The Charles Darwin Theory Of Evolution Sociology Essay
Culture acquire knowledge that people use to filter the life experiences and to generate social behavior which consists of learned, shared, cumulative, symbolic, integrated and dynamic. Globalization in the sense ofÂ connectivity in economic and cultural life across the world has been growing for centuries. Globalization is commonly used as a shorthand way of describing the spread and connectedness of production, communication and technologies across the world. That spread has involved the interlacing of economic and cultural activity. Globalization indirectly influences deviant culture which causes the levels of society are being reshaped.
Deviance is the characteristics of behaviors which against the social norms (including cultural mores and moral standards). Deviant means the act of being different from the popular belief and usually in a bad way. On the other hand, the definition of deviance is the behavior would not be considered deviant without negative reaction. According to the views of Robert Merton's, he stated the strain theory, Merton believed that social institutions act to further society and ultimately keep stability within the social structure.
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It is this framework from which Merton tried to understand how deviance shaped society (and vice versa). The theory said that deviance is found naturally within social. He believed that it was the social itself which cause it. The societal norms, or socially accepted goals, place pressure on the individual to ensure they force the individual to either work within the structure society has produced or instead, become members of a sub deviant subculture. Besides that, deviants get helps in society change and stay fluid. It is because of deviances, there might be less of obstacles and actually has a more progressive influence on society. Merton's attempt to reconcile deviant behaviors with society at large is a greatest reason why the strain theory has lasted. Deviances is considered relative, there is no absolute way of defining a deviant act. As such deviance varies from time to time and place to place.
One of the most renowned deviant cultures that are mushrooming in Malaysia is prostitution. Prostitution refers to the practice of engaging in sexual activity, usually with individuals other than a spouse where the individual exchange their body for immediate payment in money or other valuables. A recent study by the International Labor Office predicted that in Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines and Thailand, between 0.25 and 1.5 percent of the female population work as prostitutes and that the sex sector accounts for between 2 and 14 percent of the gross domestic product (Lim 1998). One of the earliest known civilizations that refer to prostitution was the Sumerians in southern Mesopotamia, which is the modernized Iraq. During that era, prostitutes are known as kar.kid. According to the bookÂ The Origin of Prostitution in Ancient MesopotamiaÂ by Gerda Lerner (1986), the Sumerians point out prostitution as a profession in a list that dates back to ca. 2400 B.C.Â
In Malaysia, the Federal Secret Societies, Gambling and ViceÂ (D7) reported that Chinese nationals totting up the most number of people arrested for prostitution from January to February 15. The highest number of arrests involved Chinese nationals at 5,753 in 2009, 6,378 in 2010 and 5,922 in 2011 (Bernama).
As Kingsley Davis (1937) stated:
"The institutional of having power over sex follows three correlative lines. First, it permits an assortment of degrees of sexual intimacy within specific customary relations, such as courtship, concubinage, and marriage. Second, to bolster this positive control, it discourages sexual intimacy in all other situations as when the persons are not potential mates or when they are already mated to other persons. Finally, in what is really a peculiar category of the negative rules, it absolutely prohibits sexual relations in certain specified situations. This last form of control refers almost exclusively to incest taboos, which reinforce the first-named (positive) control by banishing the disruptive forces of sexual competition from the family group".
The main reason the Chinese community has the highest number people involved in prostitution because of patriarchal concept which is still being practiced by them. Patriarchal concept is defined as a system of social structure in which men dominate, oppress and exploit women. According to Allan Johnson, a society is patriarchal to the degree that it promotes male privilege by being male-dominated, male-identified, and male centered (Allan Johnson, The Gender Knot: Unravelling our Patriarchal Legacy).
A long time ago, The Buddha was raised in a very patriarchal culture. Since most of the Chinese community embrace Buddhism and this patriarchal culture started to transmit from one generation to generation and thus rooted very strongly in the Chinese culture. So, in a Chinese community with strongly influence of patriarchal concept, women had been viewed as inferior and low social status. Under this concept, women are doomed to be one step behind the men and always have not much high ranking that is same with men. According to the law of Manu, women were subordinated to men for life, first as an obedient daughter, then as humble and loyal wives, and finally as aging mothers dependent on the sons. A wife's main duty was to produce sons only and had no rights of her own. Since they are trapped under this concept, men have full power to dominate female and thus we cannot expel the possibilities that men had taken advantage to control female sexual activities. This culture had left footprint for Chinese generation and most of Chinese nowadays still may have practicing this concept in their daily life. Due to this concept, it makes women low grading themselves and slowly they may accept this fact and prone to involved in prostitution.
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In terms of Buddhism's point of view, Buddhism believes in karma very strongly. In the olden days of Buddhist society, Buddhist attitudes towards women are as inferior, karmic and destined. So, women were not ordained as monks because monks think that having been born as a woman is a result of bad karma. To avoid this situation, she has to accumulate a lot of merit in life so that in the next life they will be born as a man and thus they can become a monk if they wish. Just because of Buddhist perspective of women, it makes monks look down on women as merely dangerous objects and provoke sexual interest in men. Through this way of thinking, this will make women feel substandard and condemn for the outcome for their lives. It makes them willing to accept the gender-based violence they suffer since they are doomed to the unlucky fate of being a woman. So, this explains why Chinese community is easily prone to be involved in prostitution and occupied the highest number among other races.
Besides that, most Chinese prostitutes are from China which may due to the social and economic imbalance of their origin country. As we all know, the population of China is large and the poverty in some rural areas are phenomenal. Impoverished, uneducated, illiterate young women are easily dumped by people and involve into the sex industry. Just for the sake of supporting her family, she is willing to do so because it is the easy way to make money for living. Hence, they come into Malaysia as illegal immigrant and involved in prostitution.
Not only Chinese community is pushed into this world of sin, however Hindus have been practicing this for a long time. If we look back through the history, Hindus apply devadasis system in the religion. "Devadasi which literally means God's (Dev) and female servant (Dasi), where according to the ancient Indian practice, young pre-pubertal girls are "married off", "given away" in matrimony to God or a local religious deity of the temple". The Devadasi system is an institutionalized exploitation of women, Dalits (the lower class of untouchables) and also a religious sanction given to prostitution of helpless economically and socially deprived women. It is also the veneration of humiliation of women. The Devadasi system is a form of open prostitution. Poor people dedicate their daughters to the system in the name of appeasing the gods. When the girls become Devadasi, they are forced to sacrifice their virginity to an older man. The money that the Devadasi's earn goes straight to their parents who often act as pimps for their daughters. Once girls are dedicated the course of their lives is decided.Â (James Varghese, 2010). Such a system is still being practice in some places in India such as Karnataka.
According to Hindu mythology, even in the world of goddess (Indiran), this system is applied." Urvashi and Rambha are known for their dance performance in front of Lord Indra. They use to entertain the Lord by dancing gracefully in front of Him. They are often called as the apsaras of Lord Indra" (Bhavishya Purana). As such a coordination being implemented in the goddess world, people tend to follow it and imagine that they will be accepted by the god if they sacrifice the young girls and making them as Devadasi. In this sophisticated world, youngsters change this perspective by sacrificing their bodies just to earn more money to uphold of the standard in the society.
Moreover, in religious wise of Hinduism, Kama Sutra which is the bible of sex position teaches us different ways to pleasure a man during sexual intercourse. It was written in India in Sanskrit. "KÄma" which is one of the threeÂ goals of Hindu life, meansÂ sensualÂ orÂ sexual pleasure, and "sÅ«tra" literally means a thread or line that holds things together, and more metaphorically refers to an aphorism (or line, rule, formula), or a collection of such aphorisms in the form of a manual (Daniélou, Alain,Â 1993). Teenagers nowadays misuse this tale of love that has been thought by our ancestors to live a happy life with our husbands. The techniques of Kama Sutra which is not new to other religions are widely used in prostitution. This to ensure that the customers are pleasured so that they would be paid more.
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AllÄhÂ says inÂ SÅ«rat'l-NÅ«rÂ : "Indeed, those who like that immorality should be spreadÂ (or publicized)Â among those who have believed will have a painful punishment in this world and the Hereafter. AndÂ AllÄhÂ knows and you do not know" (Qur'anÂ 24:19). This proclamation clearly shows that Islam prohibits Muslim from involving in prostitution. According to the Federal Secret Societies, Gambling and ViceÂ (D7), Muslim countries such as Indonesia show a high rank of arrests of prostitutes (177 cases) in Malaysia (Bernama). Such a scenario occurs due to the denial of the existence of such problems in the community. Malays refuse to admit that in their community there are many youngsters are involved in prostitution. This is because ProphetÂ subjected such people who endangered the moral standards of the Muslim community to punishments of "Fasaad fil Ardh".
Suicide is the act of an individual intentionally taking his own life. Emile Durkheim a French philosopher concluded that suicide is not an individual act; social disorganization and lack of integration are the main elements which lead to suicide. According to Emile Durkheim suicide can be divided into four categories based on the relationship between society and the individual. (Bhatt)Egoistic suicide occurs when a person is isolated from the society or when he feels he has no place in the society. When the person becomes too intimate and close to the society it results in altruistic suicide. Anomic suicide is caused by interruption in the social interruption and overregulation in society results from overregulation in the society (Jin Kuan Kok, 2011)
In Malaysia, various newspaper articles and journals report that suicide rates are rising high. Statistics show that a ratio of1.3 to every 100,000 people commits suicide in Malaysia. (Sipalan, 2012). Malaysian statistics show that Chinese has the highest no of suicides at 48%, Indians 21%, Malays 18% and 13% contributed by other races. These statistics are made based on total no of reported cases. Since the population of Indians is considerably low compared to Chinese population, Indian community has a higher rate of suicides compared to Chinese and Malays.
Absence of strong religious prohibition is the main cause that leads to suicide among Chinese and Indians. Hinduism and Buddhist believe in karma. Karma is a cumulative force of our own thoughts, actions and words. It is the religious believe that an individual's karma will bounce back to him. The resulting force of karma depends on our sin and good deeds. They also believe in reincarnation, they believe that a soul of a dead person will born again. According to Hindu's teaching, the ultimate goal of live is to achieve liberation. All these teachings show that an individual is held responsible for their own act. The religion doesn't specify misconducts; it only acts as a guideline to achieve liberation. Since both religion doesn't censure suicide and not considered as a serious sin, individuals doesn't hesitate to suicide. There are limitations for this generalization as there are different Chinese practices such as Taoists, Confucianists and Christians, therefore may have different views regarding suicide. (Sim, 2012)
"And no person can ever die except by Allah's leave and at an appointed term". (Qur'an 3:145) This is a clear statement in Al-Quran that Islam does not permit suicide. This clear line drawn in Al-Quran is the main reason for the low rate of suicides among Malay community. In Malaysia, where Islam is the official religion and Malays are the majority. There are various adequate steps taken by the government and NGO to educate the youngsters about their religion.
From cultural point of view, Indian community gives priority to emotions. An Indian cricket bowler who has missed, or a contestant in quiz who gets a wrong answershows their distress more openly when compared to someone from Western country or even neighboring Eastern countries (Patel, 2010).
Studies conducted by American Psychological Society in year 2000, shows that Indians were more accurate in expressing emotions when compared to Americans. Indians were found to be more accurate compared to Americans in expressing for the three indigenous emotions, lajya (embracement, shame & shyness), peace and heroism. (Heimadi)A century ago, only 5% of Indians are educated and could communicate through writings and words. Verbal communication played little role in Indian communication, expression and emotions played a vital role in their daily communication. Even though this scenario is over a century ago, still modern Indian community gives importance to emotions despite their increased literacy because culture is passed down from generations. When analyzed from terms of suicide, this Indian culture often causes a negative result. When an Indian who is rich in emotions and with low emotional intelligence faces a depression or a problem, he has a higher probability to suicide compared to other races. Emotional Intelligence can be defined as the person's ability to adapt to the surrounding by understanding oneself and others. (blog: Suicideops, 2012)
Certain social characteristics of Chinese community, describe them of being achievement oriented and materialistic. These are the stereotypes of the community; they have been known to give priority to academic achievements and financial securities. This is mainly due to modernization and increasing level of competency for both academic and finance. This causes the pressure to build up on teenagers to excel academically; leading to depression and suicide if one fails to achieve the family expectations. The finance burden usually falls on adults where they have to meet the financial requirements of the family. This often leads them to borrow money from loan sharks. They became desperate when they can't pay back the huge debt and seek suicide as the way out (Sim, 2012). There are also Chinese suicide cases which are related to gambling debts.
Mass media plays an important role in promoting suicides in Indian community. Indian culture is rich in arts and literature. Before the invention of mass media, Indians tend to watch staged dramas, live performance (bharathanatiyam, kathakali, kuchupudi) as a hobby and entertainment. People who excel in arts and literature are exalted. These traditions exist from the elderly days, the regime of kings and their great empires which stretched up to pre historic Malaysia. The great Indian kings like Raja Raja Chola, Cheran and Pandiyan gives importance to arts and literature and thrive to maintain their heritage. As the time evolves and modernization takes place, modern Indians switch from traditional arts to movies. Indian movie industry is the second largest movie industry in world, producing more than 300 movies per year.As compared to Malay, Chinese and Western movies, Indian movies deliberate suicide as part of the storyline. Apart from the movies, series is now very famous among Indians especially women. Indian drama series make up three quarter of the programs aired in Indian Channels (Seth, 2010). They got carried away by the storyline because they are very emotional and relate themselves to the characters in the series. Like most of the movies, these serials often blend suicides in their plots. In current Indian community, movies govern their daily activities and influence the way they think. Psychiatrists agree that mass media is capable of influencing people's behavior, including behaviors which leads to suicide (Eduardo J. Aguilar, 2009). Movie celebrities are worshipped as idols. Their characters in movies often mingled into their daily lifestyle, including the way the characters dress up, talk and the way they react and handle problems. As the characters in movies and serials have a huge influence on an average Indians daily lifestyle, they tend to follow the suicidal act as well.
WHO listed Malaysia as the 10th largest consumer of alcohol in the world (Kutty, 2012). In Malaysia, Chinese and Indians are the majority alcoholic consumers. From Islam point of view, alcohol is completely forbidden in their religion. Alcohol is termed as "abominations of Satan's handiwork" and Muslims are curbed from consuming it(Quran, 5:90-91). From Indian and Chinese cultural point, there is no strong cultural taboo that prevents them from consuming alcohol. It is a cultural norm for Indian and Chinese to consume alcoholic beverages during celebrations and festivals such as Chinese New Year, Deepavali, birthdays and anniversaries. In some cases alcohol is perceived as substance to relieve stress, even considered as solution for problems. Among the alcohol consumers in Malaysia, Indians top the list. This is due to the mentality of the poor, rural Indian labor who works in oil palm and rubber estates who sees alcohol a cheap and easy way to escape their problems (Kutty, 2012).
Division of Neuroscience, Department of Psychiatry, Columbia University, New York, USA conducted a studies on the relation of alcohol consumption and suicide in 2005 proves that alcohol abuse is a factor leading to suicide. Impulse actions and aggression are behaviors are often the results of alcohol abuse and factors that leads to suicide. The studies conducted shows that alcohol reduces serotonin activity in human brains, which leads to increased aggression and impulsivity, which encourages a person to suicide (SHER, 2005).
Poverty is among the strongest factor that promotes suicide among Indians. Indians migrated in large numbers into Malaysia as labors for rubber plantation. Early migrants settled down in estates and plantations. After over a century, few managed to lift themselves up from poverty. Still most of them are staying in farms, estates and plantation with very little income, education and knowledge about the modernization. Cameron Highlands is a good example of this situation. The suicide ratio in Cameron Highlands is 150 per 100,000. It is one of the highest recorded suicide rates in the world. (Maniam, 1994) Majority of the community here are farmers. Poverty is a main factor which leads to suicide because it is the root for other factors such as guilty conscious (due to inability to provide family needs), family disorder and mental illness. Due to their low education level, they tend to choose suicide as an easy way out of their predicament. Further evidence to this scenario is when 1500 farmers committed mass suicide in Indian state of Chhattisgarh. Failure in crops and overwhelming debts has pushed them over the edge (Lohan, 2009).
Homosexuality is defines as sexual attraction or romantic or behavior that between members of the same sex or gender. The passed culture already prove that it play an important role to identify the clashes between western and eastern culture. In our country, Malaysia, we all more oriented to prohibit homosexuality. It is because the Malaysian cultures are not allowed it to pass down to next generation. Although homosexuality is prohibited, but still have peoples involved in it, this due to deviation of cultures.
In attempting to define the boundaries of subject it is often useful to look at the limits of social life - at where the lines are drawn. To understand heterosexual as well as homosexual behavior it is important to examine how a culture views homosexual behavior. A historian name Boswell notion that " Gay people " have always and everywhere existed, even in that the places are prohibited it, as Malaysia. It was a medievalist, John Boswell, who legitimated lesbians and gay history as a field of study, and ended an older "great homosexuals of history" tradition. We can see that a very different theory the history of sexuality has come to be accepted by majority of historian working in field.
On the other hand, the huge variety of sexual expressions in different cultures sharing essentially the same genes show genetic influence is minimal. An Italian- American geneticist, Cavalli-Sforza state that in spite of superficial differences, the different races are essentially the same genetically. We know that many genes are involved in human behaviours, the behaviours may affected by many genes change slowly over many generations. But in homosexuality, we can find that there are no characteristics of genetic properties. There is a huge variety of homosexual practices between cultures and even within them. The prevalence of homosexuality has varied considerably in different cultures. In some cultures, it has been unknown; in others, it has been obligatory for all males. There have been, and are, rapid changes in homosexual behavior, even over a lifetime. Not only that, but entire types of homosexuality have disappeared over the course of just a few centuries. There are anthropologists found such huge variations in heterosexual and homosexual practice from culture to culture, and may sudden changes in sexual practice and orientation even over a single generation, all sexual behavior is learned. J.Rostand told that " In the secret coming together of two human bodies, all society is third presence." As conclusion, homosexuality does not conform to any genetically prescribed model but in a genetic model, homosexual behavior would be practically identical. Belief that behaviours such as homosexuality are not produced genetically, but by social conditions.
In Malaysia, the Christians treat homosexuality is theologically wrong. According to the Tony Blair, he saying that world's major religions that they have misunderstood their holy books when it comes to the issue of homosexuality. Text which identify homosexual acts as morally wrong should been as 'metaphorical' not literal, Britain's former Prime Minister claims. He also suggests that religions should follow shifts in the culture rather than hold firm to their historic belief. As we can see, the texts in question are not an attack upon homosexuality alone, but on all forms of sexual deviation. There are Christians who insists that homosexuality is not wrong because Jesus made no statement about it.
On the other hand, homosexuality also treated as physiological wrong. Many homosexuals justify their behavior by claiming that they are a genetic disposition to be homosexual. There is no evidence that is true on it. Even if it could be proved that homosexuality has a genetic origin, other studies have suggested that there is a possibility of alcoholism and paedophilia having genetic sources. Are we to conclude that alcoholics and pedophilia should be abandoned to their lifestyle because they have no choice? Why should we make a special case for homosexuals? The Bible makes it clear that since the fall of Adam, the whole human race has a genetic disposition towards sin. This is to be resisted, not given in to.
Besides that, homosexuality also oriented to psychologically wrong. It is well established that there are high rates of psychiatric illnesses, including depression, drug abuse, and suicide attempts, among gays and lesbians.
In the views of Christian, homosexuality is sociologically wrong again. Books such as Men are from Mars, Women are from Venus endorse the fact that men and women are different psychologically, mentally and emotionally. Heterosexual marriage brings together this diversity in a one-flesh relationship; homosexual partnerships bring together an imbalance of one sex attitudes which is detrimental to human relationships. Children brought up in a heterosexual marriage achieve more educationally, socially and in their health than those brought up in single parent or homosexual environments.
Lastly, Christians treat homosexuality is not irreversible. After cataloguing the things which will exclude us from the kingdom, Paul tells the Corinthians: "And that is what some of you were. But you were washed, you were sanctified, you were justified in the name of the Lord Jesus Christ and by the Spirit of our God." Christians should not believe that homosexuality is a sin that cannot be forgiven. Homosexuals, as well as adulterers and thieves, can be washed, sanctified and justified. That is the liberating message of the gospel.
The Malaysia's Hinduism state that homosexuality is controversial, Hindu views of homosexuality are varying and diverse, it is because that Hindu religious texts do not explicitly mention homosexuality.
Homosexuality is also a complex matter in Hinduism; there are many types of religious life. In general, "twice born "Hindus are prohibited from homosexual acts (maithunampumsi). The famous Kama Sutra states that homosexual sex "is to be engaged in and enjoyed for its own sake as one of the arts." The Hindu evaluation of homosexuality depends heavily on the context.
In Hinduism, love is regarded as an eternal force. It is seen as devotion between the people, whether romantic or platonic. Hindus believe love and devotion are important in attaining Moksha or Liberation from the cycle of rebirths. In homosexuality, it can treat as love so that is the reason for those Hinduism is generally accepted. Sexual expression within a loving relationship is encouraged by Hinduism because it is not an expression of lust, but an expression of love and devotion to each others' happiness. Therefore, homosexuals in loving relationships (i.e. marriage) should be allowed to express their love sexually.
Hindus believe that kama (sensual pleasure) is one of the four purusharthas or aims of life (dharma, arta, kama and moksha).
Sex is considered a good thing which is to be enjoyed as one of the duties of married life (the householder stage of life). Sexual intercourse is generally expected to be between married couples, although the attitudes of some Hindus are changing where Hindus live in societies with more liberal attitudes. Faithfulness within marriage is expected, and adultery is not approved of.
Self-control is an important aspect of Hindu teaching. During the brahmacharya stage of life young people are traditionally concentrating on their education. Sexual relationships would be a distraction at this time, and they are encouraged to avoid them. There is no mention of homosexuality in Hindu scriptures. Homosexuality is a taboo subject for many Hindus, although there is some debate particularly in countries where homosexuality is generally accepted. Men and women are believed to have a religious duty to be married and produce children so heterosexual relationships are generally regarded as the norm.
It's impossible to have the actual number of people who are homosexual, (Johnson) stated that no all people are willing to admit their sexual orientation on paper. At the same time, people also define homosexuality differently. Nonetheless, the statistic that is presented by Hushim Salleh, a counselor who claims to have dealt with 1,000 homosexual, stated that three out of ten urban Malaysians are gay, and two out of ten in rural area, gives us a clearer picture about the situation of homosexuality in Malaysia. We believe that Malays are the one who involves the most in homosexuality activities since Malays composed nearly 70% of population in Malaysia and is conventionally thought that population at rural area is also dominated by Malays.
For Islamic religion, homosexuality is considered as a crime and should be punished. Referring to Hadith, which is the reports of statements or actions of Muhammad, and Al-Quran, which is the enlightenment by Allah, there are evidences that show homosexualityis being criticized. In some of the Islamic regime country, one who involved in homosexual activities can be sentenced to death. In Malaysia, one who conducted homosexual activities could be imprisoned up to 20 years. Yet, the muslim is the one who involved the most in Malaysia. In Greek model, it suggests that homosexual behavior is actually being taught by those elder to the young. There is study revealed that some Arabic speakers in North Morocco believed young boy will only learn Koran properly after they had sexual relations with their teachers. (NE and BK Whitehead) There is a possibility that some of those teachers in Malaysia mimic this kind of practice, which first sincerely hope that their student can learn the values in Koran, but inadvertently initiate the homosexual behavior in the student.
When we talk from a culture view, we must first know about the patriarchal practice of Malays in Malaysia. In many families, especially Malays, this cultureis still being practiced. We can simply prove that by learning the fact that muslim woman are not allowed to pray at mosque. In Malaysia, both parents have to be the breadwinner due to the inflation occurring in our country. They are not really materialistic; they have no choice but to spend most of their time in career. Men usually work harder than women, so they are expecting women to take care about their children. Tragically, due to the patriarchal system, the children are not respecting to their mother, although when the mother find out their kid involve in such kind of homosexual activities, their children ignore the advice by mother cause they think their mother doesn't have right to restrict what they want to do. Even though women reflected the issue to their husband, the men tend to think that it is not a serious issue and rarely pay good attention on it. This kind of poor relationship between parents and children is being doubted that may be the main reason causing homosexuality spread in Malaysia.
Sexual misconduct is prohibited by all sect of Buddhism, but different religious group define 'sexual misconduct' in various way.One of the stream, Theravada, believe that both homosexuality and heterosexuality is due to result of AvidyÄ, or ignorance, is the misconception, or is the erroneous conception of the existence of that which does not exist. (Hydonus, 2011) They think that homosexual isn't a wrong thing, and at the same time, doesn't admit it heterosexual is correct, the thing that wrong is that addicted to the activity of sexual intercourse. Another stream, Chinese Buddhism, think that homosexuality is seriously violated the precepts, a Buddhist should obey the Five Precepts (killing, stealing, prostitution, abuse, alcohol). They say thatBuddhist shouldn't arise with any thinking about sexuality, not to even mention about homosexuality.
In Chinese society, people used to think that homosexuality is unimaginable, this is because they are educated in a way that it is a nature for a man be with a woman. Yet, when they get to know some of the homosexual friends, they find out that actually it's not abnormal as they though. In fact, there is evidence showing that Chinese is one of the earliest ethnic who practice homosexuality. For example, Lord Long Yang is the first man who being recorded as a homosexual in the official history record. The young generation of Chinese tend to be more curious to homosexual behavior, as they being influenced by mass media, they started to think about to try to involve themselves in a homosexual relationship. Some of the people tend to prefer homosexuality because of they had early homosexual experience with adult (Paul Cameron, 1997).
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