Determining why it is that people travel is a key factor to explaining patterns of global tourism flow,launched through personal initiative and enterprise and capability to travel.It is tourism that defines the raison d'etre for attraction to certain favoured destinations.There are many factors concerned with real,perceived and postponed demand.In order to understand such phenomena tourism theory has classified the traveller into a number of convenient categories based upon characteristics and social management with their interactions.Refer here to Cohen's classification of the organised mass tourist,the individual tourist,the explorer,the drifter.It is also useful to refer to Plog's psychocentric,allocentric tourist. Such typologies and determinants of demand become especially relevant as data for the purpose of marketing and planning and further developments.Demand motivation may be appreciated with study of Maslow's hierarchy of needs.Applicable to a variety of environments and further appreciated with studying determinants relevant to the personal and global level.The patterns of flow manifested by tourism may be obtained through such data collection thereby leading to the identification of the most currently popular generating and receiving destinations following with discernment of inequity between the established regions of high development and those just developing.With a very discerning public and a rapidly changing world destination management has to be very creative to lure and entice visitors with a product both attractive and adaptive to their needs.The attractions are the ignition for tourism demand and so rapid developments and refurbishment are necessary to create a loyalty band of clientele with return visits.The accommodation factor together with other services is a direct response to such a demand.
Tourists decide to undertake a journey upon being prompted by some inner need or desire,a yearning sufficiently strong to initiate vision of satisfaction or release from such an effect by an actual visit to the focal point of attraction.Very subtle influences are at work for a so-called 'push ' factor that results in a purchase of the tourism product.This is a very personal person-specific motivation.A final choice results from comparative examination of a number of alternative attractions/destinations.It is useful to note that in these days of intense rivalry and competition for tourist visitants those organisations who possess management infrastructure to meet the demands of prediction and supplying of customer wants and needs will become those most likely to succeed.But how does such motivation arise?Dann(1981) has identified seven(7) perspectives;they are:Travel as a response to what is lacking yet desired.Here apparently it is one's own environment that is unsatisying.Destinational pull in response to motivational push.Induced by one's inner state Motivation as a fantasy.Hedonistic behaviour not likely to be agreeable to the home fraternity.Motivation as classified purpose.The journey itself being the source of motivation.Motivational typologies.The typology and motivation being separate topics.Motivation and tourist experiences.The factor of authenticity or anticipated experiences not able to be lived at home.Motivation as auto-definition and meaning.How the tourist responds to situations rather than examination of behaviour.
There has evolved two independent approaches to the problem.There is extrinsic motivation and intrinsic motivation.A tourism-work relationship has its origins with the industrial revolution.This is regarded as a primary extrinsic motivational factor to tourism.The need to get away from the drab everyday work and daily city aspect.People's circumstances differ.Work is the means to a desired end or it can be a way of life.Those fortunate to be privileged are able to experience a truly self-sustaining satisfaction from day's activites and play.There is a model called The Compensation Hypothesis(Ryan 1991),that includes those for whom work actually compensates for imperfections from within the self or at home.The birth of rambling clubs at the turn of the century being an inversion of such an immediate lack,we-and-they.There is refreshment upon stepping out of this other world that has temporarily relieved one of the limited horizons of life.Regression hypothesis becomes applicable here.It is a step back into a childhood existence.
Tourism can become an extension of work.It either becomes an independent organised holiday or for an assembly line worker a package holiday,a continuation of the conveyor belt existence.A very important point here is that with changing patterns of work so too will there be changes in the demand for tourism.One of a number of factors the tourism industry has to be ever watchful about.The countries of established tourist generators have become transformed from an industrial to a post industrial economy.The service industries replacing primary manufacturing.
Another model asserts a state of neutrality between tourism and work.There is no effect between the two with no discernible patterns.During the 1980s there was a work ethic.For the 1990s is was the quality of life.Yet still an annual summer holiday remains deep-rooted within the nation's consciousness!Traditionally it is the family that has held a prime influence upon its progeny.VFR(visiting friends and relations) is a major influencing factor for tourism worldwide.Social class distinctions makes for an important motivator;with 'down town' and 'up town' destinations.This has been so since the Roman Empire.Culture a pliable and amoebic entity is especially influential in the determining of tourism demand.Regarding modern society and motivation 'a hurried mobility has obsessed most of the inhabitants of the industrialised nations.One seizes every opportunity to free oneself from the boredom of everyday life as often as possible'(Krippendorf 1986).
The problem of intrinsic behaviour invites attempts at linkage of internal states of need with destination focused behaviour.Maslow's hierarchy of needs is still occupies wide discussion on motivation.The premise being that self-actualization is the real pinnacle for which people should aspire to.Every person has needs that may be placed into five(5) distinct categories.At the base of a pyramid are physiological needs,these are obviously hunger,thirst,sex etc.Next there is the need for safety.To be free of fear and threat.Next there is the need for society and love.Next on the pyramid there are needs of esteem.That of self and self-confidence,prestige.Then self-actualisation needs.Self-fulfilment.Such an hierarchical conception is useful for the understanding of psychological motivations in tourism.
Many of Maslow's ideas have been applied using a socio-psychological profile with some emergent themes.Crompton(1979)relates the need for relaxation,exploring and social interaction as dominant push motives for finalising the decision to holiday.Pull motives being aroused by the attractions at the destination such as scenics and historical sites.Dann's(1981) is very useful at simplifying principal elements into propositions or general statements concerning tourists.Cohen(1972) considers that tourists need something unusual ,unique while still maintaining rememberance of the familiar.This combination may be the source of his typology.Cohen distinguishes the organised mass tourist,individual mass tourists,explorer and drifter.Yet this is unreliable because it fails to accommodate for increasing diversity of holidays or the unpredictable nature of tourists' behaviour.Plog(1974)constructed a classification of population into psychographic types on a continuum ranging from psychocentrism to allocentrism.Psychocentrics are anxious somewhat inhibited and less adventurous.The allocentrics being the opposite.Criticisms are that such a model does not distinguish between the extrinsic and intrinsic motivations.Also it does not incorporate the dynamic nature of the tourist with his everchanging nature.
McIntosh and Goeldner(1990) have four(4) categories for travel motivators.Physical motivators.Refreshing the body with physical activity.Cultural motivators wishing to acquire knowledge about the country concerned.Interpersonal motivators the VFR category.And status and prestige motivators seeking attention at conferences or hobby tours.Mention should be made of the sacred journey category.A tourist's search for inner light or for the purpose of some inner dialogue between himself and supernatural forces.
Yet it is necessary to examine tourist motivation over a period of time.Only partial explanations are expected in a field strewn with inconsistencies.Essentially the reason(s) for motivation must revolve around a person's personal preference,experience and the social and economic circumstances.And usefully the understanding of tourist motivation will enable us to realise why it is that some destinations hold a heightened attraction compared to others and why decline occurs with changing tastes and fashions.
Important factors affecting demand can be grouped into five(5) categories.The economy with matters ranging from the exchange rate to job losses.Politics,the growth in size of the EU,environment and taxation.Crisis and threats including earth quakes,epidemics and terrorism.Demographic change with a shifting age structure,effects of migration and the rise of educational levels.Technology and it effects on transportation,communication and information.There is the change in consumer attitudes and for the industry itself,product standardization,the growth of information channels,and pricing strategies.The realisation of effecting a holiday is dependent in large part on the individual's economic position and freedom to make the journey.External factors proving influential to this need would be freedom,fitness,time and money.The behaviour trend comprises of a host of factors including an internal state of mind relating to the motive and inherent abilities.Emerging factors may be useful to examine as they will become somewhat predictable and constant to their evolution.Power for market concerns lies with the consumer.The prospective tourist.
The enlargement of the EU is especially important.Its size has grown some 25%,its population by some 20% and the GDP by 5%.The general process of political maturation spanning over twenty years has influenced changing tourism demand.Media coverage influences a seed bed of latent interest in the recently inaugurated members of the community.Most prospective travellers are now able to see the world as their oyster.The holiday destinations therefore have become intensely competitive.Yet barriers to immediate progress remain especially for the countries of Eastern Europe.Here low investment rates,undeveloped infrastructure for the countryside,a poor transport system with third rate hotels and cuisine capped by weak tourism marketing.
Image is a vital ingredient to the tourist destination.Their is prevailing ignorance of the 'newly acquired' countries.Destinations are chosen usually by motive matching.Here the enlargement of the EU has very little affect on the consumer.So it is that only a transformation in marketing strategy management is going to improve matters.There will be significant change for the EU in source markets and the upswing of a rising welfare.The impulses really come from the South and East with the traditional source markets such as Germany being saturated.
Demographic considerations have made their appearance and are now featuring as a focus to online debates and deliberations.Society consists of an older population with increasing life expectancy;and there is a decline in the number of children because of an increased proportion of the population divorcing and living separately.Traditional family patterns are dissolving.Also becoming influential is a rise in educational levels,the changing role of women in society and a more vibrant society due to admixture from migratory patterns.Yet tourists,people,are not going to alter their travel behaviour as they turn 60 or because of retirement.Patterns are adhered to originating from earlier years.Because of this it is possible to cater for future requirements in tourism for such a population.The generation of 'baby boomers'is likely to be pro-active in their endeavour to engorge themselves on their prospective travel horizons.There will be senior trips accommodating to individual tailoring.Take Germany as an example.The age group of 70-80 will rise more than 50% by 2018.Alterations of family numbers will become slow in maturation but this allows the industry to maintain orientation and supply a strong focus for needs and expectations a destination.Older people are becoming increasingly involved with their younger forebears and this will require adjustment.Factors to consider here are higher spending,longer stays,and other destination choices.The kids trip being a standard incurs its own behaviour pattern.More flight trips and usage of more tour operators.Playmates will be needed so this is another factor that the destination will have to meet.It is clear therefore that the changing nature of demography has impacts that will reflect in tourism demand.
The very important pre-trip phase involving the search for ones information and deciding upon the tourism product has as an emerging factor the skilled consumer with low involvement.This situation has produced interchangeable products.Distinctions of destination and tour operator is not a contentious issue with information overload these days.What happens to us all is a good enough solution.Just a number of aspects for the required products from a few information sources.Arguing is not necessary and therefore ones position is that of 'low involvement'.And so the actual position is that of convenience together with experience helping ones orientation and the factor of variety which of course is the spice of life that all of us seek.It is the experiences and ones emotional bank that has now become part of the product on offer promised by the producer.
Price orientation has become a dominant factor.This has been induced by strategy within the industry.The selling of quality trips for very low prices in the hope of higher market shares a higher turnover with probably a lower profit.But convenience and product quality rank with the consumer and so the phenomenon of induced price orientation continues to spiral.Yet it is the consumer who is more flexible than the industry itself.If one destination doesn't turn out as expected I can go to another.I don't really have too much fancy for flying so I take the train or road network.There is contingency with the availability of an alternative even if more inconvenient;I can still get there.Consuming,imbibing is fun not a necessity.There is no sense of lack because everything now is available on the market.But this means becomes impractical to predict individual behaviour,yet it becoming an importance to have at ones disposal as far as the industry is concerned the most accurate figures possible.Such market conditions,with very knowledgeable consumers and vast resources in the field are presenting a major challenge to the marketing departments.The problem has become even more intense and difficult.Globalization and a computer based technology tend to incline to standardization but tourism demand and products are becoming more differentiated and fragmentized.There are winter sports,field trips and holidays for the family.Expectations involve both quality and difference.With such standardization and differentiation this imposes more pressure without in effect guaranteeing an increased demand or turn-over.
Without the consumer the service industries along with tourism go nowhere.This fact relates not only tourism but for any policies to do with tourism.Destinations have to become switched on,alerted, to realise they have become truly involved with intense competition.It is not sufficient simply to have a good product or for the consumer to realise this.There has to be the correct placement with the correct set and shrewd judgement is required in being so.Here travel operators and agencies can assist in the phenomenon of the information overload providing well-timed guidance and convenience within the information jungle.Yet the politics involved has to pinpoint inconsistency and contradictions within the set of proposed objectives and establish solutions and priorities.,Financial support should be discriminative here not everybody necessarily being acceptable as to the validity of following such objectives.Social balance of resources may be variable and indeed there could be a widening gap developing but tourism does require a broad base of comfortable incomed people with time and money.Any vision is going to be different consisting of pan-european,national,regional and local.All the different levels of destination or industry segmentation being linked somehow.
There are two categories of circumstances requiring priority of action.Either supply exceeds demand or the opposite of demand exceeding supply.Strategies adopted are tailored to meet circumstances arising either on a daily,weekly,seasonal or a long term basis.With demand being low either at below capacity or only at certain periods there is a variety of strategy engaged.Product modification and diversification.Adjustment of distribution channels if needs be to strengthen.The identification of alternative or even new sources of demand.Price discounting.Reappraisal of promotional strategy.An example of the application of all these would be the Caribbean destinations responding to low levels of occupancy during a summer period.VFR is promoted to domiciles as the holidays usually fall within the summer period.While casinos as attractions are being promoted on some of the islands within the group.
Another situation is the necessity to reduce costs because it is not possible to increase the desired demand factor.To reduce fixed and variable costs in the hotel sector for example it may be necessary not only to reduce the rooms available but whole wings or even the hotel itself.Again this is prevalent in the Caribbean.Airlines can reduce plane quota available or rent them to other companies.
Redistribution becomes necessary as the demand for a product is no longer self-sustaining.Converting factors for hotels might consist of fusing two rooms into one or the provision of no-smoking rooms.Conventional hotel rooms are being transformed into time-share units an example of a long-term adaptive strategy.Or for the airline industry the conversion of scheduled flights into charter itineries.These are examples of adaptive supply redistribution.
When demand exceeds capacity additional charging for such resources incurs increased pricing for seating or rooms so gaining extra revenue per unit.Theme parks with ever increasing clientele but negative impaction can resort themselves to significantly higher entrance charges.
Then,responding to higher demand level destination management may expand the current capacity factor.The hotels again being an example with additional infrastructure being acquired.Cot facilities are often available to increase the room capacity.Portable accommodation in the southern hemisphere is quite attractive and popular.Resort communities in the slack season make use of their surveillance staff to accommodate for the daily and weekly pattern of demands by supplying patrolled beaches.
The Caribbean again may be referred to as an example of the transference of demand at times of excess to periods of low demand.Differential seasonal pricing is an attempt to redistribute demand following from a high winter demand to a low summer one.7
Accomodation forms an integral part of the tourist destination.The range is wide.From five-star luxury apartments to bed and breakfast;but all contributing to the experience of the destination.So the accommodation sector is a vital element in the supply of services and products to the tourist.
Supply of accommodation with easy access and amenities contribute to the pulling factor of the destination,its attraction;the only limitation being that of ones own personal budgeting which at times might well be variable.The concept of relative value becomes therefore a primary factor for finalisation of destination choice for the prospective tourist.Income levels rule the volume of demand whereas relative prices will determine actual choice of such a destination.Exchange rates apart from cost format will influence price levels so if the dollar proves to be stronger compared with European currencies then more US visitors will appear in Europe because it is cheaper.With floating exchange rates this proves not to be so influential as in the past.Complications arise and it is therefore generally the case that volume for demand is linked to real income levels real discretionary income.Precisely it is elasticity of demand regarding income and how the exchange rate's effect on prices affects this.
The exchange rate itself reflects the general well-being of the country concerned.Yet what constitutes economic data for the country involved has little meaning to the tourist who really is only interested in relative prices for consumption items e.g.accomodation,shopping etc.Attempts are effected to install a 'value-for-money' concept whereby tour operators for example cost such items as bottle of wine to provide a means of comparison with the purchase of like items within te home country.This concept of value-for-money is useful regarding holiday expenditure.Affluent countries such as France and Britain have significant tourist outflows to quite poor countries such as Greece and Portugal.
Quality of amenities at the host destination including accommodation will influence demand.A certain aggregate of tourists will have to be present for a sufficiently powerful stimulus to further the demand flow.There should be a range of attractions for a certain degree of market differentiation to be existant.
With the all-inclusive tour the actual nature of the decision making process has changed;effectively the tour operator becomes the interpreter and coordinator of demand.Their specialised knowledge proves to be very useful here.Markets are known to exist for a certain price banding.As noted in this report the potential tourist is becoming very knowledgeable about such matters in some instances being able to displace such a function.
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