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Principals Leadership Styles - Part 2

An information processing explanation of how perceptions are formed

Basic information processing accounts of human thinking stresses its goal-oriented nature and describes the mental structures and processes associated with the resolution of problems standing in the way of goal-achievement. Three structures dominate this description: the executive, short-term memory (STM), and long-term memory (LTM). The executive is the primary location of both short- and long-term goals, needs, and aspirations. Information from the external environment is screened by the executive to determine its relevance for goal achievement. Information judged to be irrelevant is given no further attention. If judged to be potentially relevant, information is passed on to STM.

Beyond the limited processing space of STM and its capacity to integrate (chunk) bits of information for treatment as a single piece, little is known about the functioning of STM. Its purpose, however, is to “make sense” of information passed on to it by the executive. It does this by searching through the virtually unlimited storage space of LTM. Structurally, this space is repsented as clusters of related information or knowledge structures many of which are associated in networks, sometimes organized hierarchically. Relatively undemanding forms of sense-making take place when, through simple matching processes, STM locates existing knowledge structures capable of assimilating new information. More demanding forms of sense-making (for instance, problem solving) usually require modification of existing knowledge structures, or the development of new links among such structures, to accommodate novel aspects of information.

Two distinct types of knowledge structures are found in LTM. “Declarative” knowledge structures encompass facts, concepts, principles, and personal theories as well as affective dispositions towards these elements. Understanding develops as STM locates structures of this type that match external stimuli or that can be adapted to serve that purpose. Action, on the other hand, is guided by “procedural” schemata, knowledge structures consisting of routines to follow, steps to take, and the like. Superordinate procedural schemata (sometimes called executive strategies) exist to co-ordinate highly complex sets of actions.

Knowledge structures are sophisticated because they are reorganized to incorporate additional pieces of related information. As the hierarchical associations among such structures increase, increasing associations are made among knowledge structures. Such sophistication is a function of active attempts to make meaningful more and more new information. As this new information is subsumed by existing knowledge structures, the potential for meaningfully processing subsequent information increases. Actions become more skilful (effective) as procedural knowledge structures become potentially more effective in accomplishing their ends, as overt behaviors reflect more accurately the image of skilled performance encapsulated in such structures, and as the use of procedural schemata becomes less conscious and more automatic. High levels of “automaticity” permit effective responses to environmental stimuli (either understanding or performance) without the need for consciously processing such input through STM. This is cognitively undemanding and places little strain on the severely limited information processing space of STM.

This basic information processing account of human cognition has been extended in a number of important ways. An early example of such extension came from a growing appciation of how prior knowledge influences individual’s expectations. This appciation replaced the initial view of serial information processing with a view of cognitive activity as interactive top down and bottom up processes occurring in a parallel fashion (Vosniadou, 1996). More recent accounts of cognition have begun to accommodate socio-cultural accounts of learning which emphasize “the mutuality between persons acting and the social and cultural circumstances in which they act” (Billet, 1996, p. 265). Such co-construction of knowledge stresses the situated nature of most useful knowledge (Brown et al., 1989; Lave and Wegner, 1991).

Application of the model to leader perceptions. Consistent with this general understanding of human cognition, Lord and his colleagues (Lord, 1985; Lord and Maher, 1993) have developed an explanation for how leadership perceptions are formed. According to this account, salient information about people is processed in two possible ways. One way is to match that information to categories, or leadership prototypes (declarative knowledge structures), already stored in LTM. This “recognition” process on the part of the follower is triggered by observed or otherwise encountered information about the traits and behaviors of another person potentially to be perceived as a leader. These observed traits and behaviors are compared with the traits and behaviors included in the relevant knowledge structure stored in the follower’s LTM, his or her implicit or explicit leadership theory. Relatively high levels of correspondence between observed and stored traits and behaviors lead to the follower’s perception of the other person as a leader. Because recognition processes entail little or no adaptation of the perceiver’s existing knowledge structures, they are less cognitively demanding than “inference processes”, discussed below.

Followers’ assessments of correspondence may occur in a highly automatic fashion. This is likely in cognitively demanding, face-to-face encounters between followers and leaders when speed and efficiency of processing is demanded by the complexity or sheer amount of stimuli to be understood. Under cognitively less demanding circumstances, followers’ assessments of correspondence may be more controlled, reflective, and self-conscious.

Followers may also develop perceptions of leaders through “inferential” processes. Such processes depend on the opportunity for followers to observe events in which the potential leader is involved, to assess the outcomes of those events, and to draw conclusions about the contribution of the potential leader to those outcomes. Perceptions of persons as leaders results from followers’ judgments that those events were somehow salient, that they had desirable results, and that the potential leader was instrumental in bringing about those results. As with recognition processes, inferential processes may occur relatively automatically or through more controlled processes.

Recognition and inference processes are not mutually exclusive and may occur in cycles. For example, one’s initial leadership knowledge structures are likely the result of inference processes applied through considerable social interaction in both a broad cultural context and the more specific contexts of those organizations in which one participates. Even relatively primitive leadership structures or prototypes, once developed, are then available for use through recognition processes. The leadership perceptions that were initially formed through recognition, may be modified inferentially with opportunities to observe the leader’s work
          

CHAPTER THREE: METHODOLOGY

3.1 Introduction

This study is informative in nature and aims voicing out the required changes and improvement of leadership styles of principals of middle schools. This assures the country as a whole of a brighter professional tomorrow and also as being equipped so that it can cope with the dynamism of the world today. Moreover, the study is reference to future principals and other interested parties to know what to adjust and what to embrace. This study would form the basis for future advancement of studies on the same and to avoid the recurrence of undesired leadership styles characteristics.

This chapter points out the statement of the problem and the research questions arising there from, the type of methodology to be adopted and the reasons for adoption. This chapter continues to the details on the design of the research to be carried out, population size and the sampling procedure and the sources of data. Attention is also paid to the validity checks that the data so collected will be put to, the data collection as well as the data analysis procedures.

 

3.2 Statement of the Problem

According to the Maryland State Department of Education (2008), middle school marks a significant change in the manner in which a student progresses in learning.  The pparation of middle school educators may need to be addressed so that educators are equipped to address these changes.  For adolescents, this time frame within the educational process is marked by changes in how students think about thinking, as well as other physical and psychological development which may affect students’ achievement.  Therefore, it is imperative that middle school teachers receive quality professional development in order to meet the educational needs of the middle school population (Maryland State Department of Education, 2008).

It is not known however, to what extent the leadership styles of middle school administrators have an impact on quality professional development of teachers in middle schools.  According to Jackson and Davis (2000), the instructional leadership in middle schools is one of the most essential components to accomplish a high achieving school and quality teachers.  This leadership in high achieving schools is supplied by an administrator who has specific characteristics which assist in effective professional development of teachers as well as the sustainment of an educational environment fostering a vision of highest student achievement (Jackson & Davis, 2000). This paper therefore seeks to explore the link between middle-school administration and professional development and high student’s achievement by addressing the following questions:

  • To what extent do leadership styles of middle school administrators affect quality professional development of teachers in middle schools?
  • Which specific leadership style or styles contribute to effective professional development for middle school teachers?
  • What are the experiences of middle school administrators during the process of teacher professional development?
  • Is there a relationship between the principals leadership styles and teachers motivation?
  • If there is a relationship between the leadership style and teachers motivation, what is the extent of the relationship?
  • What is the impact of teachers motivation on their performance at work and also in their professional development process.
  • What is the impact of techers professional development on their performance and the performance of the students.
  • What is the impact of an schools culture on professional development of teachers and their relationships in the school.

This study will contribute to understanding the specific characteristics of instructional leadership styles that are most likely to enhance the quality of professional development in middle schools.  Further research may be done in order to evaluate if certain characteristics of leadership have a direct correlation to overall improvement in teacher performance and higher student achievement in middle schools.

3.3 Research Questions

To what extent do leadership styles of middle school administrators affect quality professional development of teachers in middle schools?

Which specific leadership style or styles contribute to quality professional development for middle school teachers?

What are the experiences of middle school administrators during the process of implementing quality professional development?

Is there a relationship between the principals leadership styles and teachers motivation?

If there is a relationship between the leadership style and teachers motivation, what is the extent of the relationship?

  • What is the impact of teachers motivation on their performance at work and also in their professional development process.
  • What is the impact of techers professional development on their performance and the performance of the students.
  • What is the impact of an schools culture on professional development of teachers and their relationships in the school.

 

3.5 Research design

This study has a pure research approach  whereby it is aimed at expounding on and explaining the relationship between principal leadership styles and the professional development of teachers in middle schools. It will discuss the different leadership styles and their impact on the teacher professional development programs, and also the impact on the overall performance of the school. The study will also explain the correlation between transactional leadership and the teachers efficacy.

In conducting this study, qualitative research methods will be used. This is because the type of data  to be collected will be in form of words and phrases. The aim is to provide insights to understanding principal leadership styles and the quality of the teachers professional development programs. The fact that the study aims at finding the relationship and impact of the relationship between leadership and professional development makes it a correlation research.

This kind of study is descriptive since the information to be obtained will help in understanding the different leadership styles of principals and their impact on teachers development, the school climate and culture as well as the general performance of the students and the school as a whole. These information will offer principals a chance to evaluate their leadership styles in comparison to the effective styles revealed by the stidy. This will help them in deciding the approaches to use to ensure effective results of their programs.

A field study will be conducted in two schools in the Guam area and the elements willl be sampled from two out of the three sc--------ls.

3.6 Population and Sampling Procedure

The population of this study is all the middle schools in the United States of America. However, due to limitations of time and cost as explained earlier the study will narrow down to the US Territory island of Guam. The study will furher narrow down to the two Department of Defense Education Activity schools that are on the island. The two are in close proximity will facilitate the collection of data.  The participants are two male administrators with 35-40 teachers.  One middle school is on a Navy base, while the other is on an Air Force base.  Both schools follow the same district professional development plan and receive the same professional development.

3.7 Sources of Data (qualitative)

The primary source of data for the study will be the questionnaires that will be dropped and picked from the respondents. The researcher will also conduct face to face interviews as well as making observations during visits to the respondent institutions.

Secondary sources of data to be used include records from the Department of Defense Education Activity records (including their website). Other sources of data will be newspapers, journals, the respective school records and pvious studies done on middle schools.

3.8 VALIDITY

 It's fast, costs nothing, and you'll get immediate and valuable feedback that can be used to improve your instrument.

  1. Find someone who will act as a respondent. They do not need to be someone from the actual pool of potential respondents. You can ask a spouse or friend to "ptend" they are from the target population. Do not use someone who helped create the survey.
  2. Find someone who will act as a respondent. They do not need to be someone from the actual pool of potential respondents. You can ask a spouse or friend to "ptend" they are from the target population. Do not use someone who helped create the survey.
  3. Give them a "final" copy of the survey and say something like, "Please complete this survey as if you were a real respondent. You can just make up the answers. Feel free to ask me any questions while you're completing it". Then give them the survey and sit there quietly while they take the survey. The survey you give them should be a "final" copy... exactly the way it will appear on the paper when it is printed. If it's an internet survey, have them take it on the internet. If you use this method while the survey is in "draft" form, do it again after the survey is in final form.
  4. Any question they ask you about the survey indicates a defective item. Real respondents will not have an opportunity to ask questions, so you must fix these items now. Modify all items that were mentioned. Then begin the process again with a new respondent, and continue until there are no questions. Usually, you'll be done after two or three "ptend respondents".


3.9 RELIABILITY

Reliability is synonymous with repeatability. A measurement that yields consistent results over time is said to be reliable. When a measurement is prone to random error, it lacks reliability. The reliability of an instrument places an upper limit on its validity. A measurement that lacks reliability will also lack validity. There are three basic methods to test reliability: test-retest, equivalent form, and internal consistency

A test-retest measure of reliability can be obtained by administering the same instrument to the same group of people at two different points in time. The degree to which both administrations are in agreement is a measure of the reliability of the instrument. This technique for assessing reliability suffers two possible drawbacks. First, a person may have changed between the first and second measurement. Second, the initial administration of an instrument might in itself induce a person to answer differently on the second administration.

The second method of determining reliability is called the equivalent-form technique. The researcher creates two different instruments designed to measure identical constructs. The degree of correlation between the instruments is a measure of equivalent-form reliability. The difficulty in using this method is that it may be very difficult (and/or prohibitively expensive) to create a totally equivalent instrument.

How to test the reliability of a survey

The most popular methods of estimating reliability use measures of internal consistency. When an instrument includes a series of questions designed to examine the same construct, the questions can be arbitrarily split into two groups. The correlation between the two subsets of questions is called the split-half reliability. The problem is that this measure of reliability changes depending on how the questions are split. A better statistic, known as Cronbach's alpha, is based on the mean (absolute value) interterm correlation for all possible variable pairs. It provides a conservative estimate of reliability, and generally repsents the lower bound to the reliability of a scale of items. For dichotomous nominal data, the KR-20 (Kuder-Richardson) is used instead of Cronbach's alpha.

3.10 Data Collection Procedures

The basis of primary data collection  will be questionnaires, face to face interviews and observation . Secondary data may be collected from the internet and school records.

A qualitative approach using semi-structured interviews will be used to collect data.

Questionnaires

These are p-formulated written set of questions to which the respondents will be required to record their answers. For easy response, the questions in the questionnaires will be within closely defined alternatives that will be provided, these type of questionnaires are referred to as closed questionnaires. This study will also use the open ended questionnaires as data collection tool The open ended questionnaires will have a space where they will answer the question in whatever way they want, the answer will not be guided but will be entirely the respondents view. This will help a lot in determining exactly what the respondents really feel about professional development.

Interviews

The  main reason for using interviews as a method of data collection when carrying out this study is because there will be active participation of both the respondent and the researcher and this will make data collection more reliable since the researcher will have the advantage of detecting the physical communication signs which may reveal a lot. We shall use both the structured and unstructured forms of interviewing. In the unstructured, the researcher will go to the two schools and interview the respondents without any planned sequence of questions to ask the teachers. This will enable the bringing up of some pliminary issues to the surface so that the researcher will be able to determine if any further and detailed investigation was required. The researcher will have a list of pdetermined questions and will use them as a guide when facilitating the interview. The reason for using the structured interviews is because it makes the data analyses easier.

Observation

This is a data collection method that involves active and passive participation of the data collector. The data collector can choose to carry a recording device or not carry at the point where the study is taking place. In our study, the researcher will visit the schools and observe the trends and behavior and way of doing things in the school. From his observation, the researcher will be able to determine the leadership styles being used by the principal, the relationship between teachers, student and also the principal. From observation, it will be easy to identify the professional development activities being carried out and thei effects on teacher performance and also student performance. The reason for using observation as a data collection method is because it is very reliable as the data collected will have little or no influence of the respondents who may give false answers. Another advantage of this method of data collection is that it has a high chance of being accurate. This is because what is being observed is natural.

3.11 Data Analysis Procedures

The study will use inferential data analysis procedures. This because most the data collected will be mainly qualitative. Incase quantitative data comes up during the observation and interview, descriptive statistics may however be use when and as necessary. Content analysis identified patterns and themes in the data from which propositions and conclusions will be drawn.

Inferential data analyses

This is the process of making deductions from  the collected data, its mainly the interptation about the population on the basis of the information collected. An inferential data analysis has two broad categories; the first one is the estimation of data. This is where our researcher will attempt to determine or estimate the population parameter on the sample. The second step of analyses will be the hypothesis testing.

A hypothesis is a pdetermined opinion which ------------. The hypothesis testing will entail subjecting or comparing the hypothesis to the statistical data that was collected. From this, an interptation of the data will be determined.

The steps that shall be followed during the hypothesis testing are;

Statement of the hypothesis

Determining the significance level %

Determining the test statistics t test

Compute the test statistics

Decision criteria use table

Make the statistical decision on the basis of the table value

Interptation or implication

Content analyses

Content analyses measures the semantic contents of a message. This will involve counting of words and sentences, categorizing the statements and phrases, describing logical structures of expssion, ascertaining associations and connotations.

Descriptive data analyses

This method of data analyses will be used incase any quantitative data arises. This is where we shall develop certain indices from the raw material obtained from the two schools, for the purpose of describing the data. This will assist in providing a feel of the data which will lead to inferential statistics which is our main method of data analyses. Some of the measures that we shall us in analyzing descriptive data are;

Measures of central tendency; this will provide information on how close the data is  or behaviour of data around the centre. We shall find the mean, median and the mode.

Measures of dispersion; this will show the variation or the differences in the data. We find the variance in the data, the standard deviation, the range, and mean deviation.

Measure of normality; from this, the extent to which data fits in the normal distribution will be known. This will make use of the skewness and kurtosis.

Measures of association; these are the various variables that are related. We shall find these variables and determine the form and strength of the relationship. This will entail using aspects like correlation, regression.

3.12 ethical considerations

When carrying out any kind of research, there are some ethical rules to be followed. These ethical rules are going to be strictly adhered to when this study is being conducted. These rules include;

Explain your purpose

Objectivity

Never force the respondents to participate

Never put the respondents in any kind of danger

Data collected should be confidential

Objectivity

3.13 summary

This chapter begins with the statement of the problem which entails identification of the specific issues to be tackled by the research. This provides a guideline on what is to be expected in terms of the methodology of the results.  The paper will attempt to explore the link between the administrators leadership styles and the teachers professional development as well as the students achievements.

After the problem statement, the formulation of hypothesis has been discussed.  It  basically provides tentative alternatives or definite alternatives that the researcher will embark on in trying to determine the impact of the leadership styles in middle schools on the students performance and also on professional development of the teachers.

The research design has defined the paper in the research approaches that will be used. These approaches are determined by ; the purpose of the study, the kind of data available, the type of investigation to be carried out, research and lastly the units of analyses. Population sampling has given the detailed information on the selection of population which is the Guam schools where the samples have been narrowed down to two out of the schools and the elements being two teachers.

The source off data in this paper is qualitative as the information is dependent on words and phrases. The validity of the research has been discussed in detailed and the measures of validity to be used have been outlined. Research reliability has also been discussed and the methods of ensuring reliability have been discussed.

Data collection methods for this study are; questionnaires, interviews, observation, the internet and school records. On the other hand, the procedures for analyzing data to be used are; inferential analyses, content analyses, and descriptive analyses.

CHAPTER 4

The study will use inferential data analysis procedures. This because most the data collected will be mainly qualitative. Incase quantitative data comes up during the observation and interview, descriptive statistics may however be use when and as necessary. Content analysis identified patterns and themes in the data from which propositions and conclusions will be drawn.

Inferential data analyses

This is the process of making deductions from the collected data, its mainly the interptation about the population on the basis of the information collected. Inferential data analyses has two broad categories; the first one is the estimation of data. This is where our researcher will attempt to determine or estimate the population parameter on the sample. The second step of analyses will be the hypothesis testing.

The hypothesis testing will entail subjecting or comparing the hypothesis to the statistical data that was collected. From this, an interptation of the data will be determined.

The steps that shall be followed during the hypothesis testing are;

Statement of the hypothesis-----

Determining the significance level %

Determining the test statistics t test

Compute the test statistics

Decision criteria use table

Make the statistical decision on the basis of the table value

Interptation or implication

Content analyses

Content analyses measures the semantic contents of a message. This will involve counting of words and sentences, categorizing the statements and phrases, describing logical structures of expssion ,ascertaining associations and connotations.

Descriptive data analyses

This method of data analyses will be used incase any quantitative data arises. This is where we shall develop certain indices from the raw material obtained from the two schools, for the purpose of describing the data. this will assist in providing a feel of the data which will lead to inferential statistics which is our main method of data analyses. Some of the measure that we shall us in analyzing descriptive data are;

Measures of central tendency; this will provide information on how close the data is  or behavior of data around the centre. We shall find the mean, median and the mode.

Measures of dispersion; this will show the variation or the differences in the data. We find the variance in the data, the standard deviation, the range, and mean deviation.

Measure of normality; from this, the extent to which data fits in the normal distribution will be known. This will make use of the skewness and kurtosis.

Measures of association; these are the various variables that are related. We shall find these variables and determine the form and strength of the relationship. This will entail using aspects like correlation, regression.

Results

To what extent do leadership styles of middle school administrators affect quality professional development of teachers in middle schools?
Which specific leadership style or styles contribute to effective professional development for middle school teachers?
What are the experiences of middle school administrators during the process of teacher professional development?
Is there a relationship between the principals leadership styles and teachers motivation?
If there is a relationship between the leadership style and teachers motivation, what is the extent of the relationship?
What is the impact of teachers motivation on their performance at work and also in their professional development process.
What is the impact of teachers professional development on their performance and the performance of the students.

Directive leadership which is a style of leadership that is based on an entails telling subordinates what to do.
Consultative leadership which is determined by the extent of discussing matters with subordinates and others before the leader makes decisions.
Participative leadership is one that involves sharing in a consensual decision-making process with others, which basically means and advocates for joint decisions.
Delegative leadership this is where the leader leaves the subordinates and others free to make their own decisions.
Laissez-faire the leader avoids taking a stand, ignores problems, does not follow up, and refrains from intervening. It is as if he is not there.
Management-by-exception. This can either be active or passive. The leader monitors deviations from performance standards, and takes corrective action as necessary or waits passively for deviations, mistakes and errors to occur and then takes corrective action.
Contingent reward: which is a type of leadership style where the leader sets performance objectives and exchanges rewards and recognition for achievement.
Individualized consideration: The leader shows concern for the individual by identifying her unique abilities and needs and providing matching challenges and opportunities.
Intellectual stimulation: The leader questions the status quo and encourages imagination and creativity and the use of intuition and logic.
Inspirational motivation: The leader communicates a clear vision and aligns the goals of the organization with that of the individual
Idealized influence: The leader displays charisma by expssing confidence in the vision and gaining respect, trust and confidence by demonstrating extra ordinary ability.

Forms of leadership

There are two types of leadership; transformational leadership and transactional leadership. Transformational leaders are the leaders who raise the levels of consciousness of their subordinates about the importance and value of designated outcomes and ways of attaining them. These leaders also motivate their subordinates to rise above their own immediate self interests in order to achieve the mission or the vision or the organization. Transformational leadership is about putting the organization first and the everyone and everything else follows. Transformational leadership is based on a direct exchange relationship in which the subordinate’s effort, productivity and loyalty are exchanged with expected rewards from the company

There are four different behavioral configurations that form the identity of transformational leadership and Idealized influence and inspirational motivation are the most important transformational configurations, These two are the behavioral components of charisma, the integral quality of a transformational leader. Idealized influence is charisma in theory  takes place where leaders are seen as role models, are respected and admired by their subordinates. Behaviors like the embracement of high morality, avoiding use of power for personal gain, emphasizing the mission and expssing values and beliefs also reflect the idealized influence. Inspirational motivation occurs when leaders motivate and inspire subordinates by providing meaning and challenge to their work. Intellectual stimulation is the third transformational configuration and ir is where the leaders cultivate creativity and diversity in situations. In individualized consideration the leader does give attention to each individual’s needs and do not assists in their development.

On the other hand, transactional leadership is identified by three behavioral constructs. the first one is the contingent reward where the relationship between the leader and the subordinates is characterized by an exchange. The second one is active management by exception in whereby the leaders monitor the subordinates to ensure that they do not make errors in their duties. Incase of an error, the leader makes this the point of management as he or she steps in. The third is management by exception which is passive. Compared with the second one and in this case the leader only step in when things are out of hand.
Laissez-faire leadership reflects the absence of leadership to the fullest extent as it has a non leadership construct.

Successful leadership practices across contexts

There is no single leadership practice that is applicable to all situations. There are three leadership practices that have scored above average in majority of situations. The identified leadership practices are aimed at setting the directions, attaining people development and redesigning the organization. These are mentioned as the basics of any successful leadership and  these practices are necessary in almost all contexts. It is also suggested that from recent findings these practices might be shared or distributed across individuals or teams although these practices were associated with individuals only. These practices are as explained in the following paragraphs.

Setting directions: Successful leadership is known to create a compelling sense on purpose in the organizations by developing a shared vision of the future and helping build consensus about relevant short-term goals. When directions are set, it means that there are high expectations for colleagues' work, and doing all that is requisite to help them achieve their targets. Accountability is also an important  aspect of setting directions.
Developing people. It includes providing intellectual simulation. This  practice is also entails  providing support for individual colleagues' ideas and initiatives. It  and provides leadership on important values and practices by being role models.

There are a number of ways that are used in the development of people and they include the acknowledgement of good, supporting staff in times of crisis, and engaging staff in critical reflection. The tools considered effective in the development of people include  instructional practices, mentoring as well as modeling the values  of people. Most successful leaders today are those who are visible and accessible to staff, students and parents. Such leaders are readily available to provide assistance as needed.

Redesigning the organization:  many successful leaders have been involved in, redesigning  the organization which they lead. Redesigning activities involve; the creation of structures that encourage participation in decision making, building a collaborative school system and cultivating healthy and productive interactions with the parents and the entire community.  In most countries, successful principals are reportedly known to support and encourage cultures that ensure collaboration. They do this by developing broad based structures, distributing leadership and also by de-privatizing the teaching practice.
It is evident that  practices are not mutually exclusive but they point out that the their main purpose is to have good and pdictable effects. 

In context, leadership is never an innocent activity since it a reflexively automatic activity. Rather, it is the context that provides the subtle, implicit, tacitly interpted cues for enacting actions every single day. This active process of conducting affairs in day to day practice is always shaped by the reflexively automatic use of tacit knowledge that is deployed case by case and by the principals themselves.

There are different models used in the description and measurement of the complicated leadership behaviour . Conventionally, leadership is a dual model, where one dimension is concerned with people and their interpersonal skills and the other is concerned with accomplishment of tasks and general production. However, recent studies have come up with multi-dimension approach to investigate and expound on the complexities of leadership in education and has identified a five-forces model -technical, human, educational, symbolic and cultural. This was further developed to a four dimensions model which suggested the following four dimensions: structural, human, political and symbolic. The two eventually culminated in five dimensions model which is explained as under.

Five dimensions model

The five dimensions are structural leadership, human leadership, political leadership, symbolic leadership and educational leadership.


Structural leadership means the exercising of leadership influence through rationality, efficiency, structure and policies. Principals with structural leadership emphasize on analysis and data, keeping performance above the bottom line, setting clear goals and directions and holding people accountable for results. They also use new policies and rules to try  finding solutions to organizational problems.

Human leadership is exerting leadership influence through the interaction between the individual and organizational needs. Such principals as those with human leadership emphasize relationships and feelings. They also seek to lead through empowerment and facilitation. These kind of leaders are likely to be democratic.

Political leadership refers to the leadership influence through dealing with conflict caused by scarcity of resources, mainly among different individuals, groups and interests. Principals with political leadership are good in negotiations and they spend much of their time networking, building a power base, creating coalitions and negotiating compromise with different interest groups.

Symbolic leadership this new-model refers to leadership as influence through the interptation of facts and emphasizing on socially constructed meanings in school. Principals whose style of leadership is symbolic leadership pay close attention to the important functions of superstitions, myths, rituals, ceremonies, stories and other symbolic figures.

Educational leadership refers to leadership influence through the generation and dissemination of educational knowledge and instructional information, development of teaching programmes and supervision of teaching performance. Principals with educational leadership encourage professional development and teaching improvement.

The principal’s leadership in terms of these five dimensions was found to be strongly associated with high organizational effectiveness, a strong organizational culture, positive principal-teacher relationships, greater more participation in decision making, high teacher spirit and professionalism, less teacher disengagement and hindrance, more teacher job satisfaction and commitment, and more positive student performance particularly concerning student attitudes to their schools and learning.

Instructional leadership

Definition:
Many researchers concur that there in not a universal definition of instructional leadership nor are there specific guidelines as to what constitutes an instructional leader. An instructional leader is an administrator who focuses on the process of instruction and lays down the mechanism of teacher, student and curriculum interactions. Educational leadership are all the efforts of the principal that are aimed at pserving or producing favorable educational ethos within the school. This is different from instructional leadership which refers to the specific area that addresses curriculum and instruction. There are three major forces that impact upon a school –the public, the staff and the students – and that these forces do the interaction through the curriculum. The instruction leader by manipulating these three forces should maximize the quality of interaction.
It encompasses a number of tasks ranging from defining the purpose schooling, setting objectives and measurable goals for the whole school, allocating the requisite resources for learning to take place, to supervising and evaluating teachers. In addition, coordinating staff development programs and creating collegial relationships with and among the teachers does fall under the roles of an instructional principal.

The term instructional leader seems to be pointing at the primary duty of the principal in his pursuit of high student achievement. Realizing such a pursuit would take “more than a strong principle with concrete ideas”. A principal must be focused on achievement, be a person who takes instructional quality as the top priority of the school, and must have the capability to bring that goal to realization.

Research also varies in the area of instructional leadership qualities. There is no universal leadership skill or set of skills that is appropriate for application in all instructional circumstances or schools. However, it possible to group together certain instructional leadership activities. These are as psented in the following four categories.

  • Goal emphasis: These are all those activities by which the principal focuses on student achievement by setting high expectations and instructional goals.
  • Coordination and organization: These are all the activities by the principal which are aimed at attaining effectiveness and efficiency.
  • Power and discretionary decision making: These are all those activities by which the principal secure resources and generates alternatives. Included here also are activities for assisting and facilitating the improvement of the instructional program.
  • Human relations: Activities aimed at dealing effectively with staff, parents, students and the entire school community

Repeating themes on instructional leadership qualities suggests a person-centered leadership orientation that focuses on working with teachers, subordinates, peers and the outside public to achieve effective institutional leadership. Mentioned below are the five general leadership qualities of effective leaders.

Vision: The institutional leader works towards a shared understanding of set targets and progresses towards their achievement by coordinating curriculum, giving requisite instructions and periodic assessments.

Translate the vision into action: The leader endeavors to achieve the set school wide expectations by involving every member of the school community and ensuring all work as a team.

Creating an enabling environment: The instructional leader should cultivate a school climate that is orderly, academic-oriented and purposeful. He or she should also be in the know of what the teachers are dong and how well.

Acting on knowledge: The principal should make periodic interventions, accommodating different teacher personalities, styles and leadership qualities.

Focus on instructional supervision is a vital component of instructional leadership. Supervision is fundamental to improved instruction and student achievement. Supervision is defined supervision as a general leadership function that is concerned with coordinating and managing all the activities concerned with school learning and it is important to involve  teachers in the process. There is more reflective model of supervision suggests that teachers vary in their goals and learning styles, supervisors should adopt supervision styles that are responsive to these differences. The principal’s influence determines whether the climate is favorable or unfavorable  for learning and that the most effective role may be more supportive than supervisory oriented.

Instructional improvement and accountability issues are addressed in an interesting supervision model. It is a two part model and is psented in a cyclical manner. The first part is a summative evaluation for determining whether minimal standards of accountability are met and the second part is a formative evaluation which dwells on growth and improvement. The two parts operate cyclically such that if minimal accountability standards are met, teachers move immediately to the formative side of model where they focus on improving a specific teaching area. Teachers can return to the formative side to work on another target once the cycle is completed, or move to the summative side to begin a new cycle. If the teachers do not meet accountability standards, they are either terminated or enter intensive assistance. Once intensive assistance is completed successfully, they can reenter the cycle at the formative side and so on.

A key area within the instructional leadership or supervision model is the planning in-service training or staff development. There are five steps of clinical supervision that include p-observation conference, analysis of observation, post-observation conference, and planning for improvement.

Research also mentions an additional criterion for instructional leaders whereby the principal should also be practicing teacher. For principkes to be credible, they need to work closely with students, develop teaching techniques and methods as a means for understanding teacher perspectives and for establishing a base on which to make curricular decisions. By practicing teaching, the principle serves a lot in emphasizing the belief that the purpose of the school is to meet the learning requirements of the students.

The importance of the principal’s role as an instructional leader and the direct relationship on changing instructional practice to improve student performance has been researched extensively. Instructional leadership is described as a series of behaviors that is designed to affect classroom instruction. In this environment, principals are responsible for informing teachers about new educational strategies, technologies and tools that apply to effective instruction. Principals must also assist teachers in critiquing these tools to determine their applicability to the classroom.

Instructional leadership is critical to the development and maintenance of an effective school. Instructional leaders must influence others to pair appropriate instructional practices with their best knowledge of the subject matter. The focus must always be on student Active Teaching, and principals must supply teachers with resources and incentives to keep their focus on students.
There are six dimensions critical in the practice of leadership including:

  1. (1) identifying and articulating a vision;
  2. (2) fostering the acceptance of group goals;
  3. (3) providing individualized support;
  4. (4) intellectual stimulation;
  5. (5) providing an appropriate model; and
  6. (6) high performance expectations.

For effective instructional leadership as a principal, one be performing at high levels in four areas – resource provider, instructional resource, communicator, and visible psence in the school:

  1. (1) As resource provider, the principal takes action to marshal personnel and resources within the building, district, and community to achieve the school’s vision and goals. These resources may be seen as materials, information, or opportunities, with the principal acting as a broker.
  2. (2) As instructional resource, the principal sets expectations for continual improvement of the instructional program and actively engages in staff development. Through this involvement, the principal participates in the improvement of classroom circumstances that enhance Active Teaching.
  3. (3) As communicator, the principal models commitment to school goals, articulates a vision toward instructional goals and the means for integrating instructional planning and goal attainment, and sets and adheres to clear performance standards for instruction and teacher behavior.
  4. (4) As visible psence, the principal is out and around in the school, visiting classrooms, attending departmental or grade-level meetings, walking the hallways, and holding spontaneous conversations with staff and students.

student achievement data revealed that the gain scores of students in strong-leader schools were significantly greater in both reading and mathematics than those of students in schools with average or weak leadership. A principal behaviors aimed at improving student achievement do not have the same direct impact on learners as does instruction by the classroom teacher. While principals have strong, direct effects on intermediate school variables, such as teacher attitudes, they have little direct effect on student outcomes. Removed from the classroom, principals can only influence student achievement indirectly by working through the teaching staff.

There are eight instructional leadership tasks for principals.

  1. (1) makes regular class visits;
  2. (2) promotes discussion of instructional issues;
  3. (3) minimizes class interruptions;
  4. (4) emphasizes test results;
  5. (5) participates in discussion about how instruction affects achievement;
  6. (6) ensures systematic monitoring of student progress;
  7. (7) communicates instructional goals; and
  8. (8) protects faculty from external pssures.

Principals in high-achieving schools, as measured by academic achievement in a variety of areas, are more effective instructional leaders than their counterparts in consistently low-achieving schools.
There are major differences between elementary and secondary principals and teachers’ perceptions of how instructional leadership behaviors are to be implemented in six categories of instructional leadership. The categories included goal setting, school-community relations, supervision and evaluation, school climate, instructional coordination and staff development.

Elementary principals often were personally more involved in planning and instructional supervision, whereas secondary school principals tended to delegate leadership responsibilities and influence instruction indirectly and symbolically. Leadership at the building level clearly influences student achievement and school effectiveness.


What is the impact of a schools climate on professional development of teachers and their relationships in the school.

The openness of a school climate is viewed as a pivotal second order characteristic of schools It middle schools could be viewed along a rough scale of climates from open to closed.
An open climate is defined as one that has open and sincere teacher-teacher and teacher-principal interactions. In such a climate, the participants are forthright with one another, supportive, receptive to the ideas of each other and always up to the task in hand. On the other hand, a closed school climate is characterized by highly secretive interactions, suspicion, restrictions, distance and disengaged. In such a climate  “game playing” and “posturing” permeate.

These two general dimensions are based on the level of openness and they provide the basis for a range of school climates. Through cross-partitioning openness in principal behavior with openness in teacher behavior, four categories of climate are identified.

Open climate; This is a school climate characterized freedom for teachers to act and the supervision is not close. The administrator is supportive of the teachers’ actions and suggestions, avoids bureaucracy and doesn’t burden teachers with a lot of work. In such an environment, there is great respect for the teachers professional competence and there is an open and warm feeling towards and among the members of the teaching staff. The members of the teaching staff are also committed to helping them and are open with them. This creates a very conducive environment for high performance from both the teachers and students. In simple terms, every member in this school climate is open in their behaviors. It is in this kind of environment where democratic kind of leadership is mainly found

Engaged climate

In this kind of a climate, the teachers work together to accomplish their goals, carry out their duties co-operatively and exhibit commitment to their students. However, and unlike in an open system, there is the lack of the principal support towards the teachers in their courses. Instead, the principal supervises them closely, and does not shield them from the burdens of bureaucratic routine. Despite the lack of the principals support, the climate however is still conducive enough for the teachers to professionally work together.  This means that in this kind of an environment, there is a closed relationship between the teachers and the principal but on the other hand thre is an open relationship between teacher and teachers, teachers and students and teachers and other members. Though this kind of leadership may not be democratic by principal, it seems it allows flexibility and some level of independence in the work-place.

 

Disengaged climate

The circumstances found in this kind of a school are the exact opposite of the engaged climate. The school principal accords the teaching staff all the requisite support, provides them with the necessary professional courtesy to do what is necessary, is opens in his decision-making process and welcomes constructive criticism and suggestions and also works to minimize the bureaucratic impediments. However, there is some level of indifference between the teaching staff members and the principal. The teachers are not committed to their students and are vulnerable to sabotage moves of peers and those of the principal. In these schools, the principal is dislike and teachers are disengaged from the tasks at hand. Concisely, although the principal’s behavior is open, teacher behaviors are closed.

 

Closed climate

The schools with a closed climate are not fit for the principal, the teachers, or the students. The principal highly distrusts the actions and motives of faculty, is unsupportive, bureaucratic and autocratic, and insists on perceived unnecessary paperwork. His behavior can be summarized as controlling ad therefore his behavior is controlling. On the other hand the teaching staff is nothing better,  they are unmindful abut their students as well as colleagues. They are unwilling to accept responsibility, regarding duties to both their students and colleagues. These behaviors in this climate can be summarized to be guarded and closed.

All schools should aim at achieving an open and authentic relationship. Healthy organizational dynamics assist in the realization of  positive student outcome. One can also conclude that teachers will feel free to pursue professionally enriching courses in an open climate. In an open climate, the implementation of any professional development program will be easier since it will be considerate and will address the needs of the teaching staff who are the intended beneficiary of the program. This is made possible by the open communication with staff which helps him to know their needs and how they would like them to be addressed. An open climate also assist the school to realize its purpose  since ot becomes a place where both the teachers and students are willing and happy to be rather than a place where they are forced by circumstances to be. In a school where there is trust among students, administrators and teachers, it is high is likely to offer a comfortable environment for both teachers and the students, as well as the principle.

CHAPTER 5.  RESULTS,

Results

The openness of a school climate is viewed as a pivotal second order characteristic of schools It middle schools could be viewed along a rough scale of climates from open to closed.
An open climate is defined as one that has open and sincere teacher-teacher and teacher-principal interactions. In such a climate, the participants are forthright with one another, supportive, receptive to the ideas of each other and always up to the task in hand. On the other hand, a closed school climate is characterized by highly secretive interactions, suspicion, restrictions, distance and disengaged. In such a climate  “game playing” and “posturing” permeate.

These two general dimensions are based on the level of openness and they provide the basis for a range of school climates. Through cross-partitioning openness in principal behavior with openness in teacher behavior, four categories of climate are identified.

Open climate; This is a school climate characterized freedom for teachers to act and the supervision is not close. The administrator is supportive of the teachers’ actions and suggestions, avoids bureaucracy and doesn’t burden teachers with a lot of work. In such an environment, there is great respect for the teachers professional competence and there is an open and warm feeling towards and among the members of the teaching staff. The members of the teaching staff are also committed to helping them and are open with them. This creates a very conducive environment for high performance from both the teachers and students. In simple terms, every member in this school climate is open in their behaviors. It is in this kind of environment where democratic kind of leadership is mainly found

 

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