Economical And Environmental Factors Affecting The Travel And Tourism Tourism Essay
Review and plan-making is a continuous process, and stakeholders are consulted and involved that this needs to be reflected in the way. Constructive dialogues with key players in the tourism sector should develop by plan-making bodies, and build partnerships with those who have a role in delivery of tourism programmes and schemes. Tesco is currently one of the leading supermarket in the UK. With their even growing success with their business, they are planning to expand an organisation into new markets. They are specially interest to enter the travel and tourism industry. I am recruited by Tesco as a member of their marketing team. This is a report for the company which is drawn from the market research and demonstrated a clear understanding on the social, economical and environmental factors affecting the travel and tourism industry.
UK have impressive diversity and variety. England, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland all of the countries have its own unique personality for things to do and place to see. From the rolling hills of the Cotswolds and bustling city, like of Manchester to the chearms of sleepy Cornish village and dramatic coastal, splendour of the north east. UK tourism industry is much popular and well organised. Lot’s of employee works in this industry. From all over the world tourist, visitors come to UK to see it’s beauty and attractions. Border and immigration law is easy for short stay tourist and traveller. UK have lot’s of place to expend money for enjoy and UK always welcome people to visit there country.
Thomas cook, Thomson are the bigger tour operator in UK. They can arrange a whole package for tourist or individual what tourist want. Tour operator provide travel ticket, hotel booking, tour guide, transport, food etc. UK is rich in natural history, stunning scenery and award-winning historical sites with attractions for all age groups and interests.
It is easy to fined a hotel or accommodation in the UK. Whatever a tourist destination or budget there’s a limitless range of quality hotels, B&Bs and other accommodation to choose from. UK have over 37000 places to stay in their accommodation directory - British largest hotel listing.
UK compare all the leading airline for the best scheduled charter and low-cost flights to UK. Air is not only way onto this island however, UK have also got all the information on high-speed rail likes from Europe, as well as Ferry routes to and from various destinations. Whether tourists are travelling on foot , by car, bus, taxi or train, in fact whatever type of transport tourist are using UK transport and help tourist find their way easily from city to city, airport to station or restaurant to hotel, as well as providing tourist about essential information on hoe to use these services in UK.
The tourism industry is an important sector of the UK economy. Over 25.5 million visitors come to the UK in 1999 and estimates suggest that tourism expenditure was around £61 billion and total employment in tourism in tourism-related industries was nearly 1.8 million people. Tourism industry include employment in the following sectors:
Hotel and other tourist accommodation,
Restaurants and cafes ect
Bars, public houses and night-clubs,
Travel agencies and tour operators,
Libraries, museums and other cultural activates,
Sports and other recreation activity.
Tourist can buy their product in several way like internet, telephone, email, fax ect. Tourism industries have their own website and they provide full package or individual product for customer. They put all detail about their product and easy to buy online. Tourist can call tourism industry about any specific product or services and pay over phone as well.
The association of British Travel Agent:
The association of British Travel Agent(ABTA) is a non-party political organisation which represents the interests of its members to government and key opinion formers. In the UK these include Government ministers, Mps, members of the Opposition parties, select committees and senior civil servants. In Europe they have close ties with members of the European Parliament, the European commission, and staff within the directorate generals. As well as working to make sure that governments are sensitive to the needs of the travel industry, they work with other leading travel industry organisations and maintain strong links with representatives of the main travel destinations and with other travel principals and suppliers. Many of these belong to their travel industry partner scheme. ABTA’s policies and views are actively promoted to international, national and tread media.
English tourism council : It’s prime role will be to provide strategic leadership to drive delivery of the national tourism strategy. It will have a parallel function as a centre of excellence supporting the industry in five key areas.
Role of legislation :
Anyone involved in the recruitment and selection of staff for the tourism industry should be aware of their responsibility under the relevant UK legislation which are;
Health and safety
Data protection act ect.
In the UK several Acts of parliament lay down the responsibilities of the seller to the buyer. The customer protection legislations are as follows;
The right to the seller to sell
Selling by sample
Satisfactory quality ect.
The key environmental legislations are as follows;
EU regulation on ozone depleting substances
Waste electrical and electronic equipment regulation
Recent developments in environmentalism and the role of environmental organisations
Key historical development of travel and tourism:
In the wider context, the sixteenth century Elizabeth mansion become a social and cultural centre, and early origin of visiting friends and relatives are easily identified in the period. From the seventeenth century, a form of tourism known as polite visiting emerges. Tourism based on social and cultural experience and education for young aristocrats became particularly prominent during the eighteenth century. Moreover the desire for people to travel continued to grow after the elapse of the grand tour and over the years major events took place within the evolution of tourism.
The organisational structure of the industry:
Tourism board of directors was established under the tourism Act 1979. The top level members are chairman, deputy chairman, managing director, chief executive, and directors.
Working with senior management, the board of directors is responsible for tourism overall performance. It approves goals and directions, strategic plan and performance target. The board of directors ensures appropriate policies, procedures and systems are in place to optimise performance, maintain high standards of ethical behaviour and provide leadership to tourism industry.
ABTA members themselves form the policy-making and enforcement machinery of ABTA. The board of directors , council of regions, regional representatives and a number of committees and working groups are supported in their work by a professional secretariat of some 60 staff.
The primary aims of the code of conduct are to ensure that the public receive the best possible service from members, and to maintain and enhance the reputation , good name and standard of ABTA and its members. Advertising in brochures is dealt with by ABTA's Standards on Brochures & Booking Conditions which contain the minimum levels of information that travel agent should include to ensure that their clients can confidently choose the travel arrangements that are right for them.
Airport – in airport ownership in UK the British airports authority (BAA) is the
major organisation. BAA leading London Heathrow, Gatwick, Standsted, Glasgow,
Edinburgh, Aberdeen, south Hampton. Also has management contract stakes in the
other airport outside the UK, plus retail management contract at two airport in the
Airline – British airline is one of the most famous and largest airline and 2nd largest airline in the world. It have four different type of cabin service ranging from economy to club world. Also there have lots of low cost airline which fly international rote. Like Ryan air , easy jet etc.
Ferry travel – it is very traditional transport. From Dover in UK to France ferry travel
is most popular. Before English channel every one thought that ferry will loss 50% of
passenger but it was not happened. As a low cost transport ferry in famous in the
The cruise market – it is one of the most famous travel in the world for enjoyment. Most of the oldest tourist interest to travel in cruise. But now a days youth and couples have lots of fun and enjoyment in cruise.
Road travel – in UK travel by car is most popular for day travel or domestic holiday.
The hire car is growth as well. people chose car when they are in abroad.
Rail travel – national rail own and operate the national rail network in UK. Rail is very relax journey for traveller and rail goes international rote as well like Euro star, Euro rail etc.
Tour operator - Tour operator put the role together from different part and make a holiday and sell them as packages to the customer. They contract with hotels, airlines and other transport companies for make a package tougher. There are three type of tour operator which are: Outbound, Inbound, and Domestic tour.
Travel agent - Travel agent giving advice or information and sell and administer booking for a number of tour operator. They also sell flights, ferry ticket booking, car hire, insurance, accommodation as separate product. Thus they are distribute of products.
Attraction - Attraction appeal to the domestic tourism market and inbound tourism market. Attraction has two types natural and manmade. Natural like forest, beaches, lakes, land scape, hills etc. Man made attractions are super structure, national park, museum, zoo, gallery etc.
Accommodation - There are many type of accommodation available in travel and tourism industry like
Holiday Park and campsites
Key environmental organisation:
EIB:- The EIB’s activity in the environmental field is extensive with staff involvement to match, in particular operational staff working on the environmental assessment of project. Environmental protection and improvement are among the EIB’s key leading objectives. The EIB’s environmental work is therefore increasingly varied and complex.
ABP:- ABP works closely regularly with ABP marine environmental research (ABPmer), a subsidiary consultancy company with over 50 years experience of providing specialist consultancy services on coastal, estuarine and riverine developments and conservation project.
The demand and provision for tourism
New development in transport and access and effect on travel and tourism in various way. World is become change. New technology coming in market and customer demand is become rise as well. In travel and tourism tourist want more relax and easy product. In transport there have a lots of change like travel by train in Europe is more quicker then before. As an example before London to Paris by train was 4 hour journey now it is 2.30 hour .
Tourist want something more to see or always want something new. There have lots of new destination and tourist attraction built in Europe and America. For example Barcelona, Montserrat, & the Costa Brava, Lake Garda, Venice & Verona, Krakow etc. Harry porter theme park on course to open in Florida, Italy to open up renaissance canals.
Tourist want their tour easy. So when they want to go for tour, they can make their decision in short time an booking there ticket for air or hotel on spot. Japan use their oyster in their mobile phone. So they do not use card. They touch their mobile as a oyster. Mobile broadband is avail able in all over the world.
Mass tourism could only have developed with the improvements in technology, allowing the transport of large numbers of people in a short space of time to places of leisure interest , so that greater numbers of people could being to enjoy the benefits of leisure time.
World change rapidly and new technology change our life everyday. People always want something new and easy. On the other hand credit crunch quickly change tourism industry. Tourist who normally book 5 star hotel they interested to book 3 star hotel in this situation. Tourist tried to use public bus and travel in cheaper flight in the term of credit crunch.
On the other hand people expectation become change. Tourist now want to travel in short time to get more time to visit other place. They want their all expectation in same place. In UK some of the shopping complex established for tourist attraction, where tourist can buy all their need in same place. Not only in shopping also in artificial sea beach, where tourist can get natural felling in all the year.
Different age of people travel for different reason or for specie reason people can travel. Young age people mostly travel for adventure or activity like game or special event. Some of them travel for visiting their friend and relatives. But this type of travel tourist also try to fined attraction. Study tour is another popular tourism. Student mostly travel for specie place or attraction which is related with their study and can learn something from this travel. Religion reason is also a travel, like and example Muslim community travel in Saudi Arabia in a specie day to celebrate their hajj. From all over the world lot’s of Muslims come every year. Same as Hindu religion. India is bigger Hindu community in the world. So from all over the world people who are Hindu goes to India to celebrate their ceremony. SPA tourism is popular for those tourist who have some problem in health. Also people travel for treatment in different country. At the end of treatment people visit some of the place as a tourist.
The role of government and the political and economical environment
Political Environment in International Business: Political environment has a very important impact on every business or organisation where they operation, no matter what its size or its area of operation. Whether the company is in local area, regional area or national, large or small, political factors of the country will have an impact on it. And the most crucial and unavoidable realities of international business are that both host and home governments are integral partners. Show something in its policies and attitudes about business are a governments idea of how best to promote the national interest, political philosophy and considering its own resources. Encouraging and offering support or by discouraging and banning or restricting its activities depending on the government control's and restricts a company's. .
The term political structure, used in a general sense, refers to # or groups and their relations to each other, their patterns of interaction within # and to political #, # and the norms present in political systems in such a way that they constitute the political landscape of the political entity.
A situation in which conditions and mechanisms of governance and rule are challenged as to their political legitimacy by elements operating from outside of the normal operations of the political system. When challenge occurs from within a political system and the system is able to adapt and change to meet demands on it, it can be said to be stable.
Even then, however, the challenge of governance and rule from outside the political
system is often associated with events of violence. Political instability will therefore
Normally go hand in hand with political violence. In the following, we will use the two terms interchangeably. It is also clear, however, that authoritarian countries can be stable but also relatively free of events of violence if they do not need to resort to violence to uphold their authoritarian rule and dissuade opposition groups from undertaking Violent acts on their part. We will test the hypothesis that autocracy, as such, does not have negative impacts on tourism.
The is an combining of various economic factors, such as total productivity, employment, inflation, income, and interest rates. These factors influence the spending design of individuals and firms.
Microeconomic environment: It includes the economic environment of a particular firm, industry or household and is primarily concerned with price determination of individual factors. The efficient allocation of resources is the main consideration from a microeconomic perspective. This is necessary to maximize total output.
Macroeconomic environment: It includes all the in totality. The determination of the employment in the levels of income and the economy is the main consideration here.
Interest rates: Interest rates determine the cost and the flow of money of borrowing towards businesses.
Exchange rates: This impacts from the profits made by employment levels, exporters and the price of imports.
Income and wealth: Income in an economy is measured by GDP, GNP and per capita. In these factors a progressive economic environment shown by high values.
Inflation and deflation: Inflationary and deflationary pressures alter the purchasing power of this which has a direct impact on employment rates, consumer spending, tax policies, business investment, and government programs .
Productivity: This is the output generated from a given amount of inputs. High levels of productivity support by the economic environment .
The trends in tourism
Political stability and instability: political stability and political relations influences the image of destinations in tourism- generating regions. Example of political strife that cause problematic concerns in the attraction of visitors are warfare, coups, political sticks or protests. Political instability is described as a condition of country where a government has been toppled or is controlled by factions following a coup or where basic functional per-requisites for social order control and maintenance are unstable and periodically disrupted.
Economical change: economical change influence tourism in many way. Recent credit crunch is a economical change in the world where country like USA, UK mostly affected. People loose their job, lots of company close there operation for money. People have no extra money for tourism. So this economical change reduce tourist. On the other hand tourism industries reduce their price for overcome the economical change.
Customer need and expectation: tourist change their need and expectation every time. They always want something new and high slandered so tourism industry going to follow customer demand.
Product life cycle: tourism life cycle have 4 method of life cycle like introductory, growth, maturity and decline. In summer tourism industry do lots of activity for tourist. But when summer is going to end tourist have no interest about the activities. And at the end of summer tourism industry stop to do those activity and ready for winter. This life cycle for summer and winter rolling in tourism industry.
Environmental issue: The environmental effects, widely defined, include cultural and social elements, and are probably the biggest problem of tourism. Environmental impact of tourism is most visible in tourist destinations. But effects are also visible at points of origin and transit. For example, the output of aircrafts, ferries, buses, cars equipment and promotional material consumes productive and energy resources and generates waste in origin areas while travel creates pollution in the atmosphere and adversely effects the environment of areas traversed.
Globalisation: Globalization has increased the interdependence between countries, economies and people. It does not involve only giant corporations, but also small and medium sized businesses together with family-run firms. This process has led to the creation and operation of global tourism market where destinations, which are expected to compete on equal basis regardless of the country of origin, function interactively. Globalization has opened a whole new world of development opportunities.
Education and training : people are more educated. So in tourism staff need trained and educated to understand tourist and communicate with them. Tourist want high standard and quality product and trained and skill customer care in their tour. So tourism industry aware of it and trained their staff about product and services.
Tourism is a big industry. Every year number of tourist are increase in average 5%. There are different type of tourist like some of the tourist stay for few week, some of the tourist stay for more then a month or day travel tourist. All of the tourist have same target to travel and fined a new place for enjoy and know something new. Some
of the tourist come in seasonal. Summer is best time for tourism. Specially in Europe and American tourist like summer tour. But some of the country have some special day where tourist go specially for that day or time. Tourist want always new destination to visit. So tourism industry always fined new destination for tourist. Tourist want everything in same place and make easy their tour. Ecotourism is most poplar tourism for tourist to get everything in same place and enjoy for a short time.
The role of planning theories, practices and legislation in sustainable tourism and planning strategy
In all forms of tourism have crucial importance to the economic, environmental and social well-being of the whole country. The vital role of planning system has to play in terms of facilitating the improvement and development of tourism in appropriate locations. Planners understand the importance of tourism need to ensure by tourism industry and take this fully into account when taking planning decisions and preparing development plans. Also ensure that those involved in the tourism industry understand the principles of national planning policy as they apply to tourism and how these can be applied when preparing individual planning applications. The tourism industry work and the planners together effectively to deliver, facilitate and promote new tourism developments in a sustainable way. Tourism have crucial importance in UK. It provides millions of jobs, generates significant revenues, , supports communities and helps to improve and maintain important national assets. A vital component of tourism is the make-up of the national economy. It contributes £74 billion to GDP1. It is the UK’s third largest foreign exchange earner after vehicles and oil, of total exports tourism accounts for over 4%. It contributes an estimated £11.8 billion to the national exchequer in terms of the tax paid by tourists on services and goods.2.2 million people employs by the industry – 7.7% of the UK workforce. Tourism jobs are located outside London almost 80% and in 150,000 small and medium-sized enterprises most tourism employment is located.
Having established the make into whole link between the environment and tourism, tourism and area development planning models are applicable to environmental conservation and protection planning as well as briefly reviewed. Parallels are drawn between the two planning approaches especially in relation to social special components. It is then provide evidence for something that the future of environment of tourism planning is based on environmental conservation, tourist views, the incorporation of community and the recognition of functional differentiation. It is insist on right that the planning of national areas for tourism should being from an environmental base and work forwards towards the identification of tourism opportunities and include the view of community groups and tourists.
Tourism is an important industry in all over the world. Its future development will be secured by tourism developers who engaging with the planning process and that importance those who operating the planning system recognising. The simple idea of ensuring a better quality is the heart of sustainable development which is life for everyone, now and for future generations. To help to make new development more sustainable the planning process provides the opportunity, both through the preparation of development plans and when decisions are taken on specific schemes. The outcomes should be developments which provide accessible development, safe and well-designed, and create new opportunities that will improve the regeneration of communities and the well being of individuals. The result in more efficient use of land and bring forward sufficient land to meet a wide range of expected needs. Provide a supportive framework for successful business and economic growth. Create viable, vibrant and vital town centres. Reduce the need to travel protect and enhance the natural and safeguard natural resources and built environment .
This report offers practical advice to ensure that planners understand the importance of tourism and take this fully into account when taking planning decisions about tourism and preparing development plans. It also aims to help Tesco in the tourism industry to understand about the principles of national planning policy which they can apply in tourism. This report discuses how planners and the tourism industry should work together to promote, deliver and facilitate new tourism development in a sustainable way.
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