The History Of The Shade Of Dark Tourism Tourism Essay
The aim of this research project is a critical analysis of dark tourism in relation to its application to Ground Zero and the 9/11 Memorial Museum in New York, USA. This dissertation will analyse dark tourism, related to Ground Zero and the 9/11 Memorial Museum, shade of dark tourism, Ground Zero and the 9/11 Memorial Museum, and strategies of them, then to depth analysis of details of Ground Zero and the 9/11 Memorial Museum.
The literature review shows secondary research and quantitative research, conducted on dark tourism is, the shade framework of dark tourism and some strategies of Ground Zero and 9/11 Memorial Museum. This indicates analyses structure of the case study.
Through this dissertation, the author aim and objectives were achieved, and further suggestions and analysis are provided which could help Ground Zero and 9/11 Memorial Museum better match their aim and mission.
Chapter 1. Introduction
In this section, why Ground Zero and the 9/11 Memorial Museum have been chosen as a case study are explained.
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September 11th, 2001 North America suffered a most serious terrorist attack by al - Qaeda. The World Trade Center in New York was destroyed and many people died in this attack. Nowadays, American and New York government decide build Ground Zero in the site of the World Trade Center and build the 9/11 Memorial Museum for people to remembers and understand how terrible terrorism is. After the 9/11 attacks, there are many people remembered victims through in many ways, and visitor numbers increased. In recent years, the dark tourism has start to develop (Sharpley and Stone, 2009), and the 9/11 attacks shocked the whole world thus, Ground Zero as a new building and the 9/11 Memorial Museum as the main memorial place, these are the main reasons for the author choosing them as a case study. These are related to dark tourism.
To undertake critical analysis of dark tourism in relation to its application to Ground Zero and 9/11 Memorial Museum.
To critically evaluate dark tourism.
To analyse Ground Zero and the 9/11 Memorial Museum as memorial sites.
To evaluate tourism management strategies in relation to balancing the negative and positive side of dark tourism relating to tourism at Ground Zero and the 9/11 Memorial Museum.
Chapter 2. Literature Review
This part is composed of research and information into the meaning of dark tourism and its various shades shade, the situation of Ground Zero and 9/11 Memorial Museum, and the strategies used to manage Ground Zero and memorial museum.
2.2 Evaluation of dark tourism
Each tourism product has a complex design, therefore it is not can easy to definite dark tourism as "dark" or "light" (Stone, 2006). In this situation, in order to distinguish dark tourism, the author needs a prudent scale to argue and analyse the shade of dark tourism. Stone (2006) made a summary of the different shade of dark tourism.
Table 1: shade of dark tourism
Stone (2006): A dark tourism spectrum: perceived product features of dark tourism within a "darkest - lightest" framework of supply.
Each dark tourism site could be analysed by this framework, to define its shade. For Ground Zero and the 9/11 Memorial Museum the author will use this table to analyse the shade from the definition of dark tourism mentioned above, it is easy to see that dark tourism relates to death and suffering, Stone (2006) referring to Miles (2002) suggests that the difference between "sites of death and suffering" and "sites associated with death and suffering" should be understood. The former is the site at a place where there has been death and suffering, and the latter is a site which is connected to death and suffering. Ground Zero was built at the site of the World Trade Center, which was destroyed in 2001 and in which almost 3000 people died (CNN news 2009), Ground Zero corresponds to the "sites of death and suffering". On the other hand 9/11 Memorial Museum is not built on the site of the World Trade Center, it just close to the site and its main purpose is to function as a memorial, so this museum is part of the "sites associated with death and suffering".
However, thorough other aspect in table 1 and based on the main theory from Stone (2006) and Miles (2002) , the shades of Ground Zero and 9/11 Memorial Museum and impact of dark tourism will be analysed late in the Findings section.
2.3 An analysis of Ground Zero.
In 09/11/2001, there was an attack by terrorists and the World Trade Center was destroyed, New York is currently rebuilding this site which has a new name "Ground Zero". 9/11 was the deadliest terrorist attack in the history of mankind, and now there is a different attitude to related to this site.
On May 1, 2011 President Obama announced that American Navy Seals had killed Osama bin Laden who was the mastermind of the 9/11 attacks. Alter (2011) points out that when America heard this news they celebrated and reflected on, most of them going to the grounds of the White House in Washington and to Ground Zero in New York. In this way Ground Zero may be a place for Americans to remember the people who died on 11th September. Although the World Trade Center was destroyed, but now when the people look at Ground Zero, they will recall the memory of 9/11 and they mourn the dead people. In order to offer a good place to people for memory the government is building a museum in 2006 and put into use in 2011 (9/11 Memorial Museum). As can be seen from this place today, Ground Zero and the 9/11 Memorial museum becomes the main place to have a memory of dead people.
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These information which mentioned above show one of the main purpose of Ground Zero and the 9/11 Memorial Museum is to remember victims. In this sense, the provide information help the author achieve the objective 2, which is Ground Zero and the 9/11 Memorial Museum are memorial sites in New York.
Memory as the main reason for Ground Zero, and in recent years, especially after 9/11 American government has been ceaselessly the implementating stringent anti- terrorism measures. Miller (2011) points that
"â€¦the 9/11 terrorist attacks set the stage for the "War on Terrorism," in the form of subsequent U.S led invasions of Afghanistan and Iraq."
In the past, there have been other terrorist attacks on America, but none created such a great influence, in the sense of 9/11 which meant terrorist declared war on humans, and after this event the American government made a strong response to terrorism, and the rebuilding at the site of the World Trade Center means people do not bow to terrorism (Walsh, 2001). In this situation, Ground Zero will be a sign of war on terrorism. Because of the 9/11 terrorism attacks, the U.S government launched a massive counterattack to terrorism, and also affect on the policies and strategies. More details will be analysed in the Findings later.
2.4 Strategies of Ground Zero and 9/11 memorial museum.
Sliverstein et al., (2012) in their report refer to after the 9/11 the main signification and action of the World Trade Center is rebuild and memorial. Ground Zero is the new building on the site of the World Trade Center and today the main place to remember 9/11 victims is at the 9/11 Memorial Museum. The author summarises a time line about the main actions of America and New York between 2001 to 2011.
Table 2: Main strategies of America and New York after the 9/11
This table just a summarise of the main strategies and action that government used in the past 10 years. Through this table could help the author clean understand the main action of American and New York government to do after 9/11 terrorism attacks. In the findings, the author will use this table to analysis more detail of the government do and related to the significants of Ground Zero and 9/11 Memorial Museum to analyses. Except strategies and policies on table 2, the author will based on Porter's (1985) generic strategy to make a professional strategies anaysis of Ground Zero and the 9/11 Memorial Museum. There are two ways which suitable for Ground Zero and 9/11 Memorial Museum to achieve their mission and help the author achieve objective 3: differentiation and cost leadership. Although the Ground Zero and 9/11 Memorial Museum are nonprofits making organisations but their main purpose is make more people understand 9/11 and how horrible terrorism is. In this situation, Ground Zero and the 9/11 Memorial Museum also needed strategies to develop them.
When an organisation uses a different strategy, it seeks to offer something unique to its customers that they will appreciate. This can be found in marketing sales or the actual product or service. This strategy usually involves charging a premium price to customers to cover the higher production costs and added-value feature. If a organisation uses the cost leadership strategy then it aims to be the lowest-cost producer in the industry to which it belongs. This strategy is usually employed by a large business that produces a standard with little differentiation. It will offer discounts on the products to further increase profits and market share (Porter, 2004). The basis of above-average performance within an industry is sustainable competitive advantage.
A cost leadership approach means a firm sets out to become the low cost producer in its industry. Note that a cost leader must achieve parity or at least proximity on the bases of differentiation, even though it relies on cost leadership for its competitive advantage, if more than one company aim for cost leadership, usually this is disastrous, it is often achieved by economies of scale. In this case study, the Ground Zero and 9/11 Memorial Museum are free for tourists, although some other museum also feel free but the Ground Zero and 9/11 Memorial Museum try to add more value on their products. In the museum, the organisation offers more useful value and information to customers (9/11 Memorial Museum Organisation) more service details will be analysed in the Findings.
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The differentiation approach means that a firm seeks to be unique in its industry along some dimensions that are widely valued by buyers (Porter 2004). A differentiator can not ignore its cost position. In all areas that do not affect its differentiation, it should try to decrease the cost; in the differentiation area, the costs should at least be lower than the price premium it receives from the buyers. The areas of differentiation can be product, distribution, sales, marketing, service and image. In this paper, because of Ground Zero and 9/11 Memorial Museum are free for customers, therefore the cost of products in not gong to be the center of analysis in this paper. How are Ground Zero and 9/11 Memorial Museum different? Based on Donofrio (2010) and Nevins (2005) refer that 9/11 is the most serious and horrible terrorist attack in the history of mankind, and caused a very serious impact on humans, especially families. In this respect, Ground Zero as the site of this terribel incident it has a special meaning, but also it is the most direct place for people to have a memorial for 9/11. For 9/11 Memorial Museum, today this site has become one of the most important places for people to remember 9/11. Because the place of Ground Zero is crowded by traffic, if too many people go there to for remembrance it will impact on traffic, so the government built a museum near by the site of the World Trade Center. For the reasons mentioned above, the Ground Zero and 9/11 Memorial Museum are different from other museum and dark tourism sites. Differentiation strategy is suitable for them to provide a high level of products and services. In the findings the author will make more analysis about these two strategies.
This chapter makes a summarised evaluation of dark tourism, the author pays more attention on the shade of Ground Zero and the 9/11 Memorial Museum, this is in order to understand the nature of dark tourism, and the other part assess the impact of dark tourism will be analysed in the Findings. Because the author considered understanding nature of the dark tourism could help author to better analysis. Dark tourism is a whole industry, in this paper the author chose Ground Zero and 9/11 Memorial Museum as case study, so in this part author also give some short evaluation of Ground Zero and 9/11 Memorial Museum, a simple analysis the shade of Ground Zero and 9/11 Memorial Museum, and what their mean, it gives out a brief summary of them. The part of 2.2 - 3 the author based on the characteristics of Ground Zero and 9/11 Memorial Museum point out two suitable strategies for them to develop, achieve their mission and try to offer a high level of service and information to tourists.
In part 2.2 of literature review, the author gives out an overall framework and structure of the whole paper, and expounded which different aspects the author considered and analysed to achieve the aim of this paper based on other authors' theories which author researched through secondary research and qualitative research.
Chapter Three: Methodology
There are many different approach and methods to collect data and information in order to achieve the ultimate goal and solve the research question. This chapter mentions how and why the research data were collected, and also advantages and disadvantages of the chosen methods and how to remedy the disadvantage are presented. The data collected are reliable, credible, and authentic. Steward and Kamins (1993) point out that the main research methods could be divided into primary research, secondary research, qualitative research and quantitative research. As the author determined the overall use of secondary research was chosen in this project to achieve the aim, so methodology will provide sufficient justification to explain why secondary research was selected. Thoms (2009) points out that successful research should include the following elements: purpose, question, approach, and method. Hart (2007. p28) argues that the procedure for formulating a method is a system of methods and rules to be collected and analysis of data and information. In the following paragraph the author will follow Thoms (2009) and Hart's (2007) elements to present the methodology and analyse why secondary research was chosen to collect the data and how to analyse the information .
3.2 The Research Process
To determine the choice of approach in the research process, the author will use the following ''Research Process 'Onion model'', introduced by Saunders et al. (2003) is used. The research process onion allows the researcher to identify the many different layers in the research process and to eliminate or identify the most suitable process.
The research process 'onion' consists of the following five different layers:
The model is used by starting from step one, the outer layer, which illustrates research philosophy, and peeling away the layers when different criteria have been set until reaching the end, which introduces the possible data collection methods. Once the last step has been reached, the parameters of the research have been established.
3.3 Type of research
The first stage of the research onion is called research philosophy. Saunders et al (2003, p. 83) argue that the research philosophy depends on "â€¦the way that you think about the development of the knowledge." There are four main philosophies that are used to approach the research: positivist, interpretive, realism, and phenomenology.
There are two features of positivism philosophy, they are belief that the natural and the social sciences could help the author achieve the aim through the collection of data and information and to explain, then offer an external reality data support and explain the points (Bryman 2001). On the other hand, the interpretivistic philosophy asserts that the assumptions of both philosophies are unwarranted; especially in cases where the objectives of study are influenced by many factors, and are extremely difficult to isolate and control in experimental laboratory settings (Hirschheim and Klein 1994). The realistic philosophy shares two features with a positivism philosophy: a belief that the natural and the social sciences should apply the same kinds of approach to the collection of data and to explanation, and a commitment to the view that there is an external reality to which scientists direct their attention (Bryman 2001).
The first three are not appropriate to this study as the positivist paradigm requires mainly quantitative data and uses large samples; interpretive paradigm is more concerned with generating theories and realism investigates relationship between two variables. The latter one has been used for this study as it was the most suitable for this type of research.
The phenomenological approach can be applied to a single case, which is appropriate to this research study as the researcher used one Ground Zero and the 9/11 Memorial Museum as a case study for investigation. The use of phenomenology in the scenario then was to look into what presented itself that is the tourist attraction, its facilities and performance and then explore 'behind the scenes' and question how the tourism operators sell themselves and of any special techniques which are used to do this. This is summarized by Mariampolski (2001):
"According to phenomenology, the purpose of the human sciences - which presumably includes market research - is to pry beneath the surface to expose these categories and habits of mind that shape out perceptions."
This research study lends itself to a realistic approach, where the author recognises that areas such as 'strategy' and 'visitors attitudes' cannot be measured and studied in the same way physical process can. Instead, the author wants to discover the mechanisms that brought Ground Zero and the 9/11 Memorial Museum prosper and where possible, will try to measure the theory applied within the study. ''The existence of competing, or even explanations is one of the features of realist research." (Fisher, 2004. p 16)
3.4 Research strategies and approach
The research objectives were to investigate the key metrics as indicators for success; this involved conducting secondary research by studying data and reports. Based on the objectives, it can be said that this research is an explanatory study. According to Robson (1993), this is a type of discovery is:
"What is happening; to seek new insights; to ask questions and to assess phenomena in a new light."
Exploratory studies are about discovering new information and generating ideas and hypotheses. The researcher explored the factors that contribute to Ground Zero and the 9/11 Memorial Museum, and how these places gaining a competitive advantage as these were unknown prior to conducting the study.
The approach to the study involved a combination of inductive and deductive approaches, inductive because the researcher collected data and then analysed it to draw conclusions and offer theories; deductive because the researcher studied previous research and evidence through the literature review and then compared it to findings to see how they corresponded or contrasted with each other. ''The strength of inductive arguments is often weaker than deductions. Deductions are certainties but inductive conclusions are probabilities'' (Fisher, 2004. p 76)
These diverse methods area particularly suited for the research as it requires different analysis and allows for more research to be conducted and analysed. Some qualitative data were used for secondary research, involving studying statistic at figures which relates to the three objectives in finding out the indicators of success. Once this data was analysed conclusions were offered to how Ground Zero and the 9/11 Memorial Museum gains a competitive advantage.
3.5 Research choice
The study will benefit from the use of current secondary data to make clear many of the contradictory findings throughout various authors' work, therefore, a report-based approach to data collection was adopted, by examining the annual reports and surveys conducted. In the following section the author will analyes why secondary research was chosen.
Gene (1976) points out that secondary research is a way to reanalyse data to answer the question, to achieve the purpose, or use old data to answer a new question. Thus, secondary research is through books, journals, websites, or other researchers' findings were used to collect data and material.
For primary research and secondary research each have their own advantages, for primary research, Steward and Kamins (1993) indicate that primary research have the following advantages. The first is primary research which could allow the researcher collect the data they want and report it in a beneficial way to support the researcher. The second is primary research enables the author to better grasp and control how the information is collected. The last is the way to help companies who under take primary research to keep information hidden from the competitors and possibly offer an "information advantage" to these companies. Primary research has some deficiencies but for the author, the project's research will use the secondary research.
The author will first point out is to the advantages of secondary research. Steward and Kamins (1993) also given some advantages of secondary research. The biggest advantage of secondary research is saving time and cost, because secondary research allows the author to use of secondary data to support a point of view and this will be easier, and sometimes secondary research could provide a higher quality of data than from a new research, like primary research. If the author wants to obtain some information about suggestions for problem planning, research hypotheses and research methods, secondary research could provide these additional advantages. In addition, secondary research also helps researchers to clarify the issue they want to study, and previous primary research can help clarify the focus of the study.
Although there are some deficiencies with secondary research, Bryman and Bell (2007, p.334) point out the limitation of secondary research as the following three:
1. Lack of data relating to the research.
2. The data that are collected are complex; some of these data have a large number of respondents and variables.
3. The quality of data is not controllable.
3.6. Construction of the research
For this dissertation, a lot of data were obtained from references source such as books, journals, reports, and networks. Most books which author found were in university library. Not only books, but also a large number of journals, magazines, E - bookwere used. For secondary research, the author also included information from found websites. The network of all the information from the New York government websites, local government websites, other reports, and Emerald, in these data also include information from E - books, these can ensure the data's authenticity, reliability, accuracy and credibility. Real data are better to support this dissertation, and make this dissertation more credible and make up defect of secondary research.
According to the aim and objectives, there is much information and data to support this dissertation, however, many of these data sources are not irrelevant. For this reason, the author will consider many aspects of this dissertation to choose the relevant, credible, accurate information, the author will also consider the quality of data, year of information, and when it was published.
3.7 Assessment schematic
Rudestam and Newton (2001, p. 60) argue that you need to keep a perspective, and do an evaluation of the advantages of this study, at the same time make a comparative study with same or similar problems.
The purpose of the assessment diagram is to ensure that data collection is credible, reliable, effective and could be used for this study.
1. Survey of major issues:
Analysis of what are the main issues to be investigated and definition of the concept of the author's work, allows comparison of similar studies.
To enquire and evaluate what hypotheses has been stated and whether the theoretical framework is narrowed or broadened
3.The appropriate data for the study
To question whether the collected data are appropriate and how they have influenced results and findings.
This chapter explains why the author would choose secondary research to collect and evaluate data. Meanwhile, the author also aware of the limitation of secondary research, therefore, the author would analysis more information and theories to support this study. In this part, the structure will be illustrated that how the author collect information, how to select suitable, correct and accurate information.
Chapter 4 Findings
4.1 Evaluation of Dark Tourism.
Part 4.1 will introduce the situation of "dark tourism" and provide a depth analysis of dark tourism in order for the reader to gain an overall concept of dark tourism, and the details of Ground Zero and 9/11 Memorial Museum will be given in part 4.2. This paper uses Ground Zero and the 9/11 Memorial Museum for the case study. The museum is a kind of exhibition showing pictures, voices, and experiences, therefore, this part critically examines the value that contemporary and controversial exhibitions techniques play in the visitor experience at sites of historical significance.
According to Lennon (2000), dark tourism is a kind of tourism 'products' that signify a fundamental shift in the way in which death, disaster and atrocity are being handled. Sharpley and Stone (2011) also point out that dark tourism includes travel to sites about deaths, disasters and atrocities. It can be easy to understand the definition of 'dark' tourism (also known as black tourism or grief tourism) as a kind of tourism product, meaning a place that people visit in memory of death, disaster, suffering, violence or atrocity.
One emerging area of special interest has been identified by Lennon et al. (2000) as 'dark' tourism. This type of tourism involves visits to 'dark' sites such as battlegrounds, scenes of horrific crimes or acts of genocide, for example concentration camps. Dark tourism remains a small niche market, driven by a wide variety of visitor motivations such as mourning, remembrance, education, macabre curiosity or even entertainment, depending on the social, cultural and political context (Stone, 2006). In this study, the author takes a neutral stance on this issue. There are both positive and negative aspects in contemporary exhibition techniques. Consequently, a particularly complex issue revolves around the consumption of dark tourism. People usually visit such dark sites for emotive and controversial ideas. Someone, within contemporary society, visits such places out of respect and remembrance. Someone could obtain a secret pleasure in gazing on the macabre. While, some people contemplate their own mortality at such attractions and exhibitions (Stone, 2006).
Nowadays, visitors are no longer satisfied to loll on the beach or gather around the hotel bar with other tourists. The increasing attention paid to the phenomenon of dark tourism may arguably be symptomatic of the trend within academic circles to identify and label specific forms of tourism, or to subdivide tourism into niche products and markets (Novelli, 2005). Visiting Nazi death camps in eastern Europe as a holiday itinerary, enjoying family picnics on the battlefields in northern France, purchasing souvenirs at Ground Zero and allowing schoolchildren to gaze upon tools of torture at the London Dungeon, are all examples of the macabre exhibition.
Consequently, the term 'dark tourism' has been gradually entering the public, such as academic and media discourse. By definition, dark tourism mean the visits, intentional or otherwise, to purposeful / non-purposeful sites which offer a presentation of death or suffering (Stone, 2005).
Likewise, Tarlow (2005) identifies dark tourism as visitations to places where tragedies or historic deaths have occurred and that continue to impact on people`s lives. Dark tourism sites can be divided into several categories and can be defined in terms of site structure and tourist experience features. The usual type of site is interpretive and historical, whether it is located at the primary scene of an atrocity or at a geographically unrelated place. Often taking on the form of a museum, such places exhibit a narrative and an event-based view of violence, leading the tourists through the history and details of a particular tragedy. An 'in-context' technique, (Kirshenblatt-Gimblett, 1998) to contextualise via labelling and explanation, characterises such displays and works to present violence as explainable and cognitive through education and information.
4.1-1 Positive affects of dark tourism
Tung and Ritchie (2011) states that tourism is a way for people seek the experiences and open a way to absorption of those experiences. People collect experiences through travel, go different place, meet different people and culture and experiment different life style. Understand world could help us understand ourselves and develop ourselves (Lanterman 2007 referred to Boniface 1998). Although people can learn many things from school, but experiences of life should experiment by people themselves, tourism provides a way to us to learn. In ancient time, Marco Polo traveled to Asia from Europe, when he backed to his country, he brought many advance technology to his country and made European experiment a lot of new things which they never saw before. Today, with developing of dark tourism, there are many new things for tourists to experience enrich themselves.
With the degree of infrastructure and normality that surround the supply of dark tourism, even on varying scales (Stone and Sharpley, 2009), the increasingly socially acceptable gaze on death and its reconceptualisation either for entertainment, education or memorial purpose offers both the individual and collective self a practical confrontational mechanism to begin the process of neutralising the impact of mortality.
The educational meaning of dark tourism. Sharpley et al. (2010) state that in the UK, around 30% of schools undertook tours to battlefields. Visiting battlefields provides an opportunity to bring history to life, for history students to gain an understanding of what it might have been like to be a soldier of the time. Religious Studies students may visit sites of mass slaughter in order to explore the spiritual issues and the reactions of different faiths (Sharpley et al., 2010). For Ground Zero and the 9/11 Memorial Museum, they are a part of history of human, and they as the sign of 9/11 it own a special significant, and visitors could learning many things about terrorism and peace in these. Although a tour may exhibit some particular darkness, the experience of visiting battlefields may provide young people with a chance to explore their reactions to death. This reflects the potential mediating role of dark tourism.
Secondly, is full of memory to visits. Memorialisation and interpretation are two ways of assuaging feelings such as guilt, fear of forgetting, remembrance and reconciliation (Sharpley et al., 2010). A mass number of visitors to Auschwitz may think of their visit as a pilgrimage, particularly visitors who are survivors or family members of survivors and victims (Keil, 2005). Significant controversy surrounded the construction of the viewing platform at Ground Zero and the 9/11 Memorial Museum, enabling casual or even voyeuristic visitors to stand alongside those mourning the loss of loved ones (Lisle, 2004). One of the main purpose of Ground Zero and the 9/11 Memorial Museum is provide a place to people for remember the victims in 9/11 terrorism attacks, which will be depth analyses later in part of 4.2. For this section, Ground Zero and the 9/11 Memorial Museum are full of memory for people to visit.
Some tourism destinations expose how violent events experience retrospective valuation within their given social contexts (Minnaert et, al. 2009). There are sites which demonstrate historical identity and memory, either through the construction of a monument or through the elimination of evidence from a historic site. Also take Ground Zero and the 9/11 Memorial Museum as an example. In the 9/11 Memorial Museum there are many pictures and videos to show the real violent of 9/11 terrorism attacks,
The next signification of dark tourism and museum exhibition is offer a restoring authenticity to the customers. The attempt at keeping the site as it was at the moment of violence also suggests how touristic authenticity is employed. Authenticity has been a longterm concern for tourism scholars, who see the tourist encounter being influenced by visitors' expectations that hosts and curators strive to meet (Smith, 1989). Some attractions, which are located at the place of the actual violence, often rely on an 'in situ' technique, whereby exhibitions are given context through the re-creation, maintenance or restoration of the habitat in which they occurred (Kirshenblatt-Gimblett, 1998), and Ground Zero and the 9/11 Memorial Museum will be a good examples to analyses this point. As people know, Ground Zero is rebuilt on the site of the World Trade Center, and the 9/11 Memorial Museum is located to Ground Zero. The ruins of the World Trade Center is the sign 9/11 terrorism attacks and Ground Zero is a new building of the World Trade Center, it also could be the sign of 9/11 and it could remind people remember 9/11. For the 9/11 Memorial Museum, there are many sources about 9/11 terrorism attacks includes pictures, photos, videos, voices and name of victims, all of these source are real reflect 9/11 terrorism attacks to visitors.
4.1-2 Negative effects of dark tourism.
Dark tourism has both positive and negative aspects, the negative affects of dark tourism will be analysis as following.
The first negative effect is ethical and ideological issues. Dark tourism affords the conceptualisation of death and mortality into forms that stimulate something other than original terror and dread. Ethics have been conceptualised as rules and principles that assert authority to guide the actions of groups and communities (Singer, 1994). The history of moral philosophy involves some concepts of behaviour such as systemising, defending, rethinking and recommending, which indicates ethics are not static concepts (Singer, 1994). Tourism ethics are discussed in the context of tourism being the main economic engine that can negatively temper and influence host communities in a destination which is regarded as culturally sensitive (Miller et al., 2000).
Seaton et al. (2004) state:
"Individuals collectively assemble in seemingly 'dark spaces' and gaze upon sordid human activity or collectively consume grief and tragedy that is often reported upon by the media as 'moral panic'."
Although Ground Zero and the 9/11 Memorial Museum have many positive aspects, but for the al Qaeda, maybe they will thought Ground Zero is masterwork of them. In recent year, someone said the place where Bin Laden died should be a scenic spot, and some news (foxnews, 2011) online showed someone worried if this place become to a attractions, will attract Bin Laden's followers come here to worship. In a sense, this will promote the development of terrorism. Dailymail News (2011) also point out that "there are fears that thousands of al Qaeda sympathisers could flock to the spot where he was shot." BBC (2011) states, Bin Laden as the leader of Al Qaeda, his place is very high, but also a terrible person. It is hard to say Ground Zero and the 9/11 Memorial Museum will not attract al Qaeda. In order to avoid this problem, need the government provide a useful strategies to manage Ground Zero and the 9/11 Memorial Museum. Lisle (2007) point if a place will do dark tourism, they must have a good system to manage in order to prevent some social problems, and Tarlow (2005) also argue this point, if the local government could not manage it well the dark tourism will guide tourists go to a wrong way, it is not good for tourism develop. Actually, America and New York government indeed through efficient strategies, and more details of strategies will be analysed later in the part of 4.3.
Lennon and Foley (2000) argue that horror and death have become established commodities, on sale to tourists who have an enduring appetite for the darkest elements of human history. Some visitors seek superficial amusement, novelty and fun. The dungeon visitors` attraction creates fun and entertainment at a rudimentary level. As a tourist attraction it has strategically deployed taboo subjects and commercially exploited macabre and tragic history.
It is unacceptable to make profit from the deceased, and in particular, from those dying through notorious acts of violence and exhibiting commercial activities at such place (Sharply et al., 2010). For example, Holocaust sites, such as Auschwitz, to what extent should visitor services are provided. Ground Zero and the 9/11 Memorial Museum as a place to remember 9/11terroeism attack and death people, the orgainsation offers totally free service to visitors.
For dark tourism, the positive aspect could help Ground Zero and the 9/11 Memorial Museum to guide visitors, to provide educational and authenticity information, to restore history to tourists. Meanwhile, they can really make the visitors experience how dangers of terrorism during a visit, and which can act as advocates to boycott role of terrorism. The positive publicity achieve the original meaning of Ground Zero and the 9/11 Memorial Museum, it is to remember the victims, as well as the fight against terrorism. From the other hand to show visitors the valuable benefits of peace. Also mentioned that in the previous, dark tourism also has its negative side, in this case study, for Ground Zero may become to a achievement for al Qaeda, this requires the America and New York government to manage with active strategies, publicity, and continue to provide a positive impacts to the visitors, in order to minimise the negative impact. However, the sites or attractions such as Ground Zero and 9/11 Memorial Museum still need efficient and proper development, management and promotion. Undoubtedly, relevant specialists with good understanding of the phenomenon of dark tourism within social, cultural, historical and political contexts are essentially required.
4.1 -3 Shades of dark tourism
As mentioned above dark tourism it is not a simple concept to sell as a simple product, it is multifaceted, therefore the author will use shades (table 1 in the literature review) to analyse dark tourism from different angles.
Stone (2006) refers to Seaton (1999 and 2002) who points out that products of dark tourism not only rest with tourists' taste, but are also influenced by the media, commercial marketing strategies of the organisations and suppliers, and the political and cultural climate. Based on these reasons Rojek and Urry (1997) divide the shade of darkness for dark tourism into two main categories: events (such as war, massacre, disaster, terrorist attack) and files of representation (such as pictures, films, and novels). Strange and Kempa (2003) argue that although each dark tourism site has its own characteristics, it is still hard to say which is dark and which is white, meaning that "dark" or "white" are too broad to define a dark tourism site, and in this case " darker - lighter tourism paradigm does indeed exist" Stone (2006) refers to Miles (2002). Due to the characteristics of dark tourism, is best understood when the shades of dark tourism are discuessed, as this would help the author when analysing Ground Zero and the 9/11 Memorial Museum better. In this dissertation, the author will use the shade framework mentioned in the literature review is used to analyse the case. Stone (2006, p,152) based on Sharpley (2005) comments that:
"â€¦based upon differing intensities of purpose with respect to both the supply of and consumption of dark tourism, the different 'shades' of dark tourism may be identified."
As the "shade" of dark tourism will be influenced by supply and consumption, thus the supply plays an important role in dark tourism, and it is necessary to understand the various types of suppliers of dark tourism. Stone (2006) summarises seven different types of dark suppliers, they are: dark fun factories, dark exhibitions, dark dungeons, dark resting places, dark shrines, dark conflict sites and dark camps of genocide. Based on the definition of each supplier, the products of dark exhibitions should relate to death and suffering. Ground Zero and the 9/11 Memorial Museum are places for people to remember the terrorism attacks and the 9/11 Memorial Museum shows many pictures, voices and shares the stories about the terrorism attack, thus these two places belong to "dark exhibitions". Meanwhile Stone (2006) that argue the dark exhibitions should be full of education and signification, to make people learn something and gain experience from them. For this study, the significance of Ground Zero and the 9/11 Memorial Museum are mentioned in the literature review, based on Stone's (2006) dark supplier, the author will give more significance in the following part, as well as an analysis of their shade by table 1.
4.2 An analysis of Ground Zero and 9/11 Memorial Museumã€‚
In this section the author will analyse the different shades of dark tourism and analyse the shade and signification of Ground Zero and 9/11 Memorial Museum. In part of literature review, the author already has given out two main justifications for them, they are: memorial places and sign of the ugly side of war on terrorism. In this section, the author will have an in depth analysis these issues.
Firstly, in previons section it is seen that dark exhibitions should be full of education, so the educational aspect will be looked at first. As people known, grief will damage the physical and mental health of human, and they should pay more attention on social activities, past memorises and get a vision for the future (Parkes 2002). Base on this theory, Ground Zero and the 9/11 Memorial Museum they record the grief of 9/11 terrorism attacks, but the new building of museum and rebuild the World Trade Center is a sign for people to remember the people who died in the attacks (memories of the past) and meet the new life (vision for the future), thus the Ground Zero and 9/11 Memorial Museum confirm Parkers's (2002) point of view, telling people vividly about history and grief, thus these two places are not just places for people to remember, but also a sign for people to start a new life.
In addition, in government website of 9/11 Memorial Museum they cooperated with New York City Department of Education and the New Jersey Commission on Holocaust Education (2011) to make teaching plans to offer useful educational programs to offer information and knowledge about the events of 9/11, history of attacks, and the post - 9/11 world. Meanwhile, they also help people who have lost people in the terrorism attacks out of the pain and grief. The government website said they received many parents message that they do not know how to teach their children the history about 9/11 and what happened in the 9/11 terrorism attacks, in this way the 9/11 Memorial Museum offer a plan on their website to all parents, on how to tell the true history of 9/11 event to their children, and this information is all free. The objective is to face up to the history is necessary for the people, and everybody has a right to understand the history, thus the teaching and learning plans of 9/11 Memorial Museum offer an effective way for people to understand their history. From these, the 9/11 Memorial Museum provided a wealth of information is telling visitors the dangers of terrorism, stay away from terrorism, against terrorism and peace - loving, has a strong role in education.
There is another reason for people to understand the real terrorism attacks in the museum that is museum cooperation with StoryCorps to record the terrorist attacks of 26/02/1993 and 11/09/2001, which include the narratives from survivors, rescue workers, witnesses, service providers and other people impacted by these events, therefore the museum tries to restore the historical truth (9/11 Memorial Museum website). Rogers and Soyka (2004) suggest through an interview, that a survivor's description, recording and voices from the scene, and pictures of the scene, are the best ways to show a true picture of 9/11. Based on these the Ground Zero and 9/11 Memorial Museum tells the real history which expands range of educational activities. Above mentioned which not only shows education function of the 9/11 Memorial Museum, but also expression the social function, that is restore the true history to people.
Through education, they hope to publicise the harmfulness of terrorism. The other major significance of the Ground Zero and 9/11 Memorial Museum is tell people how terrible terrorism is and how human will always oppose terrorism (Espiritu and Moore 2008). Based on the voice of survivors which is on exhibition in 9/11Memorial Museum, reveals the dread, alarm, helplessness, hopelessness and pain when the attacks happened (Miller 2011). Ground Zero is rebuilding on the site of the World Trade Center, and when people pass the site, they can see the ruins, which shows the destructive effect of terrorism. Meanwhile, the pictures in the 9/11 Memorial Museum show the whole history of 9/11 and pass 9/11, it tells visitors the true ugly features of terrorism and how beautiful peace is, and the visitor will be shocked through these pictures ( Bohland 2004). To view the various of all kinds of pictures, and hear the voices in the 9/11 Memorial Museum, as well as the ruins of the World Trade Center, both show people the danger, destructive and terrible side of terrorism.
In addition, apart from except the above section, one of the major significance of Ground Zero and 9/11 Memorial Museum is to provide a venue for people around the world to remember the 9/11, as well as to commemorate the people killed in this terrorism attack. After 9/11 in 2001, many visitors that go to the World Trade Center site have visited to grieve over the deaths. Especially in 9/11 2011, the ten years of 9/11 terrorism attacks, have seem the American people hold comment that memorial activities in the World Trade Center site. BBC News (2011) on that day many people went into the World Trade Center in New York, the Pentagon and Pennsylvania to honour the victims. On September 10, former US president George - W - Bush laid a wreath to honour the victims and on September 8, there were two lights piercing the horizon from the World Trade Center site to honour the tenth anniversary after the terrorism attacks. The 9/11 Memorial Museum was opened on that day (9/11 Memorial Museum website and NY1 news, 2011). The main 9/11 Memorial Museum chose to open on the tenth anniversary to honour 9/11 attack. That day, it opened for victims' family and was opened to the public on 12/09/2011. Because many people go to Ground Zero to honour victims, in order to reduce the traffic, as well as not to affect construction work around Ground Zero, thus the government built the 9/11 Memorial Museum. Ground Zero and the 9/11 Memorial Museum are centres of the people to remember the 9/11 terrorist attacks events.
Another significance is the sign for the war on terrorism, as mentioned in the literature review. After the 9/11 terrorist attacks, the American government published policies against terrorist, and the World Trade Center was seen as the centre of the terrorist attacks, thus the new construction on the site of the World Trade Center has become one of the important symbol of the U.S. government anti - terrorism (Melnick 2009).
Education, restore true history, shows terrible of terrorism and sign of war on terrorism are major significations related to these two sites. Ground Zero and the 9/11 Memorial Museum play a very important role on the fight against terrorism, and full of social function (education people, restore history) and service function (provide the pictures, videos, voice to people and provide places for people to remember)
Based on the significations and the shade of dark tourism mentioned in the literature review, in the next section the author will use the table 1 to analysis the shade of the Ground Zero and the 9/11 Memorial Museum.
4.2-2 Shade of the Ground Zero and 9/11 Memorial Museum
Refer to literature review, Miles (2002) say author should understand distinction between "sites associated with death and suffering", and "sites of death and suffering". Based on this theory, Stone (2006) give out an example Auschwitz - Birkenau is the "site of death and suffering", but the US Holocaust Memorial Museum in Washington DC is belong to "sites associated with death and suffering". Because the Auschwitz - Birkenau is the direct place that the Nazi imprison and massacre the people, however, the US Holocaust Memorial Museum is a museum to memorial the massacre, it is a place to memorial the events, thus the shade of the Auschwitz - Birkenau isdarker than the US Holocaust Memorial Museum. In Stone's (2006) paper, he suggests that,
"â€¦recent death and tragic events that may be transported in live memory through survivors or witnesses are perhaps 'darker' than other events that have descended into the distant past"
Because of this, those dark events like the Auschwitz - Birkenau and the Ground Zero which can be described as "darker" because of them can be proved by the survival and living the place could arouse a greater sense of empathy (Stone, 2006). As the above theories, the author considered the Ground Zero can be classified in "darker" and the 9/11 Memorial Museum is lighter than former, could be describe as "dark". In the following part, the author will use table to analysis more details to explain why the Ground Zero is belong to "darker" and 9/11 Memorial Museum is "dark"
Analysis through the table 1 from top to bottom, the first one is about "polities". As known after 9/11 terrorism attacks events, American government implementation of a series of anti - terrorism policies, and the strength is more strong than before the 9/11 events. The main and official aim is to exterminate al - Qaeda and other terrorist organizations. In 2002, the Bush administration will be the definition of "state terrorism" as the primary threat in the United States, and replace religious terrorism and defined Iraq and Iran as the main terrorism base because who have weapons of mass destruction (CNN U.S. 2002). Followed by March 2003, U.S. government sent troop to Iraq and announces the Iraq was a part of war on terrorism, it opened the prelude of the war on terrorism, and in April 2003 the Baghdad the capital of Iraq was fell and the government of Saddam Hussein was dissolved. After 9/11 events, former American President Bush, G. W. operation with former President of Pakistan to against the Taliban government in Afghanistan (USA Today News, 2006). In 2005, American government to amend the anti - terrorism policy, and requalification terrorism objects, from original single al - Qaeda expanded to more than 20 organisations (Argomaniz, 2010). Meanwhile, American government established Homeland Security Department to build a safer and more powerful structure of the Homeland Security Department (Department of Homeland Security website). This series of policy changes is the 9/11 events brought to American government, also caused changes in government policy. Based on table 1, it shows if the site has a higher political influence it will be trend to darker, thus Ground Zero as the events center it should be belong to "darker". However, the 9/11 Memorial Museum as a new building to remember the people death in 9/11 it not influence the polities, but why it is also classified in the "darker" or "dark", it can not just analysis one aspect, it will be explain from other element of table 1.
The next element will be analysed is education orientation. At the first of this part the author already mentioned the signification of Ground Zero and the 9/11 Memorial Museum, it include full content of education. Based on above information, Ground Zero and the 9/11 Memorial Museum are have high education for people, and the 9/11 Memorial Museum also offer many useful action to show the educational significance to visitors, and some project in museum could help the parents to teach their children, this is also played a significant role in the education of next generation. On this element, Ground Zero and the 9/11 Memorial Museum are have a very strong education role, thus them should be part of "darker".
From history aspect, Ground Zero and 9/11 Memorial Museum both are record the history. In the table 1, it say of the sites are trend to darkest which should be the history centric and conservation of commemorative. As know, Ground Zero is build in the site of the World Trade Center, the new building is witness of this history of 9/11 events and 9/11 Memorial Museum collected many pictures, voices, stories and videos about that events, it the best save of that events, shows real history and also can restore the truth history for future generations. In term of commemorative, the author already gives out many factors to proved Ground Zero and the 9/11 Memorial Museum full of memorable. It is worth mentioning that based on the 9/11 Memorial Museum website the purpose and mission is better remember and memorial people who death in 9/11 attacks. Consequently, there is no doubt that these two places' main function is memory. In this regard, they also trend to be "darker".
There is another side also can prove Ground Zero and 9/11 Memorial Museum are pertain to "darker". Based on shade of dark tourism, if product include perceived authentic it could be belong to "darker". Although, Ground Zero is building in the site of the World Trade Center, the new building will recover the site, but the face of terrorist attacks at this site will not be changed and many memorial activates in here could engender a degree empathy to visitors. The products in 9/11 Memorial Museum are the directly materials which related to the terrorist attacks, such as pictures of the scene of terrorist attacks, video recording of the World Trade Center which was attacked., photos of victims and people can share the story about 9/11 attacks, all of these are let people feel very directly of destructive of 9/11 attacks. These products of 9/11 Memorial Museum can make a strong resonance for visitors. Direct show 9/11 and make visitors feel a real 9/11 are the feature of products in Ground Zero and 9/11 Memorial Museum.
In the table 1, it mentioned the location authenticity. In this paper the author has been mentioned many times that Ground Zero is build in the site of the World Trade Center and the 9/11 Memorial Museum is near by the attacks site, in terms of location these two place are very close to terrorist attacks.
The last one is tourism infrastructure and supply. The infrastructure is defined as basic facility and physical for an organization needed for operation or service to match the function and aim (Jeffrey, 2009). After Ground Zero build, it will be use as business it must include many high level and complete facilities and infrastructure for people, in the 9/11 Memorial Museum, in order to provide a good service to visitors the museum also use many high - tech infrastructure. Concerned to supple of 9/11 Memorial Museum, the purpose is very clear, that is to remember the 9/11 terrorist attacks, as well as the victims. Based on these two aspects and table 1, Ground Zero and 9/11 Memorial Museum they are not trend to "darker". However, consider the issued should from different perspective to analysis and then conclude. Based on analysis from above, in the vast majority of aspects the shade of Ground Zero and the 9/11 Memorial Museum are trend to "darker" side, thus the author consider Ground Zero and 9/11 Memorial Museum are belong to "darker" in the shade of dark tourism.
4.2 - 3 Conclusion
In this section, the author give out more details about the signification, shown that Ground Zero and the 9/11 Memorial Museum are full of memorable and historical dark tourism sites. It also a major symbol of the war on terror. Especially the 9/11 Memorial Museum, is very suitable for school and parents to educate the children abut the 9/11 attacks, and make them know how horrible the terrorism is, at the same time is the best place to memorial victims. Understand the shade could help the author depth understand Ground Zero and 9/11 Memorial Museum as a multifaceted and complex tourism products. Based on Stone's (2006) point, dark not means "bad", the darker is closer to the actual event. In Stone (2006) paper says Auschwitz - Birkenau can be described as "darker". In this case study, the author based on elements of table 1 (the shade of dark tourism) to analysis Ground Zero and 9/11 Memorial Museum form many aspect and concluded Ground Zero and 9/11 Memorial Museum are trend to "darker" that is rigorous and theoretical basis. Understanding of nature of Ground Zero and 9/11 Memorial Museum, enables the author better analysis the strategies which Ground Zero and 9/11 Memorial Museum they used in operations, and help the 9/11 Memorial Museum better to achieve the goals and aim. In the next part, the author will based on these information which mentioned above and through the main strategies for Ground Zero and 9/11 Memorial Museum from 2001 to 2011 to depth analysis details about strategies of Ground Zero and 9/11 Memorial Museum.
4.3 Strategies of Ground Zero and 9/11 Memorial Museum
4.3 - 1 Differentiation strategy
In this section, the author will analysis the strategies of Ground Zero and 9/11 Memorial Museum. In the table 2, the author summarized the main strategies which used during 2001 to 2011, from the table it shows the main strategies of these two places is rebuild and build a new building to memory which decided by American and New York government. In 2001, after 9/11 attacks, American government decided to rebuild the World Trade Center at the site and quickly began to implement this plan, in same year announced the Lower Manhattan Development Corporation (LMDC) as the official commission. From this, American government officially began the reconstruction of the World Trade Center. Meanwhile, in the same year, after 9/11 attacks American government published some anti - terrorist policies, this mean America declared war on terror, and rebuild the World Trade Center is also a reflection of the war on terrorism. The strategy of rebuild the World Trade Center is not only to memory the 9/11 attacks, to revive the confidence of Americans, it is also a reflection of terrorism by the American government (Melnick, 2010). During these ten years, the other main construction strategy is build the 9/11 Memorial Museum. In 2004 the official commission Lower Manhattan Development Corporation decisions design the museum and in 2005 design the mission of museum. Determine of mission is also determine the characteristically of the 9/11 Memorial Museum. Based on the 9/11 Memorial Museum website the museum has two main mission. The first is remembered and honor the victims by terrorists in the horrific attacks of February 26, 1993 and September 11, 2001 and this is a very important main mission of the 9/11 Memorial Museum. The second is respect this place made sacred through tragic loss. Based on the mission, it caused the author chose differentiation and cost leadership strategies to develop the 9/11 Memorial Museum which was mentioned in the literature review. In September 11, 2011, the ten anniversary of 9/11 the 9/11 Memorial Museum was opened for victims' families and September 12, 2011 opened for public for memorial and the museum will open in 2013 (Cohen, 2012).
These strategies are specific actions of American and New York government, the author considered that need more professional strategy framework to analysis the Ground Zero and the 9/11 Memorial Museum and give out more details. Because Ground Zero will be as a business center in the future (Watts, 2009) and the memorial function is a part of it, thus in this section the author will pay more attention on strategies of the 9/11 Memorial Museum.
Based on the mission and Porter's framework (Evans et, al. 2003 refer Porter, 1985) the author chose two strategies to develop the 9/11 Memorial Museum. The first one is differentiation. Evans et, al (2003) point that the main benefits for differentiation strategy are the following four aspect. The first is the products will be sale by a premium price, because the product is different from others, thus the product could be as an advantage for the organisation and the price will add more value. The second benefit is "demand for its product will be less price elastic than demand for competitors' products", that means the product is in a class by the organisation, the organisation could decide the elastic of price by themselves. The next is average profits can be earned. And the last one is can create good environment for entry the industry and new market. Distinctive product could help the organisation attracts more customer if the product meet the customer's needs, and can be occupy dominant position in the competitive. Meanwhile, Evans et, al (2003) also give out the some suggestions for organisations to help them how to achieve a successful differentiation strategy. There are five ways. The first way is creating a superior product than competitors', which is means the product will be excellent in the industry. Then is offer a superior level of service, the quality and characteristics of the product is important, but it is also very important for services, that include pre - sale service, the services of sale, as well as after - sales services. The third is the organisation should have a superior distribution channels, a good distribution channels could make the orgainsation occupy a better network and branches and will take more newcomer. The next one is creating a strong brand image, the status of the brand image in customer's mind is increasingly important. In the same price, or a little bit of price difference, customers often choose the product which has a good brand image. The last one is offer a superior promotion, based on Evans et, al (2003) a successful promotion could give a very deep impression for customers, when they wants to buy similar products, their mind will think of the organisation's products first and the choice of customers will take precedence.
In this case study, as the Ground Zero and the 9/11 Memorial Museum are nonprofit organisation, therefore main aim of them are not earn profit, thus the author will main focus on services, brand image and promotion to analysis.
Primarily, the author will analysis the service of the 9/11 Memorial Museum. A high quality services could offer a good atmosphere to customers. In the 9/11 Memorial Museum, the organisatin should try them best to make a good environment f
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