Report on Market Study of Berger Paints Bangladesh Limited

1.1 Problem Background

Bangladesh paint market is experiencing a good growth of 8-10% per annum consistently in the late 90s and early years of this century mainly because of a boom in real estate development[1]. Besides, this trend in growth of demand is likely to persist or may even witness an upswing in the future as the country moves from rural base to urban base project (Real estate). There is a huge possibility that paint industry will further thrive because only 39% of the target market are currently using paint and others are progressing to get into the trend of using paint instead of the traditional way of whitening their dear houses. According to the cement manufacturers of Bangladesh, the cement market is also growing at around 4% p.a., which correlates quite well with our paint market growth data. The limited growth up to now in industrialization and per capita income in Bangladesh has restricted the size of the paint market, which is currently at around Tk.755-800 crores (1.5-1.6 crores gallons)[2]. However a good number of local paint manufacturing companies (40 organized and at least 50 more in the informal sector) have been operating in this small market. Quite a few of these companies are producing paints of internationally acceptable quality and very importantly, the installed single shift production capacity of the local paint companies is double the present local market demand.

Berger, the market leader in the Bangladesh paint market, is one of the oldest names in the global paint industry. It has its origin in the year of 1706 and from then on the company is operating with strong adherence to quality and social responsibility. Initially, Lewis Berger, a German national, founded dye & pigment making business in England. Lewis Berger & Sons Limited grew rapidly

with a strong reputation for innovation and entrepreneurship culminating in perfecting the process of making Prussian Blue, a deep blue dye, a color widely used for many European armies' uniform. Production of dyes & pigments evolved into production of paints & coatings, which till today, remains the core business of Berger. Today, Berger offers all kinds of painting solutions in decorative, industrial or marine segment for both decorative and protective purpose.

Based on the secondary literature survey, expert's opinions and consumers' requirements, the broad and the specific Objectives of the research have been set-“Market Study of Paint Industry in Bangladesh”. This objective can be met by following the study methodology described in the forthcoming chapter.

1. 2 Origin of the Study

As a partial requirement for the completion of the MBA program, internship program is a vital part which opens the door to gather the practical knowledge in relation with the theoretical knowledge.

MBA program at University of Dhaka requires a 3 months long internship program. As an intern, I was placed in Unitrend Limited- Affiliated with McCann Worldwide. I worked for 3 months in the Unitrend Limited (Brand Division), under the supervision of Jahidul Islam, Senior Brand Executive of Unitrend Limited. As an intern of the department I was asked to assist the Brand section (Berger pints Bangladesh Limited). After consultation with my supervisor, my faculty advisor at University of Dhaka, Dr. Serajul Hoque (Professor, Department of Marketing), I decided to explore “Market Study of Berger Paints Bangladesh limited (BPBL)”.

1. 3 Objectives

Based on the secondary literature survey, expert's opinions and consumers' requirements, the broad and the specific Objectives of the research have been set.

1.3.1 Broad Objective

Market Study of Berger Paints Bangladesh Limited (BPBL).

1.3.2 Specific Objectives

i. To analyze market trends & market shares of BPBL

ii. To Analyze competitor behavior and performance

iii. To determine current satisfaction level of BPBL

iv. To find out whether current products of Berger Paints Bangladesh Limited meet consumer expectations or not.

v. To identify the reference group (Painters, Architectures,) influence of the customers in choosing specific brand.

vi. To find out the market potential for existing products (e.g. market size, growth, changing sales trends)

vii. To Assess the potential for new products that are not provided by the current paint manufacturers ( in term of New product Development)

viii. To forecast new user for existing products

1.4 Approaches to the Problem

1.4.1 Theoretical Framework

A pull demand is created when demand is created in the market and is the most beneficial. To implement such a strategy we have to first assess the needs of the market, judging the perception of customers and contractors and finding out new locations and convert them into new dealers so that there is more availability of the product in the market.Assessing competitor market and developing a strategy to kill or overcome competition is the second part of the report. Opening new dealers in the market will take care of this. Expanding the dealer network helps in market penetration.All the effort will be a waste if there is no demand from the end consumer of goods. Painters, contractors, advertisements, friends and family influence the end customer. So the end customer generates the main demand and Berger Paints must analyze customer satisfaction over time.

A Job Satisfaction Data Form

How did you know regarding the services being rendered by Home Decor?

TV………Press……..Friends ………. Word of Mouth …………Others………...

We would like to have your comments on the following job details
1. Shade:

Very Satisfied ………. Satisfied …….. Not Satisfied…..…

2. Design:

Very Satisfied ………. Satisfied …….. Not Satisfied …….

3. Workmanship of Painters:

Excellent ………… Good…………. Average……….. Poor……….
4. Service by Color Consultants:

Excellent ………… Good…………. Average……….. Poor……….

5.Overall Service by Home Decor:

Excellent…………. Good…………. Average…………Poor……….
6. Will you refer Home Decor to anybody in near future? Yes…………. No …………..
7. Completion done according to the time schedule:

Yes…………. No …………..

1.4.2 Analytical Model:

1.4.3 Research Questions & Hypotheses:

A structured questionnaire has been used to collect data. Multiple choice questions and dichotomous questions have been used to develop structured questionnaire.

H0: There is no association between customer satisfaction (DV) and factors influencing customer satisfaction (IV).

H1: There is an association between customer satisfaction (DV) and factors influencing customer satisfaction (IV).

1.5 Problem Definition

Management Decision Problem 1. Is the Current satisfaction level of Berger Pints Bangladesh Limited satisfactory?

Marketing Research Problem 1. To determine the factors those affect the customer satisfaction level of Berger Paints Bangladesh Limited.

1.6 Problem Variables

1. Dependent Variable

To determine customer satisfaction level of Berger Paints Bangladesh limited.

2. Independent Variables

1. Price

2. Availability

3. Variation in paint

4. Variation in Shade

5. Attractive Packet

6. Packet Size

7. Longibility

8. Discoloration

9. Swelling

10. Powdering

Thinner Requirement

1.7 Research Timeline:


Time (Week)









Preliminary Preparation

Selection & Training of Fieldwork

Data Collection

Data Analysis

Draft Report Preparation

Rerport Presentation

Final Report Preparation

1.8 Limitations

The study aims to explore & analyze market study of Berger Paints Bangladesh Limited and find out if there is any scope for its improvement. In doing so, I have encountered the following problems:

* The Large sample size could detect the problems more accurately.

* I was unable to dedicate sufficient time to make an in-depth on such an important issue. It is quite difficult to write about an organization within 3(three) months.

* Heavy workload at office was one of the main barriers of this study and additional time for doing the survey could hardly be extracted.

· Another limitation of this report is Enterprise's policy of not disclosing some data and information for obvious reason.

2.0: Literature Review

The annual report of some of the leading paint companies of Bangladesh including Berger Bangladesh Ltd., Asian Paints Ltd., Elite Paints, Sagor Chemicals Company Bangladesh Ltd., etc. were studied along with whatever reports that were available. However, a good number of them were back dated and were of little use in view of the fast changing market position. Apart from the literature so far consulted, the initial phase of the methodology began with the review of relevant literature on the issues indicated under the “Top-down” and “Bottom-up” approaches as well as aspects under “Projection”, assimilation of relevant data available in the secondary sources, and then conducting a desk research.

2.1 Literature in the official website of Berger Paints Bangladesh Ltd

With a view to bolstering consumer satisfaction, Berger Paints Bangladesh Limited has introduced “Berger Home Décor” on June 15, 2002 through which one can get an array of services pertaining to painting. Berger Home Decor offers two-stage services:

1. Free Service

2. Paid Service

Berger Home Décor is currently offering wide range of services to its prospects and existing consumers embracing: Technical advice on surface preparation and application guideline.

· Paint selection.
· Dealer selection.
· Painter/ Contractor selection and
· Color scheme.

2.1.1 Literature on the Fundamentals of Berger India Illusions which formed a basis for BPBL Illusions

….…Report on BPIL Attachment on Illusions

Syed Tanzim Rezwan, Assistant Product Manager, BPBL

· What is Illusions?

An illusion is basically mentioned as ‘Designers' solution/finish'. It is more related to the application procedure than product. Regular products are applied with some specialized tools and in some cases with some specialized chemicals to get the desired design. As it is more related to the application procedure, Illusions is offered as a full painting solution rather than a product and that is why it is more like offering a service than a product.

· Objectives of launching Illusions

The objectives are:

- Enhancing the brand image of Berger

- Value addition to the existing painting service

· Area of usage

Illusions is basically a design finish. So it is more appropriate for the interior walls. Plastered walls or wooden surfaces are the preferred surfaces for Illusions use. One has to remember however, that Illusions is more like a designer finish than a protective one. So areas with exposure to high heat or water are not prescribed for Illusions use.

· Distribution Strategy - The way Illusions is offered:

Berger India is using their Home Décor facilities to offer Illusions in different cities. Their basic idea is to offer the painting solution through the existing panel of painters they have for different cities.

2.1.2 Literature on the Illusions Procedure

as a service flow, developed in Berger India and which formed a basis for the service flow of Illusions in BPBL with some modifications; literature on client generation for Illusions through promotions by Berger India

Modus Operandi - Satellite Operations: BPHD/Illusions

Berger India

Illusions procedure as according to Berger India:

§ On receipt of enquiry the Customer Support Manager will visit the site and complete finalization of the design/area of application/shades and fill into the job estimate page of the customer fact file

§ The final estimate from the customer fact file is to be filled in and given to the customer.

§ On customer agreeing to the job, 100% collection by means of a single current dated cheque is to be taken from the customer and a painting schedule has to be developed for the job. The cheque details and the painting schedule have to be filled into the customer fact file in relevant pages.

§ On realization of the cheque, the materials for the job may be purchased from the dealer as deposited by the depot manager. Material will be issued by the dealer only against the order. Dealer on delivery of the material to the site has then to raise a bill on Berger Paints Home Décor for the material supplied and submit it along with a copy of the Material Requisitions form.

§ Tools required for the job are to be signed out to the painter who has been allocated the job.

§ A ‘Before' photograph is to be taken of the site and on completion of the job. An ‘After' photograph is also to be taken for each of the areas where Illusions designs has been applied.

§ On completion of the job, the completion certificate has to be signed by the customer and following this, the warranty certificate has to be handed over to the customer along with a ‘Friendship ka faida' reference booklet.

Lead Generation:

All of the below mentioned modes of promoting Illusions will be followed in varying mixes depenmding on the efficiency of the individual methods.

§ Referrals: 10% of the job value will be paid to the referring party as referral commission

- Dealer

- Contractor

- Architect

- Interior Decorator

2.2 Literature on Asian Paints entering Bangladesh paint market

-Asian Paints starts operations in Bangladesh

04 September 2002

Asian Paints, India's largest paint company, has begun its operations in Bangladesh. The entry into Bangladesh marks Asian Paints 11th joint venture in international markets and its largest green-field venture in overseas markets.

The inauguration of the operations of Asian Paints (Bangladesh) Ltd was done by Bangladesh Minister of Industries M K Anwar and Asian Paints (India) Ltd vice-chairman and managing director Ashwin Dani. M Rahman, executive chairman, Board of Investment, Bangladesh, and M L Tripathi, High Commissioner of India to Bangladesh, were the other distinguished dignitaries at the inauguration.

Said Dani: "The opportunities that the Bangladesh market provides for Asian Paints are immense. The experience that we have gained from operating in three out of six countries in the SAARC [South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation] region has armed us with excellent expertise to operate in this region. We would like to provide value for money and the complete range of products for the Bangladeshi consumer".

He further said that low per-capita consumption of paints, vast potential to upgrade the market, limited product range, increased urbanisation and consistent GDP growth of around 5-6 per cent have been some of the reasons for Asian Paints entering into this market. Moreover, this venture will help the company consolidate its position in the SAARC region.

Asian Paints (Bangladesh) Ltd is a joint venture between Asian Paints (India) Ltd, India's largest paint company, and Confidence Cement Ltd, one of the largest cement producers in Bangladesh. Asian Paints will hold 51 per cent stake in the company, while 49 per cent will be held by Confidence Cement. A fully-integrated paint manufacturing unit has been set up and is situated in the Ghazipur district, north of Dhaka, which will service the entire Bangladesh paint market.

Asian Paints will introduce the Apcolite range of products, which is its premium quality range in international markets, and the Decora range, which is its international brand for economy products. Under the Apcolite and Decora brands, many product segments will be covered in the initial phase.

Asian Paints will enter into segments like interior wall finishes, the exterior segment, enamels and the wood finish segment through the above-mentioned brand names. The company will immediately introduce the concept of multiple shade choice to the Bangladeshi consumer in most of its emulsion paints. The launch of multiple shades in its Apcolite range of emulsions will provide to the Bangladesh consumer, for the first time, a wide choice of colors that was not previously offered by any paint company.

The total Bangladesh paint market is estimated to be over 30,000 MT, valued at around INR 2200 million (US $45 million). The market is growing by around 5-7 per cent. The GDP growth for the country has been consistently around 5 per cent and the per-capita paint consumption is around 250 gms. The market, thus, provides high potential for growth as well as an opportunity for paint manufacturers to upgrade and expand the market.

2.3 Literature on Aqua Paints Architects Awards

-Four to receive Ice Today Aqua Paints Award Shawkat Marcel Khan

Four interior designers will be awarded the Ice Today-Aqua Paints Award 2007 for their works on interior design. The names of the winners will be announced during the award-giving ceremony which will be held at the Radisson Water Garden Hotel in the city on July 14.

The award will be given for innovation, creativity and outstanding achievements in interior design in Bangladesh, said the organizers at a briefing, held at a city hotel on Thursday. ‘The grand prize will not be given as the jury comprising Mustafa Ameen, Nahas Ahmed Khalil and Kazi Golam Nasir did not find any design suitable for the award, said the executive editor of the monthly magazine Ice Today, Ziaul Karim.‘Each winner will receive the Commendation Award valued at Tk 25,000, a crest and a Nokia set, he added. A total of 27 designs were submitted in ‘Residential and Non Residential' categories. The jury short-listed the entries to eleven designs in the first phase. Then, they visited each sites and narrowed down to four designs taking three from Non Residential category.

2.4 Literature on Home Décor Coverage and Painters

In total there are Home Décor outlets in Bangladesh in total. However, apart from the specific regions where these outlets are situated, consultants and painters also travel to nearby areas and thus affectively cover a wider area as shown in Fig 2.2.

The following tables and s are information gathered and organized by BPBL:

Table 2.1: Painters and Contractors of Home Décor in Bangladesh

























National Total



The following tables and s are information gathered and organized by BPBL:

3.0: Methodology

The methodology upon which the team undertook the assignment comprises of top-down and bottom-up approaches effected by literature review, secondary data analysis and desk research, and by conducting surveys, which after consultation with the experts yielded a pragmatic Market Analysis preceded by an overall industry situation, competitor analysis and customer analysis.

3.1 Nature of Research and Sources of Information

The conclusive research design adopted is descriptive in nature. The sources of data were both primary and secondary. It involved collection of data about the characteristics of the paint market, competitors and different supply chain members. Secondary information was gathered from websites, newspaper articles, journals and annual reports of different paint companies. The design of collecting primary data from customers (end users) follows the following section.

3.2 Sample Design

The sample design consists of defining the target population, determination of sample size and sampling method.

3.2.1 Target Population

To collect data from customers (users) the target population is defined to be the households of Bangladesh. The country was considered to be composed of three economic zones (High, Medium and Low) on the basis of economic activities as follows:

Zone 1: (High) : Dhaka, Chittagong and Sylhet Divisions

Zone 2: (Medium) : Barisal and Khulna Divisions

Zone 3: (Low) : Rajshahi Division.

[Source: Statistical year book of Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics, 2007]

As the use of paint is very much related with rate of urbanization, the divisional cities of Zone 1 were selected. However, another divisional city was selected randomly from the Zone 2 to make the sample more representative to the entire population and it turned to be Khulna city. The sole division of Zone 3 could be taken into consideration too, but after consultation with the experts, it was omitted from the sampling plan for better utilization of the resources available to the Research Team.

3.2.2 Sample Size

For determination of sample size, the Research Team tried to adopt various sampling techniques. But as the ratio of house owners (who are the end users of paint) is too small to the entire population of Bangladesh, the sample size becomes very small. So, after discussion with experts and the appointing authority, the sample size per city is determined to be 100. So the total sample size of this study is 400 (100X4). The distribution of the samples are furnished in table 3.1.

Table 3.1: Sample distribution






End users






























3.2.3 Sampling Method

Systematic sampling method was adopted for selecting samples. Households were considered sampling units and owner of the household was considered sampling elements. The holding list of City Corporation was used as the sampling frame. The frame was divided by the number of samples required to determine the sampling intervals. Then the first sample was selected from the first sampling interval following simple random sampling and then the rest of the samples were selected from subsequent sampling intervals as usual. If a household was found ineligible then the next adjacent household was considered the sampling unit.

For conducting the surveys on the channel members, samples were selected based on judgment. The fieldwork was carried out during the period of May 28 to June 10, 2009.

3.3 Instrument and Scale for Data Collection

Structured Questionnaire was used as the instrument of data collection. Five sets of questionnaire were used for customers, dealers, retailers, painters and developers respectively (Provided in the Appendix Section). Questions set in the questionnaire were worded with simplest form possible. Rank order scale and 5 point Likert scale were used in these questionnaires. In each questionnaire, at least one question was set as an open ended question to reveal the thoughts of the respondents regarding paint industry of Bangladesh.

After preparation of the questionnaires, they were pretested using a small size of sample taken from Dhaka city. The reliability of the questionnaires was judged from the result of pretest. Coefficient alpha was used as a measure of internal consistency check for the questionnaires.

3.4 Field Survey

Field Survey procedure was used to collect data from the primary source. The bases covered include customers (end users), dealers, retailers, painters and architect/developers. Furthermore, a panel of experts was consulted including experts in Chemical Engineering, Civil Engineering, Architecture, Marketing, Economics and Supply Chain Management. A brief list of the expert pool is provided in the appendix A.

The purpose, information coverage and other requirements of the study were further reviewed and finalized after consultation by the Research Team with the Unitrend management. Obviously the study was national in nature and the sample size was large enough to be representative of different segments. The steps involved in conducting survey were including sampling design process, questionnaire preparation, fieldwork, and data preparation and analysis.

3.5 Fieldwork and Supervision

The fieldworkers were trained thoroughly for carrying out the surveys effectively. The training included as to how to select respondents, introduce themselves to the respondents, ask questions, provide reinforcements to the respondents, record the responses etc. Fieldworkers were students of Department of Marketing from the Faculty of Business Studies of University of Dhaka. A member of the Research Team supervised the fieldwork. He monitored the activities of the investigators very closely, provided them support and motivation, and in some cases, took part in the field investigation.

4.1 Berger Paints Bangladesh Limited: An Overview

Berger, the market leader in the Bangladesh paint market, is one of the oldest names in the global paint industry. It has its origin in the year of 1706 and from then on the company is operating with strong adherence to quality and social responsibility.

Initially, Lewis Berger, a German national, founded dye & pigment making business in England. Lewis Berger & Sons Limited grew rapidly with a strong reputation for innovation and entrepreneurship culminating in perfecting the process of making Prussian Blue, a deep blue dye, a color widely used for many European armies' uniform. Production of dyes & pigments evolved into production of paints & coatings, which till today, remains the core business of Berger.

Berger Paints started its sailing into the sea of Bangladesh from pre-liberation era, to be precise in 1950. In Bangladesh the major milestones of Berger Paints are given below:

1950 - Started operation in Bangladesh by importing Paint from Berger UK

1970 - Establishment of Chittagong Factory

1980 - Named as Berger Paints (BD) Ltd. from Jenson & Nicholson (J&N)

1991 - BMRE in Chittagong Factory

1995 - Establishment of Double Tight Can Manufacturing Plant

1999 - Establishment of Most Modern Sate-of-the-Art Paint Production Plant 2002 - Construction of own building for the Corporate Office in Dhaka

2004 - Establishment of Powder Coating Plant

* Owns Corporate Office located in Dhaka

* 2 Factories at Dhaka and Chittagong

* 7 strategically located Sales Offices throughout the whole country.

* A wide distribution channel reaches the whole country with a network of more than 1500 dealers

4.2 Vision and Mission of BPBL

Berger emphasize highly on the ethical commitment to produce benchmark quality product.

4.2.1 Vision

“We shall remain as the benchmark in the Paint industry by being an innovative and technology driven Company consistently delivering world-class products ensuring best consumer satisfaction through continuous value added services provided by highly professional and committed team.”

4.2.2 Mission

“We shall increase our turnover by 100% in the next five years.

We shall remain socially committed ethical Company.”

4.3 Area of Operation

Berger Paints operates in three broad segments of the paint industry.

4.3.1 Decorative Paint

* The objective is to beautify the surfaces with protection from corrosion and erosion

* This business category mainly targets household segment offered to the consumers through a dealer network constituting major revenue earning business area of BPBL.

* Products fulfill the aesthetic value of the consumers.

4.3.2 Industrial

* Tailor made products to cater to the specific needs of customers.

* Products give protection to the surfaces in extreme situations like severe hazardous environment, high temperature, movement of heavy materials and machinery etc.

* Direct marketing approach is being used to promote the Industrial Coatings

* Main customer groups: Garments Factories, Chemical Plants, Fertilizer Manufacturing Plants, Consumer Durable Manufacturing Plants etc.

4.3.3 Marine

* Products are being offered mainly through direct marketing approach.

* Dock Yards, Bangladesh Navy, Passenger Ships are the main user groups.

* Market is mostly concentrated in Dhaka and Chittagong.

4.4 Manpower Structure

It is consisted of more than 300 employees of whom about 160 are general workers and the rest are White Collar employees. These employees are working in different factories and depots of the company. The positional hierarchy of the company is as follows:

1. Managing Director

2. Director

3. General Manager (Executive -1)

4. Executive -2

5. Senior Manager

6. Manager

7. Assistant Manager

8. Officer (i, ii, iii, iv) / Management Trainee

4.5 SWOT Analysis

The SWOT Analysis of Berger Paints is presented below:


* Corporate image as pioneer in paint industry and one of the leading paint companies of the world

* Wide distribution network

* Rich experience on Bangladesh Paint Market

* Presence in all major segments of the market

* Strong financial base


* Insignificant presence in the international satellite channels

* Perceived as premium priced company at semi-urban and rural market

* Higher dependence on large dealers

* Consumers' knowledge gap about paints & painting system


* Growing market

* Utilization of positive corporate

* image for corporate diversification

* To popularize economy products at remote market


* Fierce competition in the Bangladesh market

* Credit-driven market

* Strong command of few dealers in the market through sub-dealer

* Unethical and corrupt practices by the local companies

* Low priced imported products are entering due to trade liberalization

5.1 Existing Situation

The paint market of Bangladesh comprises primarily with urban consumers as the rate of construction and decoration in urban areas is very high compared to that of the semi urban and rural areas. The mix of consumers in paint market encompasses with 80% urban consumers along with 12% semi urban as well as 8% rural consumers ( 5.1).

The demand in the market can be categorized into 4 broader segments based on use - Decorative, Industrial, Marine and Automotive paints. Decorative products are the used in households for beautification of buildings and interiors. This is the biggest among all segments. Industrial products have mainly two types of uses - industrial raw materials and protective or maintenance. But in spite of the dual use, the segment is only 8% of the total demand. Demand for marine products are only 5% and for automotive paints, it is even lesser, only 3%. A detail of the product demand is endowed in 5.2.

Decorative products can be further categorized into a few clusters depending on the type of product, surface of application and requirement of solvent. These are shown in 5.3 along with their respective demand in the market. From the , it is clear that, gloss coatings are the most demanded products in the market having almost 40% share of the total demand. Distempers are in the second and interior emulsions in the third position of demand of decorative paint products.

The demand in the market is constantly increasing as in 2008 it was 50430000 litters compared to 24850000 litters in 1999 ( 5.4), an evidence of the fact that, demand had increased almost double within 9 years. At the same time, the market enjoyed a positive growth in sales (illustrated in Table 5.1).

Table 5.1: Sales growth rate in Paint Industry












Sales Growth Rate











An alarming situation can be seen from Table 4.1, which reveals that in recent times, the sales growth has decreased to a substantial amount. In 2006, it was 15% but in the next year, it became only 4.95%. In the last year, it was 5.19%. After consultation with experts, some causes were identified for the low sales growth rate in the last two years. These are described in the subsequent sections.

5.2 Reasons for Recent Sales growth decline

5.2.1 Macroeconomic Influence

Demand for paint is highly correlated with different macroeconomic variables, including Population growth rate, Gross Domestic Population (GDP), Gross National Income (GNP) and Net National Income (NNP), a fact which is supported by facts from Table 5.2.

Table 5.2: Relationship of sales growth rate in paint industry with various macroeconomic determinants

Population Growth Rate




Demand for Paint

Pearson Coefficient










The relationship is even clearer from the 3.5 from which it can be evident that the GDP, GNI and NNI at 2006 were very high compared to other years. At the same time the paint demand was also very high. Experts say that, as consumers had enough surplus cash to spend on paint and related decorative items. But soon after, GDP, GNI and NNI began to decrease due to global recession and national political situation. It resulted a decrease in the demand of paint industry and the sales growth rate declined compared to the previous years.

5.2.2 Impact of Other Businesses

Paint industry is very much related with the real estate business in Bangladesh (evident from table 5.3. As a result the demand for paint changes with the demand of real estate.

Table 5.3: Relationship of demand for paint with demand of real estate

Real Estate Demand

Demand for Paint

Pearson Coefficient




Demand of real estate in Bangladesh had a tremendous boom since the late 90's and early of the 21st century. But since 2005, the sales declined extensively and the real estate market is having a great crisis due to declining demand. Principle causes due to such demand declination according to the businessmen includes- price hike of cement, rod and other building materials, low production at steel re-rolling mills, increased labor cost, etc. The price of cement has increased almost 20% in 2009 than in 2005. Similarly, the price of rod increased 35% and labor cost 28%.[3]The cumulative impact of these factors results in price increase for real estate business and decreased customers' demand. In 2005, the average cost per square feet of an apartment was 2500 taka which is now, in 2009 is 3600 taka, an increase of almost 44%.[4] Also because of inflation, customers' affordability for an apartment or building has decreased ( 5.6). According to the experts, all these factors affected the paint market and result a decline in demand growth rate of paint in Bangladesh.

5.3 Potential Growth of Paint Market

Due to the ongoing recession and declined demand in real estate business, it is very tough to comment on the future growth of paint market. But from the past sales data and consultation with the experts, a potential growth of paint market is forecasted herewith. Three techniques are used for forecasting method. A projection of paint industry is publicized using all these three techniques in the successive sections. The assumptions on the basis of which the demand is projected are

1. The macroeconomic condition will remain unchanged

2. There will be no change in technology during the projected demand period

3. There will be no substitute for paints at this period

These forecasted demands are not actual demands. They are only predictions on the basis of previous sales and some external situation. Forecasting always involves error. Still, for better decision making, forecasting plays a very vital role. The Research Team suggests the authority to adopt a forecasting method with the least error.

Forecasting with Static Method

A static method assumes that the estimates of level, trend and seasonality within the systematic component do not vary as new demand is observed. In this case, we estimated each of these parameters based on historical data and then use the same values for all future forecasts. We assumed that, the systematic component of demand is mixed, that is,

Formula: Systematic component = (Level + Trend) X Seasonal Factor

With this method, the forecast in Period t for demand in Period t+l is given as follows:

Ft+l = {L+(t+l)T}St+l


L = Estimate of level at t=0 (the deseasonalized demand estimate during period t=0)

T= Estimate of trend (increase of decrease in demand per period)

St = Estimate of season factor of period t

Dt = Actual demand observed in period t

Ft = Forecast of demand for period t

Assuming 95% confidence interval level, the demand projection using this method till the year 2015 can be furnished in Table 5.4.

Table 5.4: Demand Projections of Paint Industry from 2009 to 20015 using Static Model


Forecasted Demand

(in ‘000 Lt)

Lower Limit

Upper Limit


Possible Forecasting Error (%)











































Forecasting with unconditional least square method

In this method, the estimates of level, trend and seasonality are updated after each demand observation. The forecast of period t+l in period t in this method is determined by,

Ft+l= (Lt +lTt) St+l,

Where, the terms follow their usual meaning

Demand forecasting using unconditional least square method at 95% confidence interval, a following projection can be obtained (Table 5.5).

Table 5.5: Demand Projections of Paint Industry from 2009 to 20015 using Unconditional Least Square Method


Forecasted Demand

(in ‘000 Lt)

Lower Limit

Upper Limit


Possible Forecasting Error (%











































Forecasting with Trend Corrected Exponential Smoothing Method (Holt's Model)

This method is appropriate when demand is assumed to have a level and a trend in the systematic component but no seasonality. In this case,

Ft+1 = Lt +Tt,

Where, the terms carry their usual meaning.

Using this method, the projection of demand is given in Table 5.6.

Table 5.6: Demand Projections of Paint Industry from 2009 to 20015 using Exponential Smoothing Method


Forecasted Demand

(in ‘000 Lt)

Lower Limit

Upper Limit


Possible Forecasting Error (%











































6.1 Competitor Analysis

Currently there are over 20 competitors working in the paint industry of Bangladesh. A few of these are foreign owned or multinational companies, but most of them are local. The competitor analysis is aimed at identification of the competition among these companies in the following dimensions:

6.1.1 Competitor Share of Market, Mind and Heart

Competitor share of market is the number of customers occupied by a particular company of the industry. Share of market is a very important indicator of the performance of a company. Share of mind indicates the brand or company that resides within the mind of a customer. Share of mind is very important in evaluation of different brands of a product by a customer. Share of mind is determined here by the question- “Name the brand of paint that comes first at your mind”. Along with share of mind, share of heart is also very important. Share of heart resides within the head of a customer about which brand he would prefer in future. Share of heart is measured here with the question- “Which brand would you buy in the future?” Table 6.1 shows the share of market, mind and heart of the major competitors.

Table 6.1: Competitors' Share of Market, Mind and Heart (in Percentage)


Share of Market

Share of Mind

Share of Heart

Al Karim




































It is clear from the table that, Berger is by far the leader in all three dimensions. And it is way ahead in the competition with 69.9% in share of market, 79.3% in share of mind and 73.6% in share of heart. Asian although has 12% of share of market, 7.2% of share of mind and 11.2% of share of heart, it is no match to compete with Berger. So it can be said that Berger is having almost a monopolistic leadership over the competition.

6.1.2 Position of Brands in Customers Mind

The relative positions of the brands in customers' mind (shown in 6.1) are derived using Multi Dimensional Scaling (MDS) procedure. The dimensions used for this purpose are the price at which the companies offer their product, their product quality and the service deliverables to the customer. The quality dimension includes the anti-discoloration, anti-swelling, anti-powdering and low thinner requirements capability of product. The service dimension includes availability of product, product variation, shade variation, container attractiveness and container size. The MDS provided a spatial map of the competing brands' relative positions in customers' mind.

It is obvious from the spatial map that, Berger is way ahead in the competition than other brands in acquiring positions of customers' mind having positive impact in all dimensions. Asian is in the mid level position of customers' mind. Roxy, Pailac, Romana, Moonstar and other small brands have acquired some positions behind Berger and Asian.

The map also gives an indication of the competition. Berger is very far away from competition and is in the leading position. Asian is somewhat in the mid level position of competition having no close competitors. Roxy, Pailac, Romana, Moonstar and other small brands are competing very closely. They can be termed as close competitors to one another.

5.1.3 Brand Awareness

Brand awareness in this study is measured in terms of the recall ability of the brand. Recall test is used to measure Brand awareness. Respondents were asked to recall the names of the brands. The brand that has been recalled at the first instance has got the maximum score. On the basis of this test, top 5 brand is shown in table 6.2.

Table 6.2: Top 5 Brands on the basis of Brand Awareness (Recall Test)

Brand Name

Recall Test Score











It seems that Berger is again in the top position of the brand awareness test. Asian is in number 2 and Elite in number 3 position.

6.1.4 Competing Brand Strengths

Competing brand strengths are measured in terms of Burkin Method. In this method, 7 elements are judged. These are leadership, geographic spreading, stability, trend, support, market value and protection. The brand strength is considered as a function of these 7 elements. For each element a particular point is allocated. The cumulative score of all these elements generates the overall brand strength of a company.

Leadership element score varies with the amount of market share covered by a brand. Geographic spreading score varies with the number of districts covered by a brand. Stability shows the amount of time of the presence of a brand. Trend shows the amount of time a brand capturing a portion of market share. Market value shows the amount of international market coverage. Protection shows the legislative strength of a brand. The cumulative score of these elements are known as Burkin Score. Higher Burkin score yields stronger brand.

Considering all these elements, the brand strength of the brands competing in the market is developed. 6.2 shows the competing brands' strength of 5 top brands.

6.1.5 Competing Brand Equity

Brand equity is measured here with Clemenson method. In Clemenson method, the share of market, mind and heart is evaluated. From the evaluation, a score is given to each of the brands, named as Clemenson value. The higher Clemenson value yields higher brand equity. Based on the Clemenson score, the Brand equity of top 5 brands is shown in Table 6.3

Table 6.3: Brand Equity of Competing Brands (Clemenson Method)

Brand Name

Clemenson Score











6.1.6 Customers Ad Awareness

Customers Ad Awareness is measured in terms of advertisement of which brand the customers can remember. At the same time, the media of the advertisement is also identified. Table 6.4 shows the Ad awareness of customers.

Table 6.4: Ad awareness of top 5 Brands


Ad Awareness











It seems that Asian has a very high ad awareness level, although Berger still is the leader in Ad awareness.

6.2 Customer Analysis

The customer profile of the paint market in Bangladesh is developed surveying 320 customers (end users) of Bangladesh, as detailed in the Methodology section of the report. The elements of the customer profile are:

6.2.1 Demographic Characteristics of Customers:

The mean age of the customers came 47.99, i.e. almost 48 years. As these customers are also the decision makers about the paint to be used in the household, it can be said, the average age of the decision makers regarding selection of paint is 48 years. 91.3% of them are male and the rest are females. So in the paint industry, the decision is taken primarily by males rather than females. From occupation, 44% of them are service holders while 40% are businessmen. 8% of the respondents are self employed, 7% retired and the rest 1% are engaged in other categories of occupation.

6.2.2 Usage Rate and Pattern

The average paint duration for the customers is 34 month. Average cost at each occasion of painting is 42626 taka. The average demand for paint is almost 103 litters per occasion and 43 litters per year. But the scenario is different if it considered area wise.

6.3 shows the area wise average paint duration of a single customer. It is almost equal for all the customers. But Paint required per customer is the highest for customers from Dhaka in both paint requirement per occasion and paint requirement per year. Table 6.5 shows the paint cost in different areas in two dimensions- cost taka per occasion and cost taka per year. Here a different scenario is present. It can be seen that, in both the dimensions, the consumers of Sylhet are in number one position followed by consumers of Dhaka.

Table 6.5: Average Paint Cost of a Customer (Area Wise)


Paint Cost (Taka Per Occasion)

Paint Cost (Taka Per Year)













6.2.3 Customer Satisfaction

The mean customer satisfaction for all customers came 4.35 in a scale of 5, which means customers are highly satisfied with the products. The satisfaction is almost equal in area wise satisfaction study (Show in Table 6.6)

Table 6.6: Area wise Customer Satisfaction


Customer Satisfaction (Out of 5)









In identifying the reasons for such satisfaction, Multiple Regression Analysis was done. The model used in the analysis is provided in Appendix_. The R2 value of the study came 0.334 which means the model is very much fit to analyze the customer satisfaction. Table 6.7 shows the independent impact of each of the variables on Customer Satisfaction.

Table 6.7: Impact of Independent Variables on Customer Satisfaction


Unstandardized Coefficients

Standardized Coefficients




Std. Error




















Variation in paint






Variation in Shade






Attractive Packet






Packet Size






























Thinner Requirement






a Dependent Variable: Customer Satisfaction

It can be seen that, the variables having significant are Price, Availability, Variation in Shade, Container Size, Discoloration and Powdering. Taking these 6 variables, the model can be restructured as,

C/S= 2.185 -0.156 P+ 0.179 A + 0.166 V+ 0.182 CS + 0.229 D - 0.152 Pd, where

C/S= Customer Satisfaction

P= Price

A = Availability
V = Variation in Shade

CS= Container Size

D= Discoloration

Pd = Powdering

Analyzing the model, it can be seen that, customers are very much unhappy with price of the products due to which the impact of price came negative and the value of impact is somewhat high, 15.6% of the overall satisfaction. Similar result came for powdering as customers complained about the powdering of the paint. Impact of other 4 variables came positive which means customers think the paint is available, has high variation in shade, container size is beneficial and paint does not discolor easily.

6.2.4 Customers' Future Intention

In this study customers' future intention is measured in terms of the brand they will purchase in future, their switching tendency and the brand to which the switch is intended. While asking “which brand would you prefer to buy in future”, most of the customers (73.6%) told that they want to buy Berger paints (shown in 6.5). In 2nd position, there is an Asian paint with 11.23% of future purchase intention while that of Elite paint is 8.33% which ranked it in the third position.

While measuring the switching tendency, a very interesting fact was found. 16% of all the customers want to switch from their current brand. Although Berger has the highest future purchase intention share of customers, at the same time, Berger has the highest switching intentioned customer base to which is almost 35% of all switchers (Shown in table 6.8). Asian is in the second position with 20% and Elite at third position with 14% of switchers.

Table 6.8: Switching Tendency of the Customers of Different Brands


Switching Tendency

Al Karim



















When the respondents were asked why they intended to switch from their current brands, the principle reason came was due to the cost (table 6.9). 35.6% of the switchers think the brand they are currently using is too costly. 18.2% said that the container size is not beneficial, either it is too small for requirement or too large.17.5% thinks there is low variety of shades. 13.6% found low availability of their brand while 12.9% found low longevity of paint.

Table 6.9: Reasons for Switching


% of Switchers

High Price


Low Availability


Low Variety in Shade


Unfavorable Container Size


Low Longevity


Other Reasons




At this point of the study, the researchers tried to identify the brands switchers intend to switch. The results are shown in the matrix 5.1. It is clear that, most of the switchers want to switch towards Berger. This rate is the highest for Asian Paint users, where 22.22% of this type of customers want to switch towards Berger, while 13.33% pf Elite paint users and 11.11% of Moonstar users want to switch towards Berger. At the same time, another interesting fact was found that, 20% of the Berger paint users want to switch to Asian paints. So, a cross switch tendency can be seen between the customers of Berger and Asian paints in the paint industry of Bangladesh.

Matrix 6.1: Switchers intended Brand to Switch

Brand To

Al- Karim









Brand From

Al Karim























6.2.5 Customers' Expectation from the Industry

Customers' expectation from the industry was measured using two questions-

1. What type of upgradation do you want from the paint companies of Bangladesh

2. What type of product would you introduce if you were the owner of a paint industry.

A huge number of customers expect a high quality of paint with low cost. But this is a much generalized form of expectation. So the researchers provided some probe to the customers and the expectations derived has summarized in the 6.6

It is evident that most of the customers (32%) want low price paints, while 23% want weather resistance paints. Also a significant portion of the customers (17%) require beneficial container size and 13% want durability. 5% of the customers want texture colors and 4% want warranty from the company. Other reasons have very little significance to mention.

6.2.6 Customer Ranking of Paint Companies

In the study, customers were asked to rank the paint companies of Bangladesh on the basis of the quality of product and service they provide. The ranking scores and rank positions of the top 5 companies are shown in table 6.10.

Table 6.10: Customer Ranking of Paint Companies


Rank Score

















It is again clear that Berger is in the first position in ranking outscoring the next ranked company Elite with a rank score difference of over 500. Asian is in third position and having a close competition with Elite. Roxy and Pailac are in fourth and fifth positions respectively.

6.2.7 Customers' Media Choice

Customers were asked in which media they have seen or heard advertisements of paint within the last one month. From their answers, the media choice of customers is prepared. Table 6.11 shows the media choice of the customers of paint industry. From the table, it is evident that, TV has the highest customer awareness followed by billboard. Shop signboard has also got significant amount of customer awareness.

Table 6.11: Media Awareness of Customers











Shop Signboard




Vehicle Sign


Sponsored Program




6.3 Expert Opinion about Paint Industry

While asking the customers the question, from where you got information regarding paint, 144 respondents said they were influenced by the painters while 45 were influenced by retailers and 31 by their architects or developers. Bearing the importance of these peoples' influence in customers' decision making, the research team took an interview of 30 dealers and retailers, 20 painters, and 30 Architect and developers. Their point of view regarding the paint industry is illustrated in the forthcoming sections.

6.3.1 Dealers and Retailers

From the sales point of view, dealers and retailers told the research team that, 70% of their daily sales come from selling Berger product while 15% comes from Asian, 10% from Pailac, 3% from elite and 2% from other paints. They were asked to rank some of the top paint companies on the basis of level of inventory, sales, profit, quality and price. From their opinion, table 6.12 is developed which ranks some of the paint companies regarding the stated dimensions.

Table 6.12 : Ranking of paint companies by the Dealers and Retailers





































It is evident from the table that, Berger is in the leading position in the mind of dealers in keeping inventory and sales. But it yields the least profit, maybe because its price is the highest. But from quality basis, Berger is in top position. Pailac is in the lead position from low cost point of view, but in the last position of quality dimension.

It is clear that, dealers and retailers promote Berger more than other companies. Research team tried to find out the reasons behind such promotion. Research team found that, paint companies provide some incentives and benefits to the dealers and retailers. The benefits include discounts, cash incentives and some promotional assistance including shop signboard, decoration, etc. Berger provides these benefits more than others. For example, Berger provides a cash incentive on each of the container. Also Berger arranges get together for the dealers and retailers, arrange picnics and these kind of entertainments. Other paint companies, although provide discounts, but not this sort of benefits. That's why dealers and retailers promote Berger products more than other products, although the per container profit is less for Berger than others.

6.3.2 Painters

Painters play a vital role in the purchase decision making for the customers. As paint is a semi-technical product, customers tend to rely more on experts in the field including the painters. In light to this, the research team surveyed a number of painters and found some interesting facts.

It seems that, painters in Bangladesh are associated with some dealers or retailers. But the problem is, this association is beneficial for the dealers and retailers and for customers but not for the painters. For example, if a customer wants painters' help in purchasing a can of paint, the painter takes customer to the dealer/retailer he is associated with. On the purchased cans price, dealer/retailer and customer gets a portion of discount or cash incentives, but painters do not get any incentives. Painters think deserve it better than others.

Another interesting thing was found that, Berger introduced a campaign in which a token was placed under the cap of every paint can. The token if returned to the nearest dealer/retailer, a cash incentive would be drawn. It was beneficial for the painters as they generally took that token. But this practice is currently stopped by Berger, as a result painters are not getting any incentives at all. The only benefit they receive is t-shirts, which is also very irregular.

Research team asked painters what type of assistance they want from the paint companies. They detailed a number of assistance, shown below:

1. Cash incentives if a painter helps a customer purchase paint of a particular company

2. Hand protection (gloves)

3. Get together, picnic, etc.

4. An incentive on fulfilling a target of paint purchase.

6.3.3 Developers and Architects

Developers and Architects do not have any direct connections with the paint companies. They don't receive any incentives of any sort from them. But it seems that, Developers and Architects have a significant role in modifying customers' purchase intentions. Research team has discussed with some developers and architects of Dhaka and Chittagong city about their opinion regarding to this matter. They told the research team that, their only intention regarding the suggesting customers about paint is to ensure the quality of the apartment/flat/house. Most of the developers and architects suggest their customers to use Berger paints from the fact that the quality of Berger is higher than other available paints in Bangladesh. They said that Berger paints lasts 1.5 times longer than other paints, it don't tend to discolor, swell, powder or chalk like some of the local paints. The only problem with Berger paint is that it is costly than other paints.

The research team think, although paint companies do not have direct relationship with developers and architects, but doing so can be beneficial for both parties. Developers and architects are important reference group for paint industry. So if paint companies can satisfy them by providing with some sort of benefits, they can promote products more. The example of pharmaceuticals industry can be followed in this regard. In pharmaceuticals, pharmaceuticals companies provide various incentives to the doctors like cash, gifts, picnic, study tour, etc. Paint companies can do similar thing to the developers and architects.

7.1 Competitors' View

1. Berger has the highest share of market, mind and heart of 69.9%, 79.3% and 73.6% respectively.

2. Berger has the distinct position in customers mind from the quality and service perspective, although in a backward position from price.

3. Berger has the highest brand awareness followed by Asian and Elite.

4. Berger is also in leading position from Brand Strength. Asian is in the second position, very closely followed by Elite.

5. From Brand Equity perspective, Berger is in the leading position followed by Asian and Elite.

6. Berger is in the leading position in customer ad awareness, again followed by Asian and Elite.

7.2 Customers' View

7. The average paint duration for the customers is 34 month.

8. Average cost at each occasion of painting is 42626 taka.

9. The average demand for paint is almost 103 litters per occasion

10. Average demand for paint is 43 litters per year.

11. Paint Requirement is the highest for customers of Dhaka, an average of 159 litters per occasion and 60 litters per year and least is for the customers of Khulna, an average of 50 litters per occasion and 17 litters per year.

12. Paint cost is highest for customers of Sylhet with an average of 62690 taka per occasion and 25263 taka per year.

13. Average customer satisfaction for the customers of paint is 4.35 in a scale of 5.0

14. 73.6% of the customers want to buy Berger paints in future

15. 16% of all customers want to switch from their current brands.

16. 35% of the current Berger users want to switch towards other paints.

17. Among all switchers, 20% of current Berger users want to switch to Asian Paints and 8.89% want to switch to Elite.

18. 35.6% of the switchers want to switch due to the high price of paint

19. 32% of all customers surveyed want low price paints from the paint industry.

20. In the ranking of paint companies in Bangladesh prepared by Customers, Berger is in the 1st position, Elite in 2nd, Asian in 3rd, Roxy in 4th and Pailac in 5th Position.

21. As a media, Television has the highest customer awareness followed by Billboard and shop signboard.

7.3 Painters' View

Research team asked painters what type of assistance they want from the paint companies. They detailed a number of assistance, shown below:

v Cash incentives if a painter helps a customer purchase paint of a particular company

v Hand protection (gloves)

v Get together, picnic, etc.

v An incentive on fulfilling a target of paint purchase.

8.0 Recommendations

After reviewing the entire industry and talking with customers and experts, the research team finds that, there is two basic marketing strategies for the paint companies to follow in near future. These are: Cost leadership and Quality leadership.

In cost leadership strategy, paint companies can decrease the cost of paint to meet the customers' satisfaction level. But to follow this strategy, companies may have to sacrifice some quality aspects. A positive side of sacrificing quality aspects is that, being paint is a semi-technical product, customers are not fully aware of the quality dimensions of the product. So, some mere deterioration of quality may not seem significant to the customers, if a good amount of cost can be reduced. On the other hand, the negative side is that, life cycle of paint is relatively higher than other products. So, eventually the quality reduction may not be evident to the customers, but not in the long run. So there is a chance that, in future companies may loose a good number of customers if this strategy is followed.

On the other hand, following quality leadership strategy, companies should enhance the quality of current products. Now this can be done by adding some value to the product. For example, texture colors can be introduced, glossy coatings can be included, companies may improve the longevity of paint, etc. These value additions may result in increase of price, but in future, they will provide good customer satisfaction.

Along with these two strategies, paint companies have to take some immediate actions. These are described below-

1. Container size should be redesigned to meet the required customer necessity. For this purpose, a detailed study is recommended.

2. Paint companies should satisfy the painters, as they are one of the prime motivators to take purchase decisions. Cash incentives can be provided in the form of target fulfilling. Painters can be given a year wise target of time, they should be provided with hand gloves and dress. Company's selling paints and if they fulfill it, they can be given some cash incentives. At the same logo or monogram may be embossed on it, which may serve as a promotion. Get together party or picnics can be arranged once a year.

3. Developers and architects can be provided with some benefits. Direct marketing should be adopted in this regard. They can be provided with some gift items or some other incentives. Even cash incentives can be offered for profitable developers and architects.

4. Current incentive strategy for dealers and retailers seem to work very fine. It should be continued.

5. Promotional efforts of paint companies should be increased. Companies with low ad awareness should increase it through conveying advertisements in Television, newspapers and billboards.

9.0: Conclusion

The study findings show the area on which paint companies should focus on. Research team also provided with some recommendations on which the companies can work on. Paint companies seem to be ignoring the impacts of painters and developers and architects. But study showed that these reference groups are very important in modifying paint customers decision making. So paint industries should look forward on the ways how to use these groups in their benefits.

Research team also suggested two broad marketing strategies for the paint companies. They should think about both of them very carefully. Actually the adoption of any of these will depend on the long term plan for the respective industries. Both can be applied if proper segmentation of consumers can be done by companies. In that respect, research team is suggesting the companies for a detail study on consumers taking wider sample coverage and more samples.

There are some limitations present with the study. Due to shortage of budget, the sample size had to be reduced to 400. But from this size, it is tough to generalize the findings over a country having a population of 15 million. Sample coverage was also targeted only in metropolitan cities. If district towns or thana towns were included, the study findings would have more generalization. But despite of the limitations, study team tried to provide with the maximum information associated with minimum human error possible. Research team is ready to execute any further study in this light if proposed.

10.0: Bibliography

A. Texts

1. Philip Kotler (2003), Marketing Management, 11th Edition, Pearson Education, Chapter 4, p-100

2. Naresh K. Malhotra(2006), Marketing Research, 4th Edition, Pearson Education, Chapter 3, 5, 7, 16, 22

B. Aticales

G.H.Shohag, “Disaster at Real Estate Market”, The Daily Star, February 23, 2009

C. Reports

1. Berger Marketing Team.

2. Get Together-2008, Bangladesh Paint Market, Berger Paint Bangladesh Limited

3. Berger Annual Report ‘2006 & 2007

4. Report on “Study of marketing strategy of Berger Paints Bangladesh Limited”

5. Statistical year book of Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics, 2007

D. Websites

1. Date of Access: March 29, 2009



4. News item from website:

[1] Berger Marketing Team.

[2] Get Together-2008, Bangladesh Paint Market , Berger Paint Bangladesh Limited

[3] G.H.Shohag, “Disaster at Real Estate Market”, The Daily Star, February 23, 2009

[4] Date of Access: March 29, 2009