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Rural Female Entrepreneurship In Tanzania Sociology Essay

Chapter one provides a short description of the study and the issues to be addressed. It focuses on various aspects related to entrepreneurship and existing policy environment around which, entrepreneurship strategies are laid globally and in a Tanzanian perspective. It draws from previous studies and concepts related to the subject, which are critically reviewed. The research problem to be addressed in the study is how female entrepreneurs from different socio cultural backgrounds undertake their activities in rural Tanzania. This chapter is organised into eight sections; the next section reviews the background of the study and the importance of female entrepreneurship in Tanzania. Section three presents the research problem and in section four, the research issues and propositions are presented. The research is justified in section five and section six presents the methodological overview for conducting the study. Section seven discusses the delimitations and the scope of the study and section eight presents the structure of the thesis.

Background to the research problem

In Tanzania, most of the people involved in entrepreneurship are “survivalists”. It is argued that people in the country have been forced into entrepreneurial activities by economic necessity as opposed to entrepreneurial spirit and need for achievement (Olomi, 2009:16). Many people in developing countries live in poverty or with insufficient income and therefore are forced to engage in entrepreneurial activities to fill the gap left by insufficient wages, unreliable agriculture production or unemployment (Mfaume and Leonard, 2004:6). Although this is a fact for both men and women, studies show that the situation is more prevalent in women and, in particular, rural women.

According to the 2002 census, in Tanzania, women constitute fifty-two percent of the total population (NBS, 2002) and represent seventy percent of the labour force in the informal sector (Idabaga-Nchimbi, 2002:4). The gender gap in access to education for women results in a reduced possibility for women involvement in the formal labour market and at managerial levels within enterprises. Moreover, a Tanzanian woman is expected to handle the household duties, such as caring for the family, children and elders; food production and preparation in addition to earning income. Historically, women in Tanzania and in most of the developing countries have been treated as citizens of lower importance compared to men. Women have played a greater role of ensuring sustainability to the nation particularly during times of economic crisis which have prevailed in the country from 1970s to the present day (GIRR 9, 1995). Although women have been contributing to their national development, their access and power to control resources is limited. In some traditions, women seldom have control over land or other properties during their marriage.

As noted earlier, women’s entry into effective entrepreneurship in Tanzania appears to be a recent phenomenon; mainly as a result of the economic crises and restructuring programmes which led to retrenchment and consequently decline in household income and employment opportunities, (UDEC, 2002). Studies by Nchimbi (2002) and Temu (1998) revealed that the majority of current Tanzanian enterprises were started during the 1990’s. Recognition of their participation in entrepreneurship remains very low as well. Entrepreneurship in the country is acknowledged as being dominated by men and non-indigenous communities (Stevenson and St-Onge, 2005). For most of the women who are in business, their survival remains a real problem as they lack professional abilities in managing their business compared to men (Rutashobya and Spring, 2009:7).

The above situation suggests that there may be fundamental factors that inhibit the performance of women in developing countries and in particular in rural areas. Consequently it will be useful to investigate how these factors affect the operations of rural entrepreneurs. It is this situation that prompted this study.

1.1 The context and environment for the study

Like any other social and economic process, entrepreneurship is dependent on the social setting of an area, that is, the people and the environment in which they carry out daily life activities (Dana, 1993; Buame, 1996:17). As a process, entrepreneurship is governed by social and cultural factors that are characterized by continuous changes which evolve in economic systems, the entrepreneurship environment and the underlying social and cultural attributes of the people in that particular area (Gamini de Alwis and Senathiraja, 2003:4).

Traditional literature in the field of entrepreneurship has laid great emphasis on the psychological attributes of the individual as the underlying factor for engaging in entrepreneurial activities (Buame, 1996:17). However there are other important attributes which may influence the success or failure in entrepreneurship. These include, the specific background of individuals in the society, the culture in which their activities are embedded and their life experiences. These attributes are said to be helpful in differentiating entrepreneurs from non-entrepreneurs, in terms of their behaviour and common conduct in society, the way they undertake the entrepreneurial activities and their lives in general (Fayolle, 2005). The individual psychological attributes, such as personal motivation and initiative, entrepreneurship orientation, innovativeness and risk taking, may affect the success or failure of the entrepreneurship development but they may not decide how people place meaning to their daily lives (Anderson, A.R, Smith, R 2007, Steekelenburg et al, 2004:82).

There are differences in entrepreneurial activities, depending on demographic characteristics, personal traits, ethnicity, social and cultural relations, behaviour patterns, life experiences and educational background. There are also predisposing factors, such as the need for power or independence, and the desire for achievement and social recognition (Saffu, 2003). These factors may impact on how entrepreneurial activities are carried out and the future direction of the entrepreneurial sector, thus shaping who may or may not engage in entrepreneurial activities. Thus entrepreneurship development in Tanzania, like any developing country, reflects the social and cultural differences, hence the difference in entry, performance, and survival of enterprises. This study is also guided by the fact that significant differences exist in the general entrepreneurial behaviour and performance between men and women, as well as between women from the same region and from other areas or localities. This study aims at increasing understanding on whether these differences are brought about by the cultural and social attributes, rather than physical and psychological differences.

It is also noted that there are very few studies on social-cultural factors affecting rural female entrepreneurship in Tanzania. Consequently, a comprehensive analysis and empirical evidence of the critical factors that affect rural women's entry into business and those that adversely affect their performance is very limited (Ssendi and Anderson, 2009; Satta, 2003).

The existing literature on rural female entrepreneurship is limited. Most of the available literature does not answer the “Why” and “How” questions; and this study is intended to try and extend the debate in this area by adding to the existing knowledge on the studied phenomenon. There are few studies which have looked into how rural female entrepreneurs undertake their daily activities. Few of the studies done are commissioned with specific objectives (Tovo, 1991; Makombe, 2006:10). This study investigates women who do business in village markets in order to sustain their well being.

Although economic factors might play an important role in the well-being of entrepreneurial performance, there are other factors one has to deal with when undertaking entrepreneurship. As indicated earlier, these non-economic factors cannot easily be separated from the socio- cultural context in which they are embedded. The factors such as tradition and norms, family background, entrepreneurial experience, and skills trainings may have a positive or negative impact on how people undertake entrepreneurial activities. This study looks at the process of entrepreneurship and how the socio-cultural factors may impact on the way the entrepreneurial process is undertaken in certain contexts.

The ability to undertake successful entrepreneurial activities has a great impact on the performance of the entrepreneur (Olomi, 2009:2). This is because it affects the well being of the person involved and also impacts on the nation’s economic development. It requires the person undertaking entrepreneurial activities, be it business creation or self-employment, to be versed with the knowledge and skills of identifying opportunities and using the resources at her/his disposal to undertake a business venture or employ herself/himself for profit gain (Gibb, 2005). Therefore, the entrepreneur perceives the business or venture created as an extension of his or her personality, intricately linked with livelihood needs and desires.

As in the world generally (Anderson et al, 2009) in Tanzania, the term entrepreneurship has become the new, commonly used catchword. It is widely applied in private and public sectors alike. In recent years, entrepreneurship, which can be translated in Swahili as ujasiriamali, has gained social, economic, cultural and political significance. The government, civil society organization and foreign development partners all support entrepreneurship in every aspect. However the performance of entrepreneurs in Tanzania has remained low compared to their counterparts in Eastern Africa and elsewhere in the region (Ngaleya, 2005) and in particular women entrepreneurs are said to be even worse off (Anderson et al 2009,Ssendi and Anderson, 2009).

Entrepreneurship in Tanzania is characterized by tiny or micro, small and medium enterprises (Olomi, 2009:15) and the number increases every day as a result of more involvement and recognition of the private sector in social and economic development. The majority of micro enterprises are in the informal sector, run single-handedly or employing members of the family and have an annual turnover of less than 2000 US dollars. Most of the micro and small enterprises operate non-farm businesses and farm-related activities in rural areas mainly operating from home or by the roadside. The most common enterprises include general trading (fifty-two percent) and services (thirty-four percent), like restaurants, cafes and bars; with the minority in the mining and manufacturing sector. Overall, women in Tanzania, like other developing countries, are the main operators of micro enterprises (Olomi, 2009:15).

1 1.1.2 Significance of the study

As noted earlier most women entrepreneurs in Tanzania are engaged in very small enterprises and businesses. This situation has prompted the government to develop a number of policies to support the efforts of the informal sector, because these enterprises are recognized as the “engines of private-led growth” (Ngaleya, 2005:23). This has resulted in several programmes and organizations conducting programmes and supporting entrepreneurship initiatives. The significance of this study is brought by the fact that not much is known about everyday lives of poor rural female entrepreneurs , how they run their businesses and how they organise their lives. This study aims at contributing to the understanding of the entrepreneurship process, activities, and experiences of rural women entrepreneurs in rural areas in developing countries like Tanzania which will be useful to the academic world, policy makers, beneficiaries and other stakeholders. It will also inform all stakeholders of entrepreneurship from government and non-governmental organisations.

The study aims at deepening understanding and insight in the area of rural female entrepreneurship. This study is expected to assist in understanding female entrepreneurship especially in rural areas where the majority of the population of developing countries lives. Knowledge of entrepreneurship in the developing countries of Africa is very limited. This study may contribute to the improvement of existing policies and practice of female entrepreneurship in rural areas, not only in Tanzania but also in other African countries.

1.1.3 The constraints and barriers for women in entrepreneurship

In Tanzania, like many African countries, poverty is widespread in rural areas; moreover, the bulk of society remains traditionalist when it comes to gender issues. In Africa, women are backbone of the rural African economy, they produce three-quarters of the continent’s food, but they remain the poorest of the poor (TGNP, 2007:1). They farm small plots, sell fruit, vegetables and other items in the villages and provide basic necessities such as food, medicine and clothing for their families (Charlayne, 2006).

About sixty percent of Tanzanian women live in absolute poverty. In the rural areas and poor urban suburbs, women are the most disadvantaged, because they lack adequate knowledge of existing credit facilities and other support services (Ssendi and Anderson, 2009; URT, 2005b; Brain, 1976). Due to their low education level, their knowledge and skills for time and work management are generally low. They have to spend a lot of time and energy on their work because they use poor technology (TGNP, 1997:32). The study will investigate female micro-entrepreneurs in rural areas who operate in their local markets selling and buying farm and non-farm products.

1.2 Statement of Research Problem

This section aims at explaining how the researcher was exposed to literature in the field of entrepreneurship and in particular female entrepreneurship and how the exposure assisted in the formulation of the research problem. As a PhD student the researcher came across a number of authors who helped in shaping the understanding of entrepreneurship especially in the context of developing countries. The researcher learned about authors like Schumpeter, who recognises an entrepreneur as an innovator, Knight, who describes the role of an entrepreneur as a risk–taker, and Cantillon and Say who recognise an entrepreneur as organisers of factors of production (Deakins and Freel, 2006:3). Their work on entrepreneurship has assisted in expanding the knowledge in the field of entrepreneurship.

The most influential literature was that of Eleanor Schwartz (1976), which was a breakthrough in the choice of the research problem. When deciding on the research problem to be addressed, one has also to consider how to execute the study. The literature by Dana (2005) was very influential in looking how this study might be accomplished; this will be further developed in section 4.2 on the justification of the methodology.

The research problem addressed in this study is how have socio cultural factors impacted on the way rural female micro-entrepreneurs undertake their entrepreneurial activities in rural village markets. This is a theoretical problem which aims at looking at the limits of previous research in the field of women entrepreneurship and is guided by a social constructivist theory.

The study was conducted in the markets of three rural villages in Pwani (Coast) and Arusha regions in Tanzania. The participants in this study are the women entrepreneurs who undertake their activities in these markets. These were the primary informants. The women entrepreneurs who were once doing the same business but were not operating at the time of the study were also included in the study. Other participants include the village local government officials and market leaders. The women entrepreneurs were observed in the context of their everyday entrepreneurial experiences. They were also investigated on how they attach meaning to their experiences in the daily entrepreneurship process. The study focused on the role played by female micro-entrepreneur in undertaking entrepreneurial activities to meet their life needs.

1.2.1 Theoretical orientation of research

The importance of theory in entrepreneurship cannot be over-emphasized. The lack of relevant theories in entrepreneurship is well documented (Anderson and Stanawaska, 2008). Many of the existing entrepreneurship theories lack common and conclusive explanations about the phenomenon under study. There is an ongoing debate about the theoretical basis or underpinnings of entrepreneurship and consensus has not been reached. The researcher recognises the research which assumes women are different from men. The focus of this research is not to compare men and women on gender stereotype scales but rather to try understand women as part of the society who, if given equal opportunities and support in rural areas, could achieve sustainable and faster economic growth of their countries. Because of the above reasons, this study used a social constructionist perspective. The ideas of this stance come from the early work of Karl Mannheim; Sociology of Knowledge, from the works of Berger and Luckmann (1966); The social construction of reality and also from the work Lincoln and Guba (1985) in their book Naturalistic enquiry. More recently Neuman (2000) in his book Social research methods: Qualitative and quantitative approaches and Schwardt (2007) in his Dictionary of qualitative inquiry have all developed this perspective. Indeed Smith (2006) argues that what we understand about entrepreneurship is itself socially constructed.

Social construction believes that individuals seek understanding in the world in which they live and work. They develop personal meanings of their life experiences which are attached to certain objects or things. These meanings are usually multiple and they vary. They require the researcher to look for the complexity of the meaning rather than narrowing the meaning into a few categories (Creswell 2009:8).

This study thus relies on the views of the female micro-entrepreneurs who are involved in the study. Questions asked will be broad and general so that the researcher can try to understand the respondents’ situation through discussion and interactions at the research setting. Life stories will be solicited, to assist in capturing the background and context. The researcher will ask open-ended questions which will allow respondents to explain subjective meanings of their world. These subjective meanings are negotiated socially and historically. They are not imposed on respondents but they develop through interaction with others and through historical and cultural norms that operate in an individual’s environment. The study mainly focuses on the process of interaction among the women entrepreneurs and the specific context in which the respondents live and work. The researcher’s background shapes the interpretation and thus positions her in the research to acknowledge how the interpretation flows from personal, cultural and historical experience. The aim here is to make sense of the respondent’s views about their humanity. As the result the study will produce a “substantial description” of the group under study; that may aid in generating or inductively developing a ‘pattern of meaning’ (Creswell, 2009:8).

1.3 Research issues and propositions

The basic research issues to be addressed in this study are:

What are the social, cultural, political and economic dimensions, as they affect entrepreneurship, of a developing country like Tanzania?

2. What practice and policy implications do these dimensions have for the understanding and recognition of women’s entrepreneurship in developing countries?

These research issues and propositions will be further established in chapter two and three where a review of relevant literature will be presented.

Objectives of the study

1.3.1.1 General objective

The primary aim of this study is to describe and analyse how socio cultural factors have contributed to the way female micro entrepreneurs undertake their entrepreneurial activities in rural Tanzania. The main objective being to understand how females from different socio cultural background undertake their entrepreneurial activities in rural Tanzania, and to offer this understanding as a platform for the formulation or improvement of polices for women entrepreneurs in rural areas in Tanzania.

1.3.1.2 Specific aims

The specific objectives on which data will be collected in order to address the research problem satisfactorily are:

To understand the experiences of the studied women entrepreneurs in the process of undertaking micro-enterprises in rural Tanzania

To explore the nature of rural enterprises undertaken by women

To explore the process of undertaking entrepreneurial activities in rural settings

4. To examine the role, nature and constraints of rural women’s micro-enterprise

1.3.2 Research contributions

In answering the research issues presented in section 1.3, the detailed contribution will be presented in section 8.2. However, because of its exploratory nature, this research does not intend to test any theories with data. Instead it aims to add understanding to the existing body of knowledge in the field of entrepreneurship in general, entrepreneurship in African countries, and, in particular, female entrepreneurship in rural areas. A study on rural entrepreneurship adds to the research on the effects of an individual’s background and life experience on entrepreneurship, in particular from the developing country perspective. The findings from this research intend to build on existing concepts from the mainstream fields of social anthropology, economics, management development studies and entrepreneurship.

This study therefore tries to explore and examine how the existing theories and concepts do explain the lives and enterprises of these respondents and try to understand them from the perspective of a development country. In summary, this research has made three contributions. Firstly, by bringing new evidence to bear; secondly, using already known information with new interpretation; and thirdly, by tackling an existing problem using ethnographic approach.

1.4 Justification for Research

As noted in earlier sections, this study is selected because studies on female entrepreneurship are scarce compared to other disciplines (Carter and Marlow, 2007:2). The situation is even worse in African countries and especially in Tanzania. The few studies conducted in developing countries were from Asia, mainly India. Studies on the impact of non-economic factors on female entrepreneurship are rare.

Moreover there are conflicting ideas about female entrepreneurship, one being that female entrepreneurship has been relatively neglected. The researcher supports the view that female entrepreneurs is not only neglected but also is regarded as having ‘minority interest’ (Carter and Marlow, 2007:7) of specific research on entrepreneurship in developing countries (Makombe, 2006:10). This stresses the earlier evidence that the number of studies on female entrepreneurship in developing countries the number is even fewer. This work is also driven by the fact that the researcher was involved in a voluntary work, assisting women to form groups to obtain micro-credit, where a number of interesting issues were disclosed (Ssendi and Anderson, 2010) that required more investigation in order to understand how women undertake their entrepreneurship activities in rural Tanzania. The researcher also wants to know if there are any underlying factors which may impact how women from different parts of the country undertake their entrepreneurship activities. Therefore there is a need to understand the process, activities and experiences of individual rural entrepreneurs.

1 1.4.1 Importance of entrepreneurship to Tanzania

The importance of entrepreneurship in developing countries like Tanzania cannot be over emphasized. When opening the Seventh Conference of the ruling CCM party women’s wing, the President of Tanzania said:”…Tanzanians are poor, but women are the poorest. Therefore they need special and specific conducive environment in order to remove themselves from poverty and other life hardships. The government recognizes that women are good entrepreneurs, trustworthy and they work very hard. What they need is to work together, capital and entrepreneurship and business education” (2009).

A study by SIDO_GTZ (1996) in Tanzania shows that in the informal sector, employment growth has increased threefold and it is estimated to grow at an average of ten percent per annum. However, parallel to the increase in number of enterprises in the informal sector, there is evidence in the decrease of the average size of enterprises. According to Olomi (ibid) for example, the 1984 survey shows that there was a total of 6,520 enterprises in Dar es Salaam alone with an average of 5.2 workers. The survey conducted in 1994 showed about 211,000 enterprises in the city with an average of 1.5 workers. Also, the average of enterprises undertaken in permanent structures declined from 71.2 percent in 1984 to thirty percent in 1991, which implies that the degree of informality has also increased. With the increase in the contribution of micro and small businesses to the Tanzanian economy, the situation shows how large the area of research problem is in terms of employment and financial well being of the people in Tanzania. The researcher thus thinks addressing this research problem at this time and place is appropriate and useful.

1.4.2 The choice of research topic

Tanzania as a developing country has many social problems which need to be addressed. There are a number of entrepreneurship topics which could have been chosen for this study. The choice of the topic is purely based on the researcher’s interest. According to Perry (1998:1-2), the choice of research topic should ideally be the one which interests the student for him or her to endure many years of hard and solitary work. If possible, it should be built on previous studies and it should be in ‘warm’ areas of research activity, rather than areas in which a lot of research has been done, or where the research interest is diminishing. The research topic should be in the mainstream field and not at the margin, or in between two mainstream fields. It makes it easier to find supervisors and examiners if you are near mainstream fields of research.

The chosen topic should be one which produces results within the shortest period and within the available research resources. The study should have access to sources of data (respondents). The topic should continue the academic debate in the field and open further research after completion of the PhD programme. The process of doing the PhD programme should provide skills and information which may assist in seeking an academic or non-academic job. In this case, the choice of the topic on rural women entrepreneurs is expected to benefit rural women and stakeholders in developing countries in general and Tanzania in particular

The researcher has always admired women who have excelled academically and as a result were given opportunities to serve women and society in general. These women have excelled in their own countries and worldwide. Examples are Dr. Gertrude Mongella, who was a tutor at Chang’ombe Teachers College in Tanzania, is now the president of the African parliament and was the Secretary General of the Beijing Women’s Conference in 1985. Dr Asha-Rose Migiro who was the Governor; Minister for Community Development, Women and Children Affairs and now is outgoing Deputy Secretary General of the United Nations. The last example is Professor Anna Tibaijuka who was a lecturer at the University of Dar es Salaam and the Under-Secretary General of the United Nations and Director of the United Nations Human Settlements Programme, and currently serving as a Member of Parliament and government minister in Tanzania. These Tanzanian women have inspired me to undertake this study to the best of my ability.

1.4.3 The position of the Study with relation to others

There are studies which have been conducted in Tanzania; however I will mention the few which are related with the present study. Ssendi and Anderson (2009), using a survey approach to study the role and impact of micro-finance for poor rural women in Tanzania, found that there were some benefits in improving the profitability of micro-enterprises run by rural poor women. However, they found that there was no evidence of permanent improvement in their well-being in terms of additional household assets.

Makombe (2006) studied women entrepreneurship development and empowerment in Tanzania using both qualitative and quantitative methods. He found that some women from Women Entrepreneurship Development (WED) supported programme, were able to buy assets as a result of the positive impact of entrepreneurship development programmes. However, most of the women had no control over their assets as they needed permission from their husbands to sell them.

Stevenson and St-Onge (2005), in their study of support for growth-oriented women entrepreneurs in Tanzania, found that there was no recent national wide data on the number, size, make-up and economic/ social involvement of women. No data on women business entry, survival and performance was available. Data on comprehensive demographic profiling of women who own enterprises and their enterprises was missing as well. Furthermore there were limited studies on the factors affecting business start-up for the women entrepreneurs.

1.5 Methodology Overview

Although the methodology for the study will be described and justified in chapters three and five, this section gives an overview of the chosen methodology. In the process of achieving the stated study objectives; this study is conducted using a qualitative methodology. Many previous studies were done using mainly surveys. The phenomenon under investigation requires an appropriate methodology and methods in order to obtain the required information which in turn will aid in understanding female entrepreneurship in that research context.

An ethnographic case study approach is used to collect data, although other approaches could have been used. A survey would have been quicker and less labour intensive, but because the purpose of the study is to understand how rural women undertake their entrepreneurial activities, the chosen methodology and approach were much preferred. Primary data were collected from three villages: Kongowe, Ruvu Darajani and Patandi. Observation, interviews and life stories were used to gather the required information. Secondary data were collected from various government publications and reports from village to central government level. Descriptive accounts were presented, data was analysed and then an interpretation was made. Within case and cross case comparison was done in order to deepen the understanding of the phenomenon rather than looking for physical and visible differences or similarities which existed between the two study areas.

1.6 Delimitations of scope

The key boundaries were first introduced in section 1.2. Other boundaries to the study will concern the literature which is used for the study. The study was conducted in mainland Tanzania and the data were collected with reference to entrepreneurship in mainland Tanzania. The sources of information will also include, amongst other sources, reports, unpublished and research papers. Entrepreneurship was chosen because its importance to the people of Tanzania . The settings chosen represent one of the poorest regions in Tanzania and one of the better-off regions, although still very poor by western standards (Ssendi and Anderson, 2009). The differences between the two regions will aid in understanding the phenomenon under study.

This study attempts to understand the entrepreneurial life of respondents by observing, interviewing and collecting life stories. The study focuses on how socio-cultural factors impact the way women undertake their activities in Tanzania. The study investigates women from two villages in Pwani and one village in the Arusha region who undertake their entrepreneurship activities in the village markets. The study will also consider women who, for one reason or another, were not undertaking entrepreneurship activities at that particular time.

The study is therefore aimed at providing a basis for policy directives and practice appropriate for the improvement of entrepreneurial performance; not just in Tanzania but also in other developing countries.

This research was restricted to three village markets which by the nature of operation seemed to be appropriate for the research. The village market is the area of the village where a large number of people gather and interact. Most people in the villages meet and conduct their activities in these markets. Although there are other women across villages who operate businesses, this study focused only on women found doing their business within the market and its surrounding areas.

The unit of analysis for this study are the individual female micro- entrepreneurs who are operating within and around the market area. It involves the women operating small businesses. Although some of the respondents had more than one business, they were only examined on the businesses they conducted within the village market and also they shared experiences in other businesses as part of their life histories.

Bearing in mind that this study adopts a qualitative approach and interpretative design, it may be faced with subjective limits. Therefore the main focus of the study will concentrate on providing a deeper understanding and insight into the phenomenon studied. Hence the research material gathered can contribute to the existing empirical and theoretical evidence and provide future research opportunities in the area of entrepreneurship and in particular women in rural areas in the context of developing countries. There is always tradeoffs and a series of limitations when adopting qualitative approach or indeed in any study whether qualitative or quantitative. When using this approach, you are trading off generalisability in contrast to that of quantitative approach where you trade off the depth of understanding for the scope of the study. Thus, in all research decisions and research designs aspects, you give up one thing because you are interested in another.

1.7 Outline of the research

The overview of this thesis includes a review of the pertinent literature, the research objectives, the design, methods and procedure. Moreover the thesis addresses the data analysis techniques, ethical issues and the implication of the study. This thesis is divided into eight chapters. Chapter two examines the research setting i.e. Tanzania. It is devoted to discussing the historical, political and economic contexts. Moreover, it considers the socio- cultural influences of a developing country like Tanzania. Chapter three presents a critical review of pertinent literature, the relevant literature on entrepreneurship in general, and women entrepreneurs in particular. Chapter four discusses the methodology used in undertaking this study. Chapter five describes the theoretical framework for analyzing data. Chapter six presents the descriptive accounts of the findings and contextualising of the study. It discusses the findings and the overall interpretation of the findings. Chapter seven discusses the findings in relation to how rural female entrepreneurs undertake their activities in Tanzania. Lastly, chapter eight presents the conclusions from the study findings, the recommendations and the implications of the study. The following figure summarises the chapters in this thesis.

Figure 1: Thesis outline

1.8 Conclusions

This chapter laid the foundations for the research. It introduced the research problem and research issues, and then the research was justified. The overview of the methodology was briefly described and justified. The scope of the study was given and the research was outlined. Based on these foundations, the researcher will proceed with the detailed description of the research.

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