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Effects Of Land Based Casinos In Downtown Chicago Tourism Essay

Of all the possible areas of the hospitality and tourism industry that are available to study and research, casinos and gaming are one of the most exciting and controversial. The history of gambling in America has a colorful, as well as muddied, past. With over 450 casinos in 19 states, there are more than 35 billion dollars in revenue generated by this most explosive segment of the hospitality field (Beck, 2006). Casino gaming has become a major industry in the United States over the past two decades (Garrett. 20049). However, whereas casinos contribute enormous revenue toward the hospitality and tourism industry, research and studies that have been carried out in the past indicate that there is a social cost to the community as well.

There has been an ongoing debate on whether to legalize casinos or not in various states across the United States (Garrett, 2004). This debate has elicited arguments from both sides of the divide; with proponents of casinos arguing that casino gaming is an important economic avenue, whereas opponents focus on the idea that casinos have no increased value on the society, which is necessary in any economic channel (Garrett, 2004). With this in mind, the impact of casinos on the society has become a subject of careful study among researchers, scholars, and policymakers. This study will focus on the possible effects of land-based casinos in downtown Chicago.

The overall structure of the thesis will consist of four chapters. Chapter one will have an introduction, research questions, a statement of the problem and the importance of the study, definition of terms, and a summary of the chapter.

Chapter two of the thesis is the “Review of Related Literature”. This chapter will explore the related literature of the central thesis questions.

Chapter three of the thesis is known as the “Methodology”. This chapter describes the specifics of the steps taken in research of the thesis and why.

Chapter four of the thesis is my “Discussions, Conclusions, and Recommendations”. This chapter will provide a cited discussion of the pros and cons of the research questions proposed in chapter one. It will offer informed and educated conclusions and recommendations derived from research in the thesis.

The thesis will also provide a bibliography of a detailed list of cited references.

Research Questions

1. What are the obstacles/objections to achieving a casino in downtown Chicago?

2. What are the possible social costs of legalized gambling?

3. What is the responsibility of government with regards to gambling?

4. What are the potential economic effects of casinos in downtown Chicago?

5. How would casinos affect the hospitality industry in downtown Chicago?

6. What can we learn from previous experiences in other major cities with casinos?

Statement of the Problem and Importance of the Study

Gambling supporters in eleven commercial casino states and thirty-three tribal casino states view casinos as an efficient devise for generating tourism and economic development, as well as tax revenues for state and local governments (Morse & Goss, 2007, p. 13). According to Dave McKinney, of the Chicago Sun-Times, in the coming weeks, Senate Democrats intend to push legislation authorizing casinos in Chicago (2010, November 8, p. 5). Almost weekly, if not daily, these types of reports are common place in Chicago. With the apparently inevitable development of casinos in Chicago, comes an array of questions, arguments, and controversy.

This study will look into the possible economic benefits of casinos, not only for the private sector, but also for the public sector, especially in regard to Chicago. The city of Chicago faces a 654 million dollar deficit (Chicago Tribune, 2010). For many states and local officials, casinos are attractive because they promise significant new revenues at a time when all levels of government face serious fiscal problems (Haugen & Musser, 2007). Even with the apparent success of casinos in communities such as Las Vegas, Atlantic City, and Tunica, Mississippi, many opponents of gambling argue that the down side of such a venture is too high in social costs. These opponents state that an increase in crime, bankruptcy, broken families, and pathological gambling are the social costs and that these costs out weigh any benefits. With these opposing viewpoints at odds with each other, there are many areas of debate to be studied. What is the responsibility of the local government, the casino, and the casino visitor in all of this? What is the price of the social costs? Is Chicago ready to open this Pandora’s Box?

List of Definition of Terms and Abbreviations

Casino hotel - as the name implies, these hotels house gambling facilities. The amenities, services, and attractions are designed for, and marketed to, the gambling guest (Fridgen, 1996).

Deficit - the amount by which expenditures exceed income or budget.

Gambling - the practice of playing games of chance or betting in the hope of winning money.

Gaming - term used by the hospitality industry to describe gambling.

Jackpot - an amount of money won in gambling.

Land-based - existing on or operating from land, rather than from a boat or water.

Monopoly - a situation in which one company controls an industry or is the only provider of a product or service.

Parasite - someone who exploits another without doing anything in return.

Pathological gambling - a persistent and recurrent maladaptive gambling behavior that disrupts personal, family, or vocational pursuits (Morse & Goss, 2007).

Player - an active gambler in a casino.

Pull factor - enticement.

Social impact - the effects of tourism activity and development on the social fabric of residents of destination communities -- as individuals, as families, and as members of social organizations (Fridgen, 1996).

Summary

With the ever growing popularity of casinos and the acceptance of gambling throughout the United States, Chicago appears primed as a next target for the gaming industry. With the outwardly apparent windfall of additional revenue to a financially struggling local and state government, come the more hidden social costs of gambling. Do the pros out weigh the cons? How have diverse communities, such as Las Vegas, Atlantic City, and Indian tribal states, reconciled these discrepancies? The possible negative impact of casinos on downtown Chicago cannot be ignored. As such, issues such as crime and drugs have been associated with casinos across the United States. Could this be the case for Chicago?

Chapter Two:

Review of Literature

Introduction

The possibilities of authorizing casinos in Chicago have received wide literature coverage by many authors from Chicago, the United States and the world at large. It is believed that the possible impact of casinos would be felt all over Chicago with some of the effect posing permanent impact. Many authors and scholars have invested their time and resources in researching and analyzing the possible effects of casinos and gambling in the city of Chicago. These findings have been documented in books, journals, and magazines among others. Although many people do not understand how casinos would significantly influence Chicago, research indicates that the lives of people in Chicago would be impacted substantially by the introduction of casinos and gaming. It is worth noting that despite the possible negative effects of casinos, most people would approve casinos throughout the state. This is due to the belief of the benefits casinos would provide to the economy of the city, as well as, to the entire life of millions of people. It is therefore clear that casinos have both negative and positive effects upon which both opponents and proponents of the idea base their arguments. Understandably, great approval and favor for casinos has been noted due to beliefs that casinos will stabilize the economy through expansion of industries and creation of a wide range of related businesses.

Notably, land based casinos could create business opportunities in downtown Chicago. Des Chenes notes that there are several businesses which are related to casino operations and these have continued to expand since the legalization of gambling and running of casinos in the United States. In the 2007 study, Des Chenes emphasizes the fact that hotel and restaurant businesses have realized a major boost because of the continued expansion of the casino operations in the United States. This has led to economic growth through revenue collection and creation of jobs. Hundreds of residents could benefit if the statutes in downtown Chicago legalized casinos.

Des Chenes also noted trade, between gaming and non-gaming tribes, as one the consequence of casinos. These two groups have expanded their business scope through the exchange of different goods and services. Another impact of casinos in downtown Chicago could be the development of school and hospitals and other tribal programs through financial funding, lending easy access to social amenities and opening up of poor and ignored regions (Des Chenes, 2007).

On the other hand, Des Chenes argues casinos have been an opening for an array of problems, which have continued to affect the United States. He mentions competition between casinos and other surrounding hospitality businesses as one of the most common sources of conflict. With the introduction of casinos, the fierce competition for tourism dollars could possibly hurt already existing hospitality establishments.

Positive Effects of Casinos

Thompson focuses on the positive effects of land-based casinos which significantly favor the residents and neighborhoods of casino facilities. He considers employment as the major advantage of promoting casinos. According to Thompson, gamblers create jobs for themselves which later become their core sources of income. In fact, he argues that the issue of job creation would be an underlying factor for the increase in casino facilities in areas like downtown Chicago and other parts of America. On an overall national scale, the author affirms that legal gambling enterprises in the United States employ over half a million people. As a result, casino proponents believe that a ban on casinos would lead to a considerable loss of jobs among Americans. Nevertheless, the gain from casino jobs is not satisfactory simply because many people who gamble in casinos have a history of another job somewhere else (Thompson, 2001). As clearly discussed by Thompson, gamblers are not fully guaranteed their jobs since they can be terminated at any time due to poor behavior which may associated with casinos and gambling.

Another expert who examines the idea of casinos in downtown Chicago and in other U.S. cities is Des Chenes. He exposes different viewpoints concerning gambling and casinos. Like most writers, casinos have both negative and positive factors which are usually based when either supporting or opposing their oppositions (Des Chenes, 2007). He notes that since casino operations and gambling were legalized in the United States, much has been realized in terms of economic and social development. He, however, doubly emphasizes the negative effects of casinos and their social impact.

Des Chenes notes that casinos substantially contributed to the net revenues from every state, which totaled up to $18 billion in the year 2003. He further notes that revenues obtained from casinos in states improved the economic standards of the area in terms of development. That through casino revenues and related taxes, the quality of life in casino communities has benefited.

The issue of employment is also addressed in Des Chenes’s analysis. He notes that more than half a million jobs have been created by casinos operating in different states (Des Chenes, 2007). According to the author, job opportunities secured through casinos have gone a great mile in improving the lives of many people through provision of income for the acquisition of food and clothing among family needs. More than $15 billion in salaried employee income are attributed to casinos nation-wide.

Negative Effects of Casinos

The negative costs which directly face Chicago mean that there might be no or minimal economic gains associated with the presence of land-based casino facilities in downtown Chicago (Thompson, 2001). As a result, Thompson argues that the introduction of land-based casinos is likely to lead to loss of jobs among Chicago residents compared to the number of jobs which would be created. The overall loss of jobs would therefore negatively affect the community of Chicago.

Another argued effect of casinos is the loss of purchasing power. It is clear that the power of money is so great that almost every economy depends on it. As discussed by Thompson in his 2001 research, casinos in downtown Chicago would cause residents to lack any other money to spend on other important activities since almost every dollar owned and earned would be lost through gambling in casinos (Thompson, 2001). The analysis further indicated among those who spent most of their time gambling, one out of a ten of them would have considered spending the same cash at groceries. Besides this finding, the author further notes that almost twenty five percent of these people would spent their money on food and clothing if they missed casino services. This shows that the society has significantly suffered since many people are not able to fully supply for the needs of their families due to this economic “parasite” (Thompson, 2001).

Consequently, casinos have led to lower government revenue due to the reduced spending witnessed among residents. Since fewer people are willing to spend their cash on purchases, the price of commodities has to be substantially raised in order to meet the economic demands of the region. As a result, residents feel the impact of casinos through higher commodity prices. The question that Thompson tries to answer is whether gamblers should pay revenues to the government or not. If revenues are not paid by casinos, the author argues the need to have gamblers pay revenues in order to support the economic growth of the state (Thompson, 2001).

Des Chenes contends that casino operations have become a burden to the state, especially in addressing problems which emanate from gambling. These problems create demands on the state and local government budget, which would have been used for other vital projects. He also concurs with his colleagues in the belief that casinos have the huge potential as money laundering channels and could contribute to the rise of organized crime in downtown Chicago.

Social Challenges of Casinos

The increasing number of people spending their time in casinos and on gambling is quite alarming. Experts argue that the demand for casinos in different parts of the United States has long been rising exponentially. Most visitors to casinos prefer spending their leisure time in such centers in the name of making money and having fun. Many casinos experience a huge influx of customers during festive seasons and celebrations when most people are not involved in their official duties (Binder, 2003). As a result, many people find no time to relax with their families leading to a sociological responsibility gap, commonly created by men. Thus the demise of the family unit.

Is there any benefit or disadvantage of spending excess time in casinos? Many psychiatrists argue that excessive indulgence in casino activities can be quite detrimental in multiple ways. These experts have always linked extreme exposure to gambling and other casino activities to various health disorders which have become of great concern in casino communities. Such effects have been known in casinos which offer handsome benefits upon winning. This therefore acts a “pull factor” to thousands of players who become addicted as they focus on the prize without considering the price. Binder also argues that some players continue playing hard even after losing terribly with the hope of winning in the future. What happens in the event that these players do not hit any jackpot? One obvious result is that such behavior may lead to the loss of enormous money. It is quite amazing that some players usually find themselves shocked by their indebtedness because of not winning at any game. It is during such moments that many victims may consider other unlawful ways of getting money in order to settle their debts. They may also commit serious crimes including murder and suicide as a way of solving the problem or running away from the truth. Many of these happen due to psychological instability caused by addiction (Binder, 2003).

Domestic problems are another of the effects attributed to gambling which have been widely studied. Many sociologists believe that casinos would do more harm than good to the fabric of society in downtown Chicago just as it has in other parts of the United States. Morse and Goss argue that casinos have the ability to increase domestic problems, such as domestic violence and neglect, a common problem already in larger cities, like Chicago. Morse and Goss further affirm that addiction to gambling and other casino activities has led to an increase in cases where children are locked in cars for very long hours while their parents or babysitters have spent time in casinos. Additionally, children from casino families have been known to be left for long hours unsupervised in risky environments and even the casinos themselves (Morse & Goss, 2007). By so doing, parents fail to meet their responsibilities to their families in an acceptable way.

As a result of negligence due to casino addiction, many families in the United States and other parts of the world face the risk of separation and divorce. Morse and Goss concur that alcoholism occurs at a higher rate among casino players and gambling addicts. Therefore, to further the argument of domestic negligence, casinos have been accused of promoting alcoholism.

Economic Issues as a result of Casinos

Like other authors and research experts who have analyzed the concepts of casinos, Levinson discusses the effects of casinos with an open mind. According to his 2002 coverage, he found out that casinos had both positive and negative effects. From the interviews that he carried out, different people had varying opinions with their perception towards gambling and casino influence. Many of these people believe that the presence of casinos in a region affects the social life and standards. Good living standards and improved social amenities are stated as being common in areas with casino activities. Some of the gamblers, casinos, and local governing bodies choose to direct revenue from casinos on improving public facilities such as education and health centers. Levinson further notes that the presence of casinos could attract many players from other places, which could make the living standards of downtown Chicago to be relatively high (Levinson, 2002).

Levinson also argues that many people have become less responsible by spending their resources, including time and money, in casinos through gambling. He notes that some men find more comfort in betting than in attending to the financial needs of their families. As a result, many gamblers have spent substantial amounts of money in casinos leaving themselves with nothing to spend on food, clothing, medical, and housing among other essential needs.

Land-based casinos in downtown Chicago would also affect tourism and transform the hospitality sector in an economically significant way. As emphasized by Fridgen, there are thousands of tourists who flock to downtown Chicago. This has allowed the growth of the hospitality industry, which continues to significantly expand. Although the initial effect of casinos would be the expansion of the tourism industry, another economic benefit that would follow, includes the creation of job opportunities in restaurants and in hotels, which accommodate the casino visitor who spends their leisure time in downtown Chicago.

On the other hand, bankruptcy is economic effect of casinos that could be felt in downtown Chicago and other parts of the nation as discussed by Grinols in his 2004 study, which focuses on gambling in America and how it has affected the lives of Americans. As a result, he associates bankruptcy to the operations of casinos. He however emphasizes that the manner in which casinos affected a state solely depends on the running of the casino industry (Grinols, 2004). Casinos, which open opportunities for other business sectors, like tourism, are likely to experience low or no bankruptcy. Grinols further adds that casino families and communities may experience hardships over gambling and incurring of debts. He importantly notes that bankruptcy among casino players can be a major cause of stress, mental disorders and even suicide.

Security Challenges

A potential challenge of land-based casinos that could be experienced in downtown Chicago is security. As discussed by Binder in his 2003 book, security is a global problem which affects many businesses. However, the security threat surrounding casinos is likely to by high due to the huge sums of money needed in gambling and betting. As a result, there is always the need of employing security details. Due to the large amounts of currencies involved, some people are usually tempted to steal.

The security of casino players has also been an issue of concern across the United States, and this could also become an issue in downtown Chicago. Gang related attacks on casinos have severally been reported making casino owners tighten security for both the players and the casino staff. This has also led to installation of security cameras in order to ensure that casino activities are safe.

Crime is a common problem faced by states, counties, and cities everywhere. It draws the attention of both political and corporate leaders. In the process of finding the causes of crime in downtown Chicago, many analysis concur that that casinos would contribute significantly to the daily increase in crime rate. One clear fact is that money is known to attract criminal and organized crimes. Crimes related to the operations are common especially in situations where the operations of casinos are opposed by the mob (Herion, 2010). In such cases, organized crime may attack casinos to grab money being used for gambling. Herion further argues that since casinos largely favor the more affluent, lower class individuals may resolve to attack casino players accusing them to be the cause of high prices.

There have been many casinos in the United States whose operations were alleged to be directly influenced by the organized crime. According to Herion’s argument in his 2010 research, casinos may generate money which is later redistributed to these “mob” groups which control the operations of such casinos. He also notes that one of the reasons why lower level gangs consider casinos as a main target is their failure to pay adequate taxes in support for the state economy (Herion, 2010). Although Herion mentions these as the reason why casinos may be directly associated with organized crimes, he further looks at money laundering as a key link between casinos and crime. There are individuals and groups of people who use casinos as banks for money obtained from drug trafficking and other illegal channels of wealth acquisition. Based on Herion and similar theories, it is therefore argued that casinos promote crime, which include money laundering and drug trafficking.

Herion further underscores the fact that casinos have historically had criminal roots since Mafia families and gangsters operated casinos that propagated criminal activities. Although other smaller families also operate casinos, organized criminal groups dominated the business. It is quite ironic that after the legalization of casino gambling, the law safeguarded the interests of criminal gangs and not the minor casino owners who were fresh in the business. This could also be attributed to the political connection in which elected officials manipulated casino operations for their own gain as echoed by many others analysts apart from Herion. To this day, there are still suspicions that casinos are tied to organized crime (Binder, 2003).

Other Challenges of Casinos

Fleming notes in his 1978 research that political influence has played a major role in the operation of casinos in America. He argues that there has always been a connection between politics and casino gambling with many politicians being mentioned in cases of bribery and peddling. Many politicians misuse their influential power and positions to manipulate the running of casinos. Cases of drug trafficking, money laundering, and political favors have always revolved around politicians and other senior government offices in relationship to gaming (Fleming, 1978).

Suicide is another possible effect of casinos that could be witnessed in downtown Chicago. Von Herrmann explains the link between gambling and suicide and how casino players are more likely to commit suicide by four percent compared to the rest of the population. Why does this happen? In his 2002 research, Von Herrmann affirms that poor mental stability among casino players is the main cause of high suicide rate. This mental instability comes as a result of excess debts and continuous failure to a single jackpot. Due to lack of enough funds to settle some of the debts, casino players get stresses, not knowing any other solution apart from suicide (Von Herrmann, 2002). Von Herrmann further identifies a lack of family support as a cause of mental instability among casino players. Such isolation can therefore lead to desolation and loneliness, already key causes of suicide in Chicago and the rest of the world.

Summary and Conclusion

The research report presented to Honorable Frank R. Wolf of the House of Representatives (April, 2000) explains a wide range of the effects of casinos and gambling. The focus of the report is on economical and social effects which are experienced in casino families and communities. The report views casinos as a major source of government revenue which can be used in numerous development projects. Like many other findings obtained by researchers, the report affirms the establishment of casinos as a major source of employment in casino communities. This will go as a milestone in improving the lives of residents through provision of income (Wolf Report). The report also mentions bankruptcy as one of the negative effects of casinos which mainly occurs as a result of poor planning and over expenditure caused by gambling addiction.

The report further gives substantial weight on the social impact of casinos on different communities including those surrounding Chicago. As a pillar of any stable society, the report views the family as the most affected unit. There are many problems which face casino families including divorce, domestic violence and suicide among others. As reported, addiction to casino related activities caused a significant percent of the homeless population in the United States. This was attributed to bankruptcy and excess debts resulting from over spending.

Additionally, the report addresses divorce and domestic violence as major ways in which casinos affected families and communities. Due to addiction, many couples spend most of their time gambling without regard for the state of other family members. They may also fail to provide basic needs and approach complete negligence which ultimately leads to divorce or separation (Wolf Report). In addition, the Wolf Report states that casinos deplete one of our most valuable resources: time. Thousands of people are spending unrecyclable precious time gambling and betting only to lose all their fortunes.

As indicated in the report, some people lose their jobs due to over indulging in casino activities while others are forced to change their level of acceptable living standards. All these narrow to future frustrations, which may lead to mental disorders and eventually suicide.

While the Wolf Report reports many finite facts and figures concerning the economic benefits of casinos, it offers that the possible social costs of casinos and gambling are far more immeasurable, and therefore open for debate. In deed, there are an array benefits and social costs when land based casinos in downtown Chicago are discussed. Chapter Four of this thesis will offer a discussion, conclusion, and recommendation on the reviewed literature.

Chapter Three:

Methodology

Methodology

There are various methodological approaches that are available that could be used to gather, analyze and present data in any research projects. Among the most commonly used methodological approaches include qualitative, quantitative and literature review approach. These methods play a vital role in gathering different types of date, specifically primary and secondary data. Their analysis criteria on the other hand are also useful in obtaining different analytical results from these data.

To begin with, qualitative research focus on producing results from case study-based data. In line with this, various aspects of human behaviors are examined under qualitative analysis in order to emerge with appropriate data. Qualitative research involves the studied use and collection of a variety of empirical materials –case study, personal experience, introspective, life story, interview, observational, historical, interactional and visual texts –that describe routine and problematic moments and meaning in individual’s lives (Neergaard & Ulhøi, 2007).

There are various areas in the research world where qualitative research is used. To begin with, qualitative research is common among social scientists who study the behavior of human beings in the society, and how they respond to different stimuli such as brand in the market. Arguably, qualitative research methods focus on answering the question how and why in the research analysis that is being carried out. As such, this helps in identifying the whole process that leads to certain phenomena in the society.

Another research method that is commonly used is quantitative method. First, it is important to state that quantitative research is concerned with the empirical investigation of quantitative phenomena and characteristics and the way they relate to each other in a systematic way. In line with this, certain procedures need to be followed in order to acquire the desired results. In addition to this, personal opinion affects the results that are obtained. As such, the research must be detached from the experiment to minimize chances of obtaining biased results or rather data. Quantitative methods require detachment of the observer, especially in experimental method where personal involvement can affect the outcomes of the research (unless that effect is accounted for) (Balnaves & Caputi, 2001). Moreover, statistical tools play a significant role in helping the research to obtain accurate results or rather data using the quantitative method. In most cases, quantitative research is used when analyzing data that can be quantified.

Literature review on the other hand focuses on analyzing the literature on researches and studies that have been conducted in the past. In other words, literature review focuses on conducting an analysis of secondary data. Researches and studies that do not need primary data often rely on literature review to gather and analyze data that is required. As such, one of the advantages of using literature review in gathering data is its availability as well as reliability. Note that different topics in the society have been tackled in the past by researchers and scholar. Therefore, information regarding such topics is readily available whenever needed. On the other hand, it costs less to use literature review as a way of collecting data as compared to other methods of data collection.

With this in mind, it is important to state that this research depended heavily on literature review as its method of data collection. Note that there are numerous researches that have been carried out in the past that satisfactorily provided data and information for this thesis. In addition, there are inconveniences that occur when gathering primary data. For example, long periods of time are required to gather meaningful primary data. This is coupled by high costs that are involved. However, since this is academic-based thesis paper, therefore no enough time to gather primary data as well as finances to foot the costs of gathering this data. As such, literature review is used.

Chapter Four:

Discussion

Discussion

There were different results that were realized from the literature review. First, Casinos would contribute positively toward the growth of the economy in downtown Chicago (Thompson, 2001). In line with this, Casinos would create employment in the society, with more and more people finding jobs in casinos. Research indicates that tourism and hospitality industry would witness an increase in the number of casinos across the United States. Notably, every year casino business raked billions of dollars and this could contribute positively toward the growth of the economy of Chicago as well as of the United States in general. As a matter of fact, casinos play a very important part in the economy.

On the other hand, the possible effects of land-based casinos in downtown Chicago cannot go unmentioned. For instance, since casinos are associated with politics, this may contribute to tribal political alignment among major players who involve themselves in casino gaming in downtown Chicago. Similarly, the addiction to casinos often led to bankruptcy, crime, corruption and poverty (Herion, 2010). Furthermore, casinos had a negative influence on the society, especially among children and the young people. In this regard, the establishment of Casinos in downturn Chicago could have detrimental effects.

Conclusion

Casino gaming is one of the greatest economic contributors to hospitality and tourism industry in the United States. In line with this, the positive economic impact of casino gaming has enhanced this industry, with a contributions of millions of dollars every year. However, there have arisen arguments that casino gaming could have a negative impact on the society, especially in places such as Chicago downtown. From the literature review that was carried out, it was found out that casino gaming had no increased value on the society. On the contrary, it had contributed to an increase in such vices as crime and drug abuse in the society.

In other words, whereas casino gaming contributed positively toward the growth of the economy of the United States by enhancing hospitality and tourism industry, its negative impacts on the society cannot be ignored in any way. Notably, crime has been on top of this list among the impacts of casino gaming on the society. Nonetheless, there are other impacts that were identified in the literature section of this paper. For instance, it was found out that most families were affected when their members engaged in casino gaming. As such, there was an increased rate of divorce, violence, poverty, etc among these families.

In this respect, casinos have a negative impact on the society arguably, most of the issues that arose as a result of involving oneself in casino gaming affected the social structures that existed among various groups of people in the United States. In other words, there was a form of social alienation that was associated with casino gaming. In addition to this, casino gaming also affected the economic structures that had been laid down in the society. As such, increased levels of poverty was witnessed among people who were addicted to casinos, contrary to the belief that since there was enormous money supply or flow within the casino gaming structure, most people were affected negative rather than positively. This could be as a result of the addictive nature of casino gaming, which resulted in a person spending money even to the point of borrowing. With this in mind, one of the issues that need to be studied is whether the benefits of casino gaming could be equated to its impact on the society.

Recommendations

There are various recommendations that need to be addressed regarding the topic. To begin with, there is need for an in-depth study and analysis of the topic to determine whether the economic benefits of casino gaming outweighs the impact it has on the society. Note that various researches and studies that were consulted focused on the impact of casinos on the society. However, there is little that has been done so far on the whether the impact of casinos outweighs its economic benefits in the society.

Future research on the possible impact of land-based casinos in downtown Chicago would need to focus on the relationship between casinos and social lives of people who were involved. Note that the business of casino gaming has grown tremendously in the recent times. Therefore, there is a need to study the relationship between casinos and social lives of people. Note that the available research has dwelled much on the negative impact of casino, mentioning issues such as crime and suicide among people who were involved in casino gaming. The research would contribute toward the understanding the possible effects of land-based casinos in downtown Chicago.

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