I am very grateful and thankful to Almighty Allah S.W.T in giving me patience and strength to complete this project. In the process of accomplishing this task, I was opportune enough to work with people who had contributed greatly to the success of this project. Their help was not only limited to their knowledge and expertise, but also in contributing their priceless energy.
Firstly, I wish to express my utmost gratitude and appreciation to my Final Year Project (FYP) supervisor Mr.Mardeni Roslee for his inspiring and invaluable guidance throughout Part 1 and Part 2 on completing my project. I would like to thank him for all the advice, encouragement, supports and everything that I had learn from him.Without him this FYP would have been very difficult.
A tower of respect and also my sincere gratitude to my final year project moderator, Mr. Lo for his encouragement and his belief in me to complete this project. With his encouragement after presentation of Part 1, my eager in completing this project becomes more and more.
High acknowledgement to my project partner Nur Kamilia. Her readiness to help and discuss and share ideas and lots of interaction helped me in various aspects especially in understanding the principles on making this project a success in several of aspects. Thank you for being such a nice company to work all the time.The contribution she gave has confirmed her deep commitment to scientific and technical matters,her professional capability and most importantly her enthusiastic approach to solving complex problems.
I would like to express my hearty appreciation for my parents and my siblings for their invaluable encouragement and supports in terms of inner strength and also financials. Thank you to all who gave me the possibility to complete this project.
The intention of this final year project is to study of high speed wireless broadband network in Malaysia. The requirement of this project is to investigate and research about wireless broadband and to make comparisons between main wireless broadband network providers in Malaysia. The project consists of two major parts which are investigating of problems of service in wireless broadband network and improvement and enhancement in wireless broadband network in Malaysia.For improvement in wireless broadband, research about the technology been used by the wireless technology in Malaysia nowadays revealed. Study about the new technology that been used by other countries to be implement in Malaysia so that the wireless technology in Malaysia can be enhance. There are also government plans in enhancing broadband technology in Malaysia. There are many wireless broadband providers in Malaysia and comparison among them will help customer to choose what the best are and make the provider improve their services.
CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION
In this introductory chapter, the information and background about this project and report are outlined.
The intention of this final year project is to study about the high speed wireless broadband network in Malaysia. This project consists of two major parts; which are investigating of problems of service in wireless broadband network and improvement and enhancement in wireless broadband network in Malaysia. For each part, is further divided into the making of comparison between wireless broadband providers in Malaysia. The research part requires the study about the improvement and enhancement about the wireless broadband technology in Malaysia and the latest technology that can be implement in Malaysia.
In this project, for the comparison part, focused on famous and big company of wireless broadband provider such as Celcom ,DiGi,Telekom Malaysia and P1WiMAX in their technology and problems occur. Apart from this, we will know the best technology in wireless broadband. The project of the development of wireless technology throughout Malaysia should be view not only from the provider side but also from the user point of view. Furthermore, user wants the best for them and the main aspect in enhancing the wireless technology in Malaysia.
This final year project gave exposure in about all the technology been used in implementing the wireless technology. Any related or useful knowledge gained during formal study was able to be applied during the completion of this project. Furthermore, this project also gave valuable experience throughout the research in searching for the information.
This project is very useful and meaningful as high speed wireless broadband has a very wide range of user. The technology is usually use to connect people everywhere and one of the key of information. The advantages in using wireless broadband over fixed line cable of these systems are wireless technology not using any cable so it is wireless and portable. It also has premier performance depending on the technology being used.
The author has been motivated to write this report for various reasons.Scientific research in the wireless multimedia communication field is growing fast.Futhermore,the design of different technologies in wireless broadband technology offering different performance will make the author eager to find out the best for both users and providers.
The impressive evolution of mobile networks and the potential of wireless multimedia communication pose many questions to operators,manufacturers and scientists working in the field.The future scenario is open to several alternatives such as thoughts,proposals and activities of the near future could provide the answer to open points and dictate the better and improved trends of wireless world.Because of this,the author is very enthusiasm to participate in the research to the Malaysia in enhancing and developing the wireless technology.
Nowadays, the usage of Internet is become essential in human's life. Internet can help us in doing many tasks in our daily life. One can say that life mean nothing without Internet market. However the browsing activity will occur some problems such as the coverage, speed and other limitation. This phenomenon has inspired the author to research the high speed wireless technology that will bring benefit to the user. This research will help both provider and user in bringing wireless technology to the further stage.
1.3 OBJECTIVES OF THE PROJECT
The main objective of this project is to study and research about the high speed wireless broadband network and to compare the main wireless broadband providers in Malaysia. The research will reveal the best provider and technology for the customer to choose. Therefore, in order to achieve the target, the objectives listed below should be met.
Firstly is to analyze on each technology that been use to come out with the best technique to make this wireless technology better. Secondly, is to study the improvement and enhancement in wireless broadband network in Malaysia and finally, the most crucial part of the project is to make comparisons between main wireless broadband network provider in Malaysia by considering in many aspect such as their technology, problems and services.
1.4 PROJECT DESCRIPTION
In this project, a detail research about wireless broadband in Malaysia had been studied. For the improvement and enhancement in wireless broadband part, the main goal is to improve and enhance the technology of the wireless.
The requirement for this research is the wireless broadband technology must require both provider and user satisfaction. Both providers and users want to improve coverage, call quality, lower the cost, traffic management and the services.
All of this can be achieve by using better technology such as HSDPA,iBurst™,WiMAX and others so that the final product will be easy to install, best quality, affordable and portable. The main wireless in Malaysia are DiGi,P1WiMAX,Celcom and Maxis. This provider use different technology for "last mile". So, comparison has been proceed between those technologies so find their pro and cons.
This report and project is intended for use by graduate students approaching research activities in the wireless communications area and by professional engineers and project managers involve in wireless design,aiming for better and at consolidating their future vision of the wireless multimedia world.
Current mobile and wireless system and architectural concepts must evolve in order to cope with complex connectivity requirements and also users' need. Scientific research in this truly multidisciplinary field is growing fast. This project will discover and reveal about the new technologies,new architectural concepts and new challenges that are emerging.
1.5 PROJECT ARRANGEMENT
This project comprises of two major parts which are compare and research part. For the comparison part, it can be further separated into the customer side and the provider side.In order to satisfy both sides,survey been made and interview been proceed.The information achieved from the company will be private and confidential similar to the personal information of the customer .This is true data from both side without any hesitate from them.
This project was handled by two persons. The persons who are involved in this project are the author and partner; The author is responsible in improvement and enhancement in wireless broadband network in Malaysia while Nur Kamila Mohd Kamil is responsible in investigating of problems of service in wireless broadband network.Both of us will focus on comparison between the main wireless provider is Malaysia.
1.6 THE DEVELOPMENT AND THE PROGRESS OF THE PROJECT
1.6.1 Initial Stage
Initially, a complete and comprehensive literature review is done to gain as many information as possible, to ensure a thorough understanding before any planning or generating of ideas is done to generally start the project. The entire literature review consists of a variety of information obtained from the Internet, books, journals that have information about wireless broadband.
1.6.2 Development Stage
In this development stage, the entire information gathered in the first stage is investigating all the information collected at the first stage.At this stage also we have done comparing the wired cable and also wireless broadband by interviewing Telekom Berhad.We distributing survey to know customer point of view.To collect more information,we also interview other broadband provider.
1.6.3 Final Stage
In this final stage, the process for this project becomes more complicated and specific. It is because this final stage deals with compiling and analyzing the data and information collected at the initial and development stage.
However, collecting data is still proceed in this stage as there are a lot of information and wireless broadband is getting wider and the technology are getting better day by day. That is why this stage is very important in learning how to adapt the technologies that never stop growing, which is invaluable to any engineering student.
1.7 CHAPTER OVERVIEW
This report has been conceived to cover several traditionally separated chapters,there by offering the complete guide to approach issues related to the wireless multimedia communication network improvement and enhancement.
Chapter 1 covers the objectives that the author wants to achieve to ensure the success of this project and the overall ideas related to the project are explained in detail.
Chapter 2 covers literature review on the improving and enhancing the wireless broadband and background of the major technologies that been studied in completing this project. This chapter contains a brief overview of all the theory that was collected throughout the researched.
Chapter 3 covers methodology involved in this project. The method to obtain all those result described.
Chapter 4 contains result from the analyzing all the data collected in this project through research, interview and survey. This result is described base on the theory researched before.
Chapter 5 contains the conclusion for the entire project and its achievements. Recommendations for future improvement is also stated in this chapter.
CHAPTER 2: LITERATURE REVIEW
In this chapter 2,the report will provides the readers with all those technologies adopted in current wireless communication systems and the author also presents some proposed the latest technologies that already implement abroad to be done in Malaysia.This chapter will be devided into 2 parts; improvement part and enhancement part.Chapter 2 also explained about the Malaysia's government plan in developing broadband technology and also overview about the main wireless broadband providers in Malaysia.
2.1 INTRODUCTION TO BROADBAND
Any type of transmission technique that carries some data channels over a common wire refers to broadband. DSL service, combines separate voice and data channels over a single telephone line, is one of the case of broadband technology. Broadband constitutes any form of high-speed Internet access using this transmission technique in home networking. Voice fills the low end of the frequency spectrum and data fills the high end in DSL.
General broadband Internet technologies are both DSL and cable modem. Devices that support both DSL and cable are broadband routers and broadband modems. Fiber (FTTH) and fixed wireless are other types of home broadband. Can bear the network bandwidth at least 256Kbps for connections in one direction is a general guideline to meet the criteria as a broadband Internet service.
The term broadband generally refers to high-speed Internet access that faster than the typical dial-up access and that is always on. Broadband is dissimilar from dail-up where broadband service supplies higher-speed of data transmission. The transmission "pipeline" will allows extra content to be carried through it. On the other hand, broadband offers access to the highest quality Internet services such as streaming media, VoIP (Internet phone), gaming, and interactive services. Many of these current and newly-developing services require the transition of large amounts of data that may not be technically practical with dial-up service. Therefore, broadband service may be ever more necessary to access the full range of services and opportunities that the Internet can offer. Broadband is always on so there is no need to reconnect to network after logging off. For this reason it does not block phone lines. Broadband has less delay in transmission of content.
2.1.1 Broadband in Malaysia
Malaysian broadband users are growing in numbers every day.According to an AC Nielsen survey in 2009,Malaysians ranked third in the global ranking of the Digital media consumers,who spend over 20 hours a week watching streamed or downloaded content from the Internet.It is undeniable that there is a growing need from Malaysians for a better broadband service.The reason why broadband has become a necessity is because moving to tne web-o-sphere is inevitable for any corporate entity today.The broadband and Internet opens up a host of business opportunities,options and solutions allowing market expansion and growth.Broadband enable Malaysian to communicate.They can communicate via e-mail as well as other social networking sites and the Internet sometimes functions as student's virtual classroom and for student's course work.
Broadband service is an important need of companies.They could suffer losses as slow services would hinder the online experience.As Malaysian are already in the IT world, Malaysian don't just need a broadband service,but need one that is better.As Malaysia is develops,the usage of the internet becomes even more vital as Malaysia has a high number of users,Internet service providers should cater the best for the users.Broadband service is a necessity for the corporate world as well as personal use.Internet is the integral part of the modern world.It is time for Malaysian to enjoy something that they need less hassle as technologies have allowed room for improvement in the Internet service. (daripade malay mail paper)
220.127.116.11 Malaysia National Broadband Initiative (NBI)
The National Broadband Initiative is the government's initiative to provide broadband service to the whole country and highspeed broadband with high economic activities.The target is to connect 50 percent of Malaysian households to broadband by 2010.This measurement on household will futher be enhanced by considering other elements that would better reflect the use of broadband by the citizen such as taking into account cellular mobile penetration,PC ownership,use of internet in Community Broadband Centres,office and school.Under the NBI,highspeed broadband service will be 10Mbs and below.The era of slow Internet (dail-up) connection will be over and of course broadband will transfer people's lives.
The aim is to narrow the gap between the "haves" in urban areas,and "have-nots" in rural areas,often referred to as the digital divide.This imbalance in communication access can have social ramifications if not address at the nation al level.In Malaysia,the push to narrow down the gap between the urban and rural has been entrusted to the Malaysian Communications and Multimedia Commision (MCMC).MCMC is mandated to work towards narrowing the inequalities of access that exist in underserved areas and populations.MCMC has overseen project that have steadily reduced the number of areas that were not served by telecommunications services.
18.104.22.168 Speeding Up Malaysia's Tranformation
ICT and Internet are recognised as vital support services and platform in driving all other sectors in the social economic growth of nations along the lines of knowledge based and Digital economy.As a logical follow-through of the ICT development for the country following earlier related initiatives in computerization,upgrading and Digitalisation of the communications networks,the introduction of the multimedia super corridor (MSC) in the 1996,the advent and the phenomenal take up the Internet and IP-based technologies,the nation has indeed stepped up with the introduction of NBI in October 2004.
The strategy adopted under the NBI was to address the availability of broadband as an engine of growth and need to bridge the Digital divide with the objective of providing equitable access to communication services.
More importantly ,the citizen have access to basic amenities to basic amenities through the Internet such as health and emergency services,schools, government and local services and of course other consumer services.
Under NBI, rural communities will be connected to broadband services through the Community Broadband Centre located throughout the country.The competitive environment generated by the communications and multimedia industry has propelled the widespread adoptation of broadband through availability of affordable package and choices to the Malaysian public hence increasing the connectivity of the citizen and reach to market.
22.214.171.124 Moving Towards Innovation Economy
With broadband,Malaysian will have access to the Internet,information and services that can be capitalised to improve socio-economic standing.Rural communities in the hard-to-reach places especially,can use broadband to gather useful information and access to services at their fingertips,without having to go far and wide.Broadband is expected to have tangible impact on Malaysia's Gross Domestic Product (GDP).It will increase national competitiveness and foreign direct investments plus enable a knowledge-based and innovation driven economy.NBI targets 50 percents households to get broadband service by end of 2010.It is a government initiative to provide infrastructure in line with the new economic model,aims to transform Malaysia into knowledge based society generating the high income economy.
In overall term,it aims to improve,the nation's socio-economic standing globally.As the NBI will provide the service to the whole country,so every one will be entitled to the broadband service including those in the rural areas.This access to knowledge could be extended to family members and communities which in turn will enrich the nation.
With the NBI,economic innovation can also help bridge the socio-economic gap.The broadband service,has leveraged the small medium enterprises and entrepreneurs(SMEs) to market their products to much larger networks via the world wide web.Although there are concerns usage Internet will expose the people to negative influences,but to curb it, Internet also provides the education and knowledge at the fingertip.
Malaysia's government on its part will take proactive action to prevent negative elements to stringent monitoring and enforcement of laws.Just as much as the country will get the economic benefits there are other aspects that Malaysia can gain from the improvement and enhancement of the broadband service too.The advantage of broadband service are limitless.
2.2 INTRODUCTION TO WIRELESS TECHNOLOGY
Wireless is very essential.Wireless networksis presenting a network having no wires as wireless network can attach your laptop to a network using radio waves and so you can move your computer wherever easily. Wireless network has made a network very portable because of adaptive modulation, digital modulation, access multiplexing and information compression.
With wireless networks, you will experience the privacy and personal computer security extra than before. Air is the medium for the wireless network. A wireless networks have offering roaming,very flexible, low cost and high standard. There are different types of wireless network such as wireless LAN, wireless MAN, and mobile devices network.
2.2.1 Types of Wireless Networks and network usage
Imagine the world is completely without wire. It must be amazing and very comfortable. Without using any wires, a wireless network able to two or more than two computers.Depends on the technology which is using, wireless networksutilizes spread-spectrum or OFDM. User able to travel about within a wide coverage area and they still can be connected to the network with wireless network. There are different types of wireless networking such as wide area network, personal area network and local area network but the general one are of two which are WMAN(Wireless Metropolitan Area Network) and WLAN(Wireless Local Area Network).
The usage of wireless networking greater than ever gradually because it has influenced vital impact on the whole world because of that its uses have substantially developed. Through wireless networks, one can transmit data over the world using satellites. As wireless network use to transfer and receive data speedily, wireless networks used in emergency services. It doesn't matter to be in a if you are at the office or abroad, the growth of wireless network increasing develops in our daily life to share and send data speedily.
2.3 IMPROVING THE HIGH-SPEED WIRELESS BROADBAND TECHNOLOGY
Commonly, wideband of frequencies is available to send out information is called broadband refers to telecommunication in which a. Because a wide band of frequencies is available, information can be multiplexed and sent on many different frequencies or channels within the band concurrently, allowing more information to be transmitted in a given amount of time (much as more lanes on a highway allow more cars to travel on it at the same time). Related terms arewideband(a synonym), baseband (a one-channel band), and narrowband(sometimes meaning just wide enough to carry voice, or simply "not broadband", and sometimes meaning specifically between 50cpsand 64Kpbs). 
Meanwhile wireless mean wireless is a term used to describe telecommunications in which electromagnetic waves (rather than some form of wire) carry the signal over part or all of the communication path. Wireless is better than wired cable because wireless technology is portable, has premier performance and flexible configuration and integration.
Both provider and user want to improve the coverage.So that,the signal has good indoor penetration for residential and enterprise applications fast rollout and wide coverage.For the wireless broadband company they want to improve and achieve better capacity which can support sufficiently high number of simultaneous users.Call quality is one of the factor that both user and provider want to improve so that it will have low latency, high data-rate and high reliability and uptime.Generally user want to have affordable, differentiated tariff packages that suit different user needs plus low CPE (customer-provided equipment )price. Improving services is also essential so that user has opportunity to replace existing fixed line voice services and upgrade anything regarding their broadband without any complicated policy.Beside that, technology is based on open standard to enable economic of scales and wide adoption.The roadmap of the broadband also must be well defined to enhance technology or broadband services. Traffic management must achieve 80% of the bandwidth for 80% of the users (and not 20% of the users). Broadband should have sufficient spectrum for large-scale deployment & long-term growth.
Wireless broadband needs to deliver something that is affordable by the user with low cost CPE, low access price, and attractive value-added services -broadband data and voice.Broadband which is easy to install, simple installation and no need for phone lines ("broadband on the go") plus best quality which has quick connection and consistently good performance.Finally user want to has portability which has pervasive coverage (including indoor) and always connected.
Also known as IEEE 802.16, WiMAX is a wireless digital communications system that is intended for wireless "metropolitan area networks". In Malaysia,P1WiMAX is the company that use this technology to implement wireless broadband.WiMAX can give broadband wireless access (BWA) up to 30 miles (50 km) for fixed stations, and 3 - 10 miles (5 - 15 km) for mobile stations. On the contrary, the WiFi/802.11 wireless local area network standard is limited in most cases to only 100 - 300 feet (30 - 100m).
The bandwidth and range of WiMAX make it suitable for connecting Wi-Fi hotspots to the Internet, providing a wireless alternative to cable and DSL for "last mile" broadband access. Besides providing data, telecommunications and IPTV services ( triple play ),WiMAX also providing a source of Internet connectivity as part of a business continuity plan. That is, if a business has both a fixed and a wireless Internet connection, especially from unrelated providers, they are unlikely to be affected by the similar service outage. Finally WiMAX provides portable connectivity.
126.96.36.199 WiMAX technology
Expanding broadband wireless access over longer distance and to new locations,WiMAX (802.16) is the new era of a broadband .In the wireless world,WiMAX reducing the cost of bringing broadband to new areas. WiMAX (802.16) technology provides wider range and bandwidth than the other available or forthcoming broadband wireless technologies such as Wireless Fidelity (Wi-Fi). It offers a wireless option to wired backhaul and last mile deployments that use cable modems, Data Over Cable Service Interface Specification (DOGS1S), Digital Subscriber Line technologies (DSL), T-carrier and E-carrier (Tx/Ex) systems and Optical Carrier Level (OC-x) technologies.
Based on the typical connection to the public wireless networks by using optical fibre, microwave link, cable or any other high speed connectivity, the backhaul of the WiMAX (802.16) is created. Mesh networks, Point-to-Multi-Point (PMP) connectivity is also used as a backhaul in a few cases. WiMAX (802.16) should use Point-to-Point antennas as a backhaul preferably to join subscriber sites to each other and to basestations across long distance.
A Subscriber Station which is WiMAX CPE normally serves a building using wireless or wired LAN.With the use of LOS Point-to-Multi-Point connectivity or Non-Line-of-Sight (NLOS),a WiMAX basestation serves subscriber stations; both connections is referred to as the last kilometre communication.WiMAX (802.16) recommended to use NLOS Point-to-Multi-Point antennas to connect business or residential subscribers to the WiMAX Basestation (BS) preferably.
WiMAX basestation equipment with a sector antenna and wireless modem on top
188.8.131.52 Type of WiMAX and receiver
TheWiMAXfamily of standards (802.16) focus on two types of usage models which are afixed WiMAXusage model and amobile WiMAXusage model. Thefixed WiMAXserves the stationary and pedestrian classes meanwhile amobile WiMAXnetwork access system is one that can address the vehicular class.
Until now one of the important restrictions to the widespread acceptance of WiMAX has been the price of WiMAX CPE (WiMAX Receiver). This is not only the price of WiMAX receiver itself, but also that of installation. The idea of a self-installed WiMAX CPE (WiMAX Receiver) has been difficult for Broadband Wireless Access (BWA) from the beginning, but with the arrival of WiMAX technology this issue seems to be getting resolved. In the past, BWA has been predominantly Line Of Sight (LOS), requiring highly skilled labour and a truck role to provide and install a service to customer.
184.108.40.206 WiMAX design
Internal devices and a WiMAX tower are the contents of aWiMAX basestation. Some other and environmental issues bound the limits of WiMAX range to 6 miles or 10 km. A WiMAX basestation can normally covers the area of about 30 miles or 50 kilometres radius. The WiMAX basestations would use the media access control layer defines in the standard and would allocate uplink and downlink bandwidth to subscribers according to their requirements on real time basis. Any wireless user under the coverage area would be able to get the WiMAX services
Basestation connectivity with Subscriber Stations
220.127.116.11 WiMAX in future
Compare to the typical Wi-Fi hot spots, WiMAX technologycan make high speedwireless broadbandInternet services available to much larger areas. Greater than the physical distance limitations of Wi-Fi hot spots or DSL, WiMAX technology can also be used to interconnect existing Wi-Fi networks.
WiMAX Technology can play a significant role in helping service providers to deliver converged services that can be accessed using a broad range of devices on a wide variety of networks.WiMAX implementations can provide a wireless range of up to 30 miles or 50 kilometres.
By given different capabilities while allowing for seamless integration at the technical level, 3G and WiMAX Technology solutions fit well together. To become highly spectrally efficient, 3G technologies have evolved over many years allowing operators to take benefit of costly spectrum dedicated to mobile services. 3G CDMA technologies such as W-CDMA and CDMA 2000 1xEV-DO provide high through puts in low bandwidths as 5 MHz and 1.25 MHz, respectively.
18.104.22.168 Treat to WiMAX and security
WiMAX security, stability and quality of service are some of factors involved in declining the WiMAX technology performance. In this subchapter author is going to discuss the threats involved in WiMAX.
WiMAX basestations andWiMAX Customer Premise Equipments are the content of the WiMAX wireless access network. The WiMAX basestations provide network add-on to the WiMAX CPEs. AWiMAX Customer Premise Equipment(WiMAX CPE) selects the one which offers the h3est signal as a servingWiMAX basestation. At this point, aWiMAX basestationand a collection of servedWiMAX Customer Premise Equipments (WiMAX CPE's) play the role of system while the subscriber plays the role of the user.
TheMedium Access Control(MAC) layer and physical layer are two of most important layers of protocol architecture of WiMAX Technology. Common Part sub layer is the essential part of WiMAX technology layered architecture.MAC ProtocolData Units (PDUs) are constructed, connections are established and bandwidth is managed in this layer. With the Convergence layer, the Common Part (CP) exchangesMACService Data Units (SDUs). Tightly integrated with Common Part is the Privacy sub layer. With the Physical layer ,the Security sub layer exchanges MAC PDUs. The Convergence layer adapts units of data of higher level protocols to the MAC SDU format, and vice versa. Sorts the incomingMACSDUs by the connections to which they belong by The Convergence layer. Received and transmitted through coding and modulation of radio frequency signals, The Physical layer is a two-way mapping between MAC PDUs and Physical layer frames.
Type of treats in WiMAX are Rouge Basestation, DoS (Denial of Service) Attacks, Data Link-Layer Threat, Application Layer Threat, Physical Layer Threat, Threat, Authentication, Key, Theft, Water and finally Black Hat Threat.
The primaryWiMAX securityconcerns from the point of view of an end user are privacy and data integrity. Users need guarantee that no one can eavesdrop on their sessions and that the data sent across the communication link is not tampered and usually achieved through the use of WiMAX network encryption.
An importantWiMAX securityconsideration is preventing unauthorized use of the network services. From the service provider's point of view, using h3 authentication and access control methods. The service provider's need to prevent fraud should be reasonable against the difficulty that it may impose on the user. The physical layer, and theprivacy sub layer are the example of authentication and access control that can be implemented at various levels of the network.
22.214.171.124 Multiple-input multiple-output communications (MIMO) technology on WiMAX
The use of Multiple-input multiple-output communications(MIMO) technology onWiMAX, which is the technology brand name for the implementation of the standard IEEE 802.16 is called WiMAX MIMO.
Multiple Input and Multiple Output or MIMO, refers to the technology where there are multiple antennas at the mobile device and multiple antennas at the basestation. Typical usage of multiple antenna technology includes laptops with two antennas, cellular phones, as well as CPEdevices with multiple sprouting antennas.
The 802.16 specification also supports the use of four antennas. Three configurations are supported which are WiMAX four antenna mode 1, WiMAX four antenna mode 2 and finally WiMAX four antenna Matrix C mode.
For WiMAX four antenna mode 1,with rate equal to 1, using four antennas, data is transmitted four times per symbol, where each time the data is conjugated and/or inverted. This does not change the data rate, but does give the signal more robustness and avoids sudden increases in error rates.Meanwhile for WiMAX four antenna mode 1 with rate equal to 2, using four antennas, the data rate is only doubled, but increases in robustness since the same data is transmitted twice as compared to only once with using two antennas.Finally,the third configuration that is only available using four antennas is Matrix C, where a different data bit is transmitted from the four antennas per symbol, which gives it four times the baseline data rate. http://www.freewimaxinfo.com
2.3.2 HIGH-SPEED DOWNLINK PACKET ACCESS(HSDPA)
An enhanced 3G(third generation) mobile telephony communications protocol in theHSPA (High-Speed Packet Access)family, also coined 3.5G, turbo 3G or 3G+, which allows networks based on Universal Mobile Telecommunications System(UMTS) to have advanced capacity and data transfer speeds is called High-Speed Downlink Packet Access(HSDPA). Present HSDPA deployments can support down-link speeds of 14.0, 7.2, 3.6 and 1.8 Mbit/s. with HSPA+,Further speed increases are available, which offers speeds of until 42 Mbit/s downlink plus 84 Mbit/s with Release 9 of the 3GPP standards. HSPAEvolved is the second phase ofHSDPAis specified in the upcoming 3GPP release 7.
Comparison of data rate within technology
126.96.36.199 HSDPA Technology
HARQ(Hybrid Automatic Repeat ReQuest) used the concept of "incremental redundancy". With "incremental redundancy" retransmissions contain the relative to the original transmission which is different codings of the user data. The user device saves it after a corrupted packet is received. An error-free packet can occur with the combination of the sum of the error transmissions, even if the retransmitted packet(s) is itself spoiled. With subsequent retransmissions, user will combines it to create an error-free packet as fast and efficiently as possible.
With channel-dependent scheduling, the HS-DSCH downlink channel usually shared among users to take benefit of good channel conditions to fully use of existing radio conditions. To determine for each user how much data they should be attempted and for the next 2 ms frame, which users will be sent data, The Node B uses this information arriving from all user devices. High downlink signal quality is reported as extra data can be transmitted to users. 500 times per second periodically transmission for each user will be the sign of the downlink signal quality.
Network bandwidth and thus the amount of the channelization code tree, due to HSDPA user are indomitable by the network. In this part, a tradeoff between bandwidth allocated for HSDPA users and non-HSDPA data users. While the network is operating, it can be altered. As the allocation is "semi-static", it cannot be modified on a frame-by-frame basis.
One of the advantages that is the improving the round trip time for applications, decreasing on latency as well as better data rates. For the next 2 ms frame, which users will get the data is determine by Node B. Data may be sent to the users at the same time, via different channelization code for a specified 2 ms frame. The highest number of users to get the data on a specified 2 ms frame is decided by the number of allocated channelization codes totally not similar with CDMA 1xEV-DO, where at a time, data is transmitted to only one user.
In release 5 UMTS networks, HSDPA happen to be part of the family. There are different progresses of HSDPA. In excellent radio conditions the introduction on 16QAM modulation will make the data throughput rates better by roughly double of QPSK although QPSK is the initial modulation scheme. Usually,1.8 Mbit/s peak data rates will be offered by QPSK with 5 Code allocation. 16QAM with 5 Codes will raise this to 3.6 Mbit/s. In theory, 10.8 Mbit/s will be the highest throughput in HSDPA. additional codes for example 10 can be implemented to make these data rates become better or extend the network capacity throughput significantly. Now,HSDPA seem to have enhancement on on the uplink with a new bearer of 384 kbit/s compare to the previous maximum bearer which was 128 kbit/s.
Comparison of HSDPA's speed with other technologies
Terminating at the Node B, other physical channel beside the Signalling Control Channel is a reverse channel. The reverse channel will bring current channel quality of the user and acknowledgement information. So the total is two new physical channels that are introduced, along with the HS-DSCH channel. To attain peak data rates of 14.4 Mbps, phase one introduces new basic functions. In the Node-B, High Speed Medium Access protocol or MAC-hs, High Speed Downlink Shared Channels which is HS-DSCH and the adaptive modulation QPSK 16QAM are recently launch.
In the second phase of HSDPA is expected to reach data rates of up to 28.8 Mbps in 3GPP release 6 at this time. Multiple Input Multiple Output (MIMO) and beamforming are the antenna array technologies that will be introduced. in a beam to the user's direction, beam forming will be focuss the transmitted power of an antenna.For increasing the power, one can understand what actually is a beamforming and the get noted that transmission power of the basestation sector will be the limiting resources. Both at receiving and sending side, MIMO implemented multiple antennas.Air interface will be focused in the third phase of HSDPA. With Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing and advanced modulation schemes, it will bring in a new Air Interface. Anywhere WCDMA is deployed, 3G protocol can become the proceeding of 3G although most countries not offer it. Data rates of up to 50 Mbps in phase three of HSDPA.
In conclusion, with HSDPA installed in the cell phones or using the HSDPA to use the wireless technology,users can experience the advantages of greater data capacity. HSDPA offers the base to reach the higher data capacity and high speed for better servive of UMTS. An HSDPA feature also supports t-mobile phones thereby increasing its efficiency. HSDPA access can be instated in samsung phones, lg phones and phones of the similar calibre.
HSDPA basestation architecture
The iBurst™ system is a mobile broadband Internet access system. In offering a unique combination of high speed, wide range and high capacity, the iBurst technology is a wide-area mobile broadband technology.The technology will provides end users with broadband Internet access service: Internet access service comparable to DSL and cable.Besides,iBurst™ has a benefit of mobility where user can access anywhere, anytime with the freedom to move.Users still can browsing eventhoughthey're in amoving vehicle. In Malaysia,IZZI Broadband company provide this technology to market their broadband
Just plug it in, turn it on.iBurst™ is easy to obtain and use.In addition,iBurst™ has high-speed connectivity.Nowadays, individual connection speeds of up to 1 Mbps and with protocol support for up to 16 Mbps,the connection will up to 2 Mbps in the coming system release.Access through standard devices, the iBurst™ wireless modem connects to standard IP-enabled devices like laptop and desktop PCs and PDAs.Open access is available with iBurst™ technology where users' favorite Internet content, applications and services, including email,corporate VPNs, VoIP, video streaming, on-line gaming, can be accessed by the user.
A seamless broadband Internet computing and communications will be experienced with the iBurst™ system. Today, peak data rates are in excess of 1 Mbps per user, with 2 Mbps coming in the future. 16 Mbps per user can be supported by the iBurst™ protocol itself.The iBurst™ system provides high-speed when access to the Internet, virtual private networks (VPNs) and other IP networks from the widest possible range of devices, including laptop computers and PDAs. From the end user's perspective, users need not adapt their computing habits, applications or devices to match their access method of the moment with the iBurst™ system. This is contrast to where the access method forced the choice of a particular device for example, a cellular phone.
High data rates, massive capacity and minimal capital and operating expenses are the result of the iBurst™ technology. The iBurst™ system offers the most cost-effective, spectrally efficient broadband mobile access network available from the core network operator's perspective. Open data networking standards and equipment used in the wired backhaul and core transport networks, providing the operator with flexibility in networking technology and vendor and device selection. The access platform is designed to create a compelling wholesale business opportunity for network operators and to carry the subscriber traffic of many service providers. Today it is a direct extension of the wired broadband wholesale infrastructure employed by major operators. These operators are provided with an additional means to derive returns on that investment by the iBurst™ system.
The iBurst™ system enables access to a new class of wireless customers using the same hardware, service and management bases as for its wired customers, from the service provider's perspective. Either through Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP) over Layer 2 Tunneling Protocol (L2TP) or via pre-terminated IP sessions, iBurst™ network sessions are able to deliver to service providers. To support iBurst™ network subscribers, most medium- and large-scale service providers already have the necessary hardware and software. A user's experience is that of connecting directly to the service provider, when connecting to a service provider via the iBurst™ system. Customers have a direct relationship with their Service providers, including billing and branding.
To support the iBurst™ access system, wholesalers of wired access already have the necessary wired infrastructure. Extends the wired broadband service architecture outlined above directly is the iBurst™ service architecture. Standard end-user service provider tools can be used to terminate, manage and provision the iBurst™' system's broadband wireless users. Additionally, any end-user device laptop, PDA and other gadgets supporting the pervasive PPP access protocol and modem can be used for access if equipped with an iBurst™.
188.8.131.52 Transportable iBurst™ Basestation Platform
The best thing about iBurst™ technology is the basestation can move from one place to another.It is called Cellular On Wheel (COW) and it already implement in iBurst™ to give benefits to the user.This is because if there is unexpected problem occur such as flood,the COW and be transport to the other place yet it still can receive information and transmit the signal.So that the connection with the flooded area will not be interrupt.So iBurst™ is the technology that will give an ease when there is any emergency happen.
It also can be use in the military base as the military base is usually at the rural place and with no other people staying there where the signal is very difficult to receive.So COW can be the solution as the basestation is transport form the main city to the rural place by airplane or truck so that the rural place will not be disconnected to the main city.When the they want to move the military base they can bring together the COW.This will cut down cost as they do not has to build the new basestation when they move to other place.
The bridge between the wireless and wired portions of the network is called the iBurst™ basestation. The basestation is an access aggregation device that aggregates the PPP session data of the end-users that it is serving, viewed from the wired network. It plays an analogous role to a Digital Subscriber Line Access Multiplexer (DSLAM) in a DSL network in this sense. To manage the iBurst™ basestation, both Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP) and a command-line interface, access the same underlying management and monitoring data.The data are comprised of industry-standard SNMP Management Information Bases (MIBs).
An enterprise MIB is to control and monitor the iBurst™ radio interface.This ensured highest possible spectral efficiency, and hence lowest access infrastructure costs for the iBurst™ mobile broadband application.The characteristic of iBurst™ basestation are multi-mode backhaul (microwave, satellite, fiber),self-Propelled, self-Powered.Besides,iBurst™ basestation also have variety of tower heights from 17m (50ft) to 60m (200 ft) with high top and wind load resistance and it can withstands 160 Km/h (90 mph) winds in operation.iBurst™ basestation compatible with all roads.Other characteristic of iBurst™ basestation are it can operate in less than 20 minute after arrival on siteower-top and the basestation is electronics capable.It has 40 + similar units in operation at cellular networks worldwide and several hundred towers in operation in armed forces and mobile operations worldwide for communications and surveillance.
184.108.40.206 iBurst™ service
By extending access aggregation architectures to mobile broadband access, iBurst™ system provides an end-to-end IP connection for users. To support iBurst™ end users, network and service providers can control existing equipment, tool and content bases best of the wireless and wired worlds will be experienced by the end user .The broadest range of applications and end-user devices, coupled with the high data rates and freedom to move will achieve by user.
Upon a wide range of lower-level services implemented in the network operator's and service providers', networks iBurst™ system are built."FCAPS" for fault, configuration, accounting, provisioning and security refered to these lower-level services .The "Services" section of the present document focuses on four key services which are billing, roaming, service levels, security and IP address management as provided by both the network operator and the service provider.
Connection with independent downlink and uplink peak rates subject to a certain level of oversubscription is a basic end-user service offered in the initial implementation of the iBurst™ system. Service of a service provider's Gold level might be 1 Mbps/345kbps (down/up) with 20x over-subscription, while 384 kbps/128 kbps (down/up) with 20x over-subscription is for the Silver level of service might be as the example. To effect the peak uplink and downlink rate limits specified in that user's RADIUS profile,the LNS terminating a user's PPP session performs the necessary throttling. DSL and cable services also used this same notion of service. It provides significant flexibility to network and service operators in engineering the tradeoff between network capacity, service quality and service cost and the model is familiar to consumers.
The access and transport network is engineered with one level of over-subscription typically. This is done with a separate level of over-subscription selected for the links between that network and the service provider's equipment. The product of those two numbers will be the advertised level of over-subscription. (http://www.arraycomm.com/docs/iBurst™Overview.pdf)
220.127.116.11 IBurst™ advantages
Allows uninterrupted, high speed and truly mobile Internet connectivity
on-the-go become the best about IBurst™ itself.Reduced spectrum requirements, minimizing up-front capital expenses related to spectrum ownership and radio elements in both basestations and user terminals is one of the spectrally efficient systems other than reduced infrastructure requirements, minimizing capital and operating costs associated with basestation sites, translating into reduced costs per subscriber and per covered population element. Spectrally efficient systems also have high capacity, maximizing the system throughput and end-user experience even under load.
Profound effect on wireless system economics is the basestation range. By determining the number of basestations required to cover an area, it will affects capital expenditures. Operating expenditures by determining the number of sites and backhaul links connections from the individual basestations to the network core that must be hired is also affected. The coverage area of its basestations by approximately a factor of four higher than other systems offering comparable aggregate data rates will be increased by iBurst™ system's adaptive antenna technology. The result is a scalable wide-area broadband access system with unmatched economics, combined with the system's spectral efficiency. The terrain, building density, the type of subscriber device and antenna used, and so forth affected The specifics of basestation range in a given iBurst™ deployment . iBurst™ systems have demonstrated high user data rates at ranges of 1-2 km in the most challenging case like urban environment and over 12 km in suburban environments with a desktop modem and small (indoor) patch antenna as practical reference points. Key component of the cost structure of wireless systems is a the acquisition of spectrum, and two key features of spectrum have great impact on that cost the spectral efficiency of the wireless system and the type of spectrum required to implement the system. The iBurst™ system is especially efficient in its use of spectrum and requires far less of it per unit of delivered service than other technologies, as mentioned earlier. A fully capable and commercially viable iBurst™ system can operate in much less spectrum than other wireless technologies require to provide the same amount of capacity where it functioned little as 5 MHz of unpaired spectrum with a total of 20 Mbps of net usable throughput per cell in that amount of spectrum (in the omni configuration, with up to 80 Mbps in a sectorized cell).
Slide i burst
2.4 ENHANCEMENT OF HIGH-SPEED WIRELESS BROADBAND
If we go back to 1990,we see that there are mobile radio services in Malaysia that start to develop but serving only very limited number of subscribers.Generally,all the services rapidly enhanced to their maximum capacity and so it is also reasonably good estimate of subscriber numbers.These cellular systems had many flaws.Then the technology develop to dail-up conection of internet,Bluetooth,LAN,wireless-LAN and many more until reach the latest technology that been used by the high speed wireless broadband technology provider that author had mentioned in the subchapter before. With the increasing of demands and expectations for multimedia today,more and more information required to be communicated at faster speeds.Demands for triple-play applications comprising voice,data and voice have now shifted to quadruple-play to include mobility.
Enhancement of broadband is important as citizen want to be connected to each other and broadband is the window to the world of opportunities.Malaysians should not only have access to basic communication services but also have access to broadband and Internet services.
Malaysia need to enhance the broadband technology thus Malaysia has laid the foundation for broadband economy.The emergence of communication in the arena of information and communications technologies has made it possible or large amounts of information ( high bandwidth) to be transported across worldwide networks in a very short period of time. Thus recognizing the important to improve and enhance the broadband technology as an engine of growth.
Now author investigate the technologies that already been used abroad that are suitable to be apply in Malaysia to enhance the high speed wireless broadband technology in Malaysia.
Network architecture in Malaysia since 1990-2000
Network architecture in Malaysia now
2.4.1 CANOPY TECHNOLOGY
Canopy networks has a lot of advance characteristics which are, advanced technology, simplified configuration,rapid deployment and outstanding cost-effectiveness.The author want to suggest this technology to enhance the wi-fi Stremyx as The Canopy technology is the fixed line wireless and have better performance than Stremyx.By proving highspeed Internet access at low cost, or no cost, Canopy systems are helping generate new economic opportunity for individuals or even families, regardless of their economic status. It will be a focus for new business by offering state-of-the-art broadband service. The productivity of public works departments are enhanced with ever-present high-speed communications and they are helping first responders such as police, firefighters and EMTs arrive armed with the most powerful of weapons with accurate, real-time information.Beside enabling governments and their service provider partners to deploy their high-speed networks at high speed, Canopy wireless networks are also fast and simple to install. As with fiber or cable networks, deployment times are from day to day.
Canopy solutions are helping governments and government agencies wholewide world to better serve the people who depend on them for efficiency, safety and opportunity. In addition, the system easily integrates with and complement existing networks because of a simple network design compare to other technologies.
900MHz, 5.1, 2.4 , 5.2, 5.4, 5.9 and 5.7 GHz range of spectrum choices can be chosen because Canopy wireless broadband equipment is exist in a wide range of spectrum choices. 10 Mbps is the raw data rate for The Canopy radios. Point-to-Point Backhaul Unit (BU) is 7.5Mbps comes from the effective sum of both directions throughput of The Canopy system.As shipped, this is divided equally; 3.75 Mbps in each direction; this ratio may be set from the configuration page.A total of 6.2 Mbps at each Access Point (AP) unit provided by multi-point systems. The amount is divided as 4.7 Mbps on the downlink and 1.5 Mbps on as shipped from the factory.
Compare virtually to any other connectivity option, start-up costs are more affordable as Canopy avoid in-ground wire or run overhead or install microwave. With built-in installation and deployment assistance network components are streamlined. The system provides exceptional performance in LOS which is line of sight situations and it is interference-tolerant with Canopy OFDM-based equipment, in NLOS (non-line of sight), nLOS (near-line of sightand) environments.
In addition, Canopy solutions with no trouble can incorporate with standard network management systems and tools as it provide multiple layers of security. Compare with almost every other service available today, The Canopy platform's upload and download speeds are faster.The point-to-multipoint Canopy systemvoffer21 Mbps (aggregate data rates) .Several factors may affect upload and download speeds by so actual speeds may vary of course. Inherent in The Canopy system potential it will offer an incredible broadband experience.
The Canopy solution is scalable to accommodate changing requirements,wider geographic areas, larger user populations and higher traffic volumes when capacity needs increase. Coaxial cable, phone lines, satellite and finally large-cell wireless, are some of the examples of different technologies today, employed by the broadband service. With wireless communications in the 5GHz unlicensed U-NII band, The Canopy system is different from others by proposing high-speed, affordable Internet access deliver to the end-user. A lesser community of cells been used in The Canopy technology and occupies drastically fewer network investment and this is different from other wireless delivery technologies.
Canopy Technology in a Point-to-Multipoint Configuration
To achieve bandwidth efficiency The Canopy technology use a proprietary, exceedingly h3 modulation scheme that allocates for superior co-channel mitigation and performance of interference from other systems operating in the same frequency bands.
To compensate for the troubles in propagation associated with common variations in weather such as rain, fog or snow, Canopy systems are invented. Numerous expensive high bandwidth systems operation that utilize upper microwave spectrum large will be affected by these problems.
18.104.22.168 Canopy technology advantages
To smooth the progress of private applications and others, superior broadband access performance combined in The Canopy wireless platform with the flexibility. To make the deployment faster and to speed the time to market, while serving you control equipment, installation costs and management,Canopy's wireless technology is invented.
Supports ranges of approximately 3.2 kilometres or fewer than that, the fixed wireless system named The Canopy technology is opposed to support the mobility of a cell phone by the wireless technologies. Has been carefully tested for about two years, nowadays,with over 40 countries around the world implement it, The Canopy technology is already in customer service. To fulfil the needs and expectations for adaptation customer communities and enterprise environments, The Canopy system provides flexible configuration options for configuration flexibility. The Canopy platform is reasonably priced and an exceptionally efficient because of a point-to-multipoint system. It is a dominant dedicated data link for enterprise atmospheres of all types as a point-to-point backhaul application.For Spectrum Options advantage, The Canopy solution gives wireless broadband access in a broad range of spectrum choices, ensuring exceptional performance without considering which spectrum is best for the network.
The Canopy solution has the fast installation. The Canopy system is easier to install than other systems because it has simple but elegant network design. Deployment assistance and built-in installation simplifies every step of the process and The Canopy solution's small cells get rid of the need for coordination.
Lower costs broadband access extremely cost-effective The Canopy solution as there are no major investments in equipment or software. Substantially lower cost of ownership occur when the platform's exceptionally low acquisition, installation, operation and maintenance costs. The Canopy platform offers state-of-the-art wireless technology with significant benefits that enhance the broadband experience for a wide range of providers and end users in the growing but demanding broadband marketplace. High-demand technologies like voice over IP, video services, security surveillance, E1/T1 extension, broadband Internet access and more both efficient and cost-effective made in this system.
Interference Resistance point of view focus on improving the quality of data transmission and effectively eases interference from other systems of virtually every shape and spectrum with The Canopy solution's sole and influential modulation scheme significantly. In penetrating obstacles and keep away from obstructions, the platform's wireless signals are very efficient so make it capable in dense city environments as it is in countryside locations or suburban areas. Canopy solution has advantage in data rates as today, The Canopy system provides download and upload speeds as fast as or faster than former service available. 7 Mbps (aggregate data rates) offered in the point-to-multipoint system and 33 Mbps (aggregate data rates) delivered by the point-to-point system to network end users.
Of course, several factors may affected speeds on any network, so actual upload or download speeds may vary, but naturally Canopy system offer an incredible broadband experience. Operating ranges advantage in The Canopy platform offers broadband access for networks of many kinds of coverage and sizes areas. To qualify specific regulatory requirements and network, a lot of The Canopy products bear adjustable power.Power will affect the operating range.
The Canopy solution enhanced scalability so it will allow to rapidly accommodate big populations, changing needs, superior traffic volumes and wider geographical regions. Its directional antennas assure that adding more transmitters raises capacity without degradation of performance so it will become high tolerance for interference in addition.
Security with over-the-air Data Encryption Standard known as DES encryption, The Canopy system makes the security become more robust and this make The Canopy solution has advantage in security. The platform is also available with Advanced Encryption Standard or generally named as AES that provides 128-bit encryption to make sure secure data deliverance and exceptional reliability, in some areas.
22.214.171.124 Business and market of Canopy technology
Low-cost data infrastructure key will be The Canopy. For service providers, the important advantages of Canopy technology are for delivering the broadband Internet service, The Canopy system lesser the barriers to entry. Delivers high speed data also is The Canopy solution advantage. Costly radio spectrum licenses will not be require as naturally Canopy works in the unlicensed frequency band. Canopy, employs more local, community sized cells plus simple and fast deployment and easy installation.The Canopy solution requires no integration with other systems.
In related applications, Compare with other wireless technologies, The Canopy system is a more resilient and resistant and these will be the major benefits for the customers. Customer will have a quicker deployment, lesser start-up costs and simpler installation than other technologies. Within range, a Canopy system can offer high-speed facility to any customer. As The Canopy has the of shorter range than other wireless options The Canopy system provides it's service to a smaller customer unit, which is easier to install and has slightly lesser cost. The Canopy can operate in all kind of environments. The Canopy system has been experienced in many kinds of environments, including extreme cold and heat plus in winds.
The system's competitive pricing structure will lowers the barriers to entry may occasionally been faced by new ISPs (Internet Service Provider) s. As a result of its easy to deploy network architecture, The Canopy system also let express operation of broadband service.Offer a more afforable wireless broadband, a Canopy system will be possible to become the competitor to the ISP market. The Canopy wireless broadband platform is specially designed to offer the "lastkilometre" of data connectivity with high in speed for business and residential regardless the saiz of the business. Theoretically, at the place where the existing service is not available, it is right for ISPs, Competitive Local Exchange Carriers and any service provider who needs to supply data service with high-speed to the new market locations. To build DSL or cable implementations is very costly at isolated and rural locations and this problem can be solved by Canopy solution. Many private systems owned by service providers and enterprises desires can be fulfilled by The Canopy system. (amek dr pdf general question)
2.4.3 LONG TERM EVOLUTION (LTE)
Where the existing invention of mobile telecommunication networks are recognized as 3G (3rd Generation), LTE (Long Term Evolution)is the latest step toward the 4th generation (4G). It is invented to enhance the speed and capacity of the networks. It designed to achieve high performance air interface for cellular mobile communication systems. LTE is actually not completely fulfil with the IMT Advanced 4G requirements eventhough it is marketed as 4G.
An uplink of not less than 50Mbps and downlink peak rates as a minimum 100Mbps will be provided by the LTE specification plus the RAN round-trip times of fewer than 10 ms. Scalable carrier bandwidths, from 20MHz down to 1.4MHz and both frequency division duplexing (FDD) and time division duplexing (TDD) can be supported by LTE.
Plug and play,high throughput, low latency, FDD and TDD in the same platform, an enhanced end-user experience and an uncomplicated architecture ensure the small operating expenses are the examples of the main advantages with LTE. Cell towers with older network technology such as GSM, cdmaOne, W-CDMA (UMTS) and CDMA2000 can be implemented with LTE technology also as it will also support seamless passing to them.For the downlink, from the basestation to the terminal LTE uses OFDM. In standards such as HIPERLAN-2, IEEE 802.16, 802.11a/g, DAB and DVB as the cases, LTE is a well-established technology. Containing of 10 sub frames is a radio frame and 1 ms each in the time domain that is 10 ms long.There are 2 slots where each slot is 0.5 ms consists in every sub frame. In the frequency domain,the subcarrier spacing is 15kHz. One resource block is 180kHz and contain of twelve of these subcarriers together (per slot). A hundred of resource blocks fit in a carrier of 20MHz and carrier of 1.4MHz can be fill with 6 Resource blocks.
There are three major physical channels in the downlink. For all the data transmission LTE used The Physical Downlink Shared Channel (PDSCH) meanwhile, to send most vital system information within the cell, the Physical Broadcast Channel (PBCH) is implemented and to transmit transmission via a Single Frequency Network, the Physical Multicast Channel (PMCH) is implemented. QPSK, 16QAM and 64QAM are the supported modulation formats on the PDSCH. Dissimilarity is made between multi user MIMO,for improving the cell throughput for MIMO operation and single user MIMO, to achieve better one user's data throughput.
Only for the PUSCH or Physical Uplink Shared channel, a pre-coded version of OFDM called Single Carrier Frequency Division Multiple Access (SC-FDMA) been used by LTE in the uplink. Problem with normal OFDM, which has a extremely high peak-to-average power ratio (PAPR), can be solved by this. High PAPR has a lot of problems which are costly plus inefficient power amplifiers together with high requirements on linearity, which drains the battery quicker and raise the cost of the terminal. By combining collectively the resource blocks in a manner that decreased the need for linearity SC-FDMA resolved this crisis. Improves coverage and the cell-edge performance will be achieved by a low PAPR.
There are three physical channels that designed the uplink. Meanwhile the Physical Random Access Channel (PRACH) is nothing but for early access plus when the UE is not uplink synchronized. Physical Uplink Shared Channel (PUSCH) will be the link for all the data to be sent. Control information would be broadcasted on the Physical Uplink Control Channel (PUCCH) if there is no data to be broadcasted on Uplink for an UE. QPSK, 64QAM and 16QAM are the supported modulation designs on the uplink data channel. The amount of antennas at the basestation if virtual Spatial division multiple access / MIMO affected the data rate in the uplink direction. The same resources with this technology can be use for more than one mobile.
LTE covers the pillars of next generation networks where broadband wireless as the new access reality as mentioned before, LTE has low latency mobile access based on OFDM /MIMO, very high-throughput, efficiently delivering unicast, broadcast and multicast media.Secondly,convergence of technology and networks. LTE is a single functions domain helping clients across multiple devices and networks.LTE is also intelligence at the services edge.LTE applying decisions and policy enforcement at the network edge, in access-aware framework and an accessagnostic manner.Technology shift towards all-IP also one of the characteristic of LTE. Streamlining and simplifying the network, deployment flexibility and improving scalability and allowing consistent access-aware policy enforcement. LTE has embedded security where a multi-vendor, multi-layer approach to security is crucial to make sure that security is not just concerntrated on point solutions and widespread to the network.
The LTE characteristic
To supply wireless broadband at a performance and prize enhanced than that reachable with DSL technologies is the test for next-generation wireless networks. Other challenges are preserving flawless mobility, make the most of network capacity with limited spectrum resources and service control. Specific technical desires are proficient always-on action, high throughput and low latency, with on the spot access to network resources, flexible spectrum allocations and support for real-time and non-real-time applications. Other requirements for specific technical including high spectrum efficiency and recycle of existing cell site infrastructure for multicast, unicast and broadcast data plus there is a set of minimum performance requirements defined by the 3GPP Long-Term Evolution (LTE) studies for an addition.
There are some objectives that LTE want to fulfil in becoming the great technology. One of the objective is Increased spectral efficiency and capacity where LTE is expected to deliver three to five times greater capacity than the most advanced current 3G networks.Other than that, LTE want to Lower cost per bit by increased spectral efficiency combined with the functional advantages of an all-IP network will reduce the cost per bit compared to 3G solutions.Lastly,LTE want to improve and enhance the quality of experience (QoE) and one of the advantage of LTE is it will bring a reduction inlatency time, which will enhance the behaviour of time-sensitive applications, such as VoIP, thus improving and directly enhancing the user experience. For example, the latency time, expressed as the time for a 32-byte Ping, is expected to reach 20 ms (compared with 120 ms for a typical 3G network).
LTE Simplified Architecture
According to the figure above, reader can see the reduce in the amount of network nodes involved in data processing and transport to meet the technical and performance requirements. The transmissions delay between the transmitter sending data and the receiver receiving it is to improved data latency and better support of delay sensitive, interactive and real-time communications LTE used flatter network architecture.
2.6 OVERVIEW ABOUT BROADBAND SERVICE PROVIDER IN MALAYSIA
2.6.1 STREMYX TELEKOM MALAYSIA
Already exist for a long time, Telekom Malaysia Bhd (aka TMNet) brought to you Streamyx broadband and has perhaps provides a range of flexible choices of connection speeds to choose. 384kbps to 4Mbps can be chosen by the customers. It could be as minimum as 30% and with a lot of disconnection problems, in other area. Streamyx could easily achieve 100% of its peak speed in certain places in other places. Other than that, speed will not be stable enough throughout different times of a day because of the humongous number of Streamyx subscribers. Subcribers will be provided with unlimited download by Stremyx. Stremyx also have the fair usage policy but it is very subjective. (internet insider)
2.6.2 CELCOM BROADBAND
Celcom is Malaysia's No.1 mobile broadband provider as Celcom offer the customer the widest coverage which is over 71% of Malaysia's populated areas, and most affordable plans that Celcom offers to customer. Speed tests shows above 1Mbps in many places can be achieved by Celcom's connection speed an d in fact,the tests is not a assurance at your place of usage. Celcom give advantage to customer by as they can browse at high levels too but it also depends on the area also. 5GB per month bandwidth allowance is offered by Celcom's packages. After that, Celcom will lower down customer speed and for sure customer has to cope with very slow browsing experience. (internet insider)
2.6.3 DIGI BROADBAND
DiGi Broadband use the HSPA (High Speed Packet Access/3.5G+)technology. But their 3G network can access in 384Kbps in their mobile and their mobile users must open this service using calling. It will changes to EDGE networks when 3G is not accessible and that can be time-consuming. Less coverage area but they are expanding. Nowadays Petaling Jaya is fully access to the the network and offers greatest speed around there. It has less latency and P2P and torrent downloads are allowed.Author personally respect DiGi for being honest enough to reveal their likely connection speed on their website instead of just their peak speed. (amek dr review )
P1 WiMax Wireless Broadband Service is brought to you by Packet One Networks (Malaysia) Sdn Bhd (Subsidary of Green Packet Bhd). P1 offers high speed broadband and also generous bandwidth allowance.P1WiMAX has stable speed with the Pro Package plus P2P and torrent downloads allowed. P1WiMax has less coverage area for now and it is not functioning at all at the negative coverage area. Packet One is working hard to improve their coverage. In theory, P1 WiMax could be used up to the tenth floor. However, this could vary from area to area.It has the advantage that customer can use desktop modem and laptop modem. (internet insider)
2.6.5 MAXIS BROADBAND
For residential use in Malaysia on 26th September 2006,Maxis is the first telecommunications company to launch a HSDPA (High Speed Data Packet Access) broadband service. Speed-wise, Maxis' performance will highly vary from area to area. Download speed is highest at 170KB to the slowest at 30KB which also differs on network accessibility and locations.P2P download blocked, so torrent downloads not allowed . If all the customer just want to check e-mail and not a very heavy downloader then the customer should subscribe to Maxis Broadband as it has download limit and restriction. Advanced package is available for those who want to browse social media sites effectively.
2.6.6 IZZI BROADBAND
Become the only provider in Malaysia for the iBurst Technology, iZZi wireless broadband by iZZiNet Sdn Bhd was launched in May 2006.It provides stable line with iZZiPro desktop terminal.For now,iZZi broadband offers no download limit for the customer.Depending on the location,it has less latency and delay. P2P and torrent downloads allowed.But,today the coverage is not very wide in Malaysia and steadiness of the service get interrupted occationally. The speed also is not promising.
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