Saunders et al., 2007). Probability sampling and non probability sampling will help the study to evaluate and improve the research works which reflects clarity and easily understandable to the respondent. Probability sampling refers to the probability of choosing respondents within the total population. Whereas non probability sampling denotes that there is no probability that the respondent will be selected within the total population. And non-probability sampling is more frequently used for case study research, (Bryman & Bell, 2003).
3.8 Ethical Statement
The ethical issues are arising in relations between researchers and research participants in the course of an investigation. This focus by no means exhausts the range of ethical issues and dilemmas that arise in relation to the funding of business research or how findings are used by non-researchers. Ethical standards also require that researchers not put participants in a situation where they might be at risk of harm as a result of their participation, (Bryman & Bell, 2003).
In this research, the participants will take part voluntarily and are informed of the research aim and objectives. All personal details of participants will be kept in privacy being be stored separately from the findings and will not be disclosed within the dissertation. The recording permission will be asked for in advance, supportive participants in focus groups that their identities remain safe. The research is not for commercial use.
3.9 Research Reliability and Validity
According to Bryman & Bell (2003, p.14) reliability is concerned with the question of whether the results of a study are repeatable. The term is commonly used in relation to the question of whether the measures that are devised for concepts in business and management are consistent. Which data collection techniques will give consistent findings, related observations would be made by other researchers and how sense was made from the raw data. Saunders et al., (2007) validity is the extent to which data collection methods accurately measure what were intended to measure. Yin (2003, p.57) stated that there is three different strategies to increase construct validity. The first is the use of multiple sources of evidence during the data collection. The second is to establish a chain of evidence. And the third is to have draft experimental data reviewed by key information. So during the data collection, researcher has conducted an interview to use documents. In that case to create strong chains of evidence researcher has made citations to all the sources where evidence has been collected. At last, researcher's supervisor has check and improved the drafts as well as the interview and survey questionnaires before conducted the interview. Researcher has followed a structured approach in which every chapter, from introduction to conclusion is easy to read and reliable to use in future research.
The following chapter will provide the research findings, the interpretation of the findings and the literature reviewed previously. The dissertation then ends with a conclusion in the last chapter.
CHAPTER 4: DATA ANALYSIS AND FINDINGS
This chapter contains the analysis and findings of the collected data. This part of dissertation informed the research findings quantitatively with the help of constructed research model and research hypotheses. This chapter to examine and related with the secondary and primary data was collected. The ideas and views are discussed in the findings which related with the literature review. And in primary data collection has been used interview and questionnaire to get the opinion of Tesco's management and employees, and analysis the data to provide a productive meaning of the research findings.
4.2 Data Analysis
The data has been analysed on the basis of research questionnaire and the data processed with the help of computer research software named SPSS (Statistical Package of Social Sciences) or a spreadsheet package. For the data collection has been used questionnaire to get the opinion in the company of Tesco Metro's (Whitton) branch outlet the managers and the employees, (Questionnaires are in Appendix - 1). In order to describe the results, each question has been discussed and drawn separately through cross-tabulate. The questionnaire was a combination of open-ended and close-ended but most of them were close-ended questions. The sample size has been selected to 10 managers and 50 employees from Whitton branch.
4.2.1 Presentation of Findings
184.108.40.206 Member of Response from Total Management and Staff
The data presented in percentage above figure from the total number of management level. The questionnaire has been selected from total number as ten managers but one manager did not reply due to being on holidays. So the participant rate was 90% and the non participant was 10% from the management level.
The percentage of staff participant from the total number of staff in that branch. The questionnaire has been selected from 50 staff but ten staff did not reply because some were hesitant to fill the questionnaire and few of them were on yearly holidays. This provided an 80% participant rate.
Question 1: Nationality?
The data presented in this figure show that 56% (five) were from white British, 22% (two) from European Union and 22% (two) from Asia. This percentage rate shows, from management 56% are White British where there are good to manage people and rules than other ethnic groups. The effective management of people takes place from White British in the context of the changing patterns of organisation and attitudes to work.
From the staff above figure shows that 18% (seven) from White British, 20% (eight) from European Union, 8% (three) from Africa, 49% (twenty) from Asia, 5% (two) from Mixed nationality, and the rest of Irish British and other ethnic groups was nil. This figure are referred the highest number of staff was Asian. The store branch was located in Whitton, London where are living most of the Asian people. Asian ethnic group work hard but find it a little bit difficult to control people.
Question 2: Gender?
From the above data it is found that from management male participants were 67% (six) and female participants were 33% (three). So in the management level number of male is more than female.
The presented data shows that 57% were male and 43% female from the total number of participant 40. In this figure, male and female percentage rate is near to close, where management level percentage rate was small different.
Question 3: Age Group?
The data presented in above figure shows that, 67% (six) were between 35 to 44 years of age, 22% (two) was between 25 to 34 years of age and 11% (one) was between 45 to 54 years age. The majority of managers were between 35 to 44 years of age.
In this figure the data presented that, 49% (twenty) were between 18 to 24 years age group, 30% (twelve) between 25 to 34 years age group, 13% (five) between 35 to 44 years age group and 8% (three) between 45 to 54 years. Most of the staff was between 18 to 24 years, in that reason these age group people can work hard.
Question 4: Job Title?
In this figure shows, the number of job title from the total number of management and staff participants. The management level was 90% (nine) out of total number 10 participant and the staff participant was 80% (forty) out of total number 50.
Question 5: Tesco give priority based on gender - Do you agree?
The data presented that 78% (seven) manager was disagree with the question and 22% (two) manager was strongly disagree. Most of the manager's response that they do not give priority based on gender and two managers was st
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