social policy

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Causes And Effects Of Abortion

INTRODUCTION:

Abortion means termination of pregnancy – it can either be spontaneous or induced. Spontaneous is known as miscarriage, while induced simply means termination of a pregnancy which is planned. Recently, the statistics have shown an increase in abortion rate year after year. Abortion can cause by social, economic or pregnant women health condition as well. However, it will lead to a number of negative effect toward pregnant women’ health, and social as too.

Abortion is an activity banned in certain country, such as North Carolina and Hawaii (Nationwide abortion procedure ban update 1998). This activity can define as a termination of pregnancy; it can be either spontaneous or induced. Spontaneous is known as miscarriage, while induced simply means that termination of a pregnancy which is planned (Abortion 2001). The latest statistics have shown an increase in abortion rate year by year, it is unfavorable fact. It can cause by social, economic or pregnant women health condition as well. However, it will lead to a number of negative effects toward pregnant woman’s health and social too.

Social issue can be one of the big factors which cause abortion rate increase day after day, such as crime act. We are unable to deny that the frequency of crime cases in our nation is slightly high. There is a real case which takes place in the previous month, April, which a student from Kolej Tunku Abdul Rahman (Ktar) was rape by the college’s security guard, the victim is only eighteen years old, because of this bad experience, the victim it will be confront with long term influence, which mean that she will not only affect in the aspect of physically but also physiology, and it probably need to take some time to cure towards the bad incident and unfortunate. For those pregnancies result from rape or insect, these women who are victims of the assaults often seen abortions (Abortion- Reasons for abortions 2007). Incest can be defined as sexual relations between persons who are so closely related that their marriage is illegal or forbidden by custom (Incest 2001). The probability of the fetus get from incest will be deformity is slightly high because the parties may have blood-relation between themselves. Most of the women, however, decide to have an abortion because the pregnancy will represents a problem in their future and current lives as well. Besides that, there is also an evidence abounds that a high proportion of women become pregnant unintentionally, in both developed and developing countries. In the United States and in some Eastern European countries for which data are available, about on-half to three-fifths of all pregnancies are unintended, and a large proportion of these are resolved through abortion. And in many developing countries, the proportion of recent births that are unintended exceeds 40%. The level of unintended pregnancy for developing countries would be even higher if more accurate abortion information were available, since most abortions represent, by definition, unintended pregnancies (Reasons why women have induced abortions: evidence 1998). Education level in a certain country may affect the idea of the abortion practice in the public mind. However, lower level of education possibly will encourage the people enter into a casual sexual relationship which will leads to pregnancy with no prospect of marriage. Even if the sexual relationship is more than casual, abortion is may be needed because a woman decides that the social status of the male is improper (Abortion- Reasons for abortions 2007). Sexually active teenagers are at an immediate risk of becoming pregnant or acquiring a sexually transmitted infection. Young sexually active teens are much less likely than older teens to use contraception consistently, however, the vast majority of teenage pregnancies are unintended, and close to half of those accidental pregnancies which is 45% end in an abortion. Teens may choose to have an abortion because they have concerns about how the baby would change their lives, for example completing their education, and they will worry about the financial problems, or they feel that they are not mature enough to become a parent, abortion levels can decline if the high rate of unintended pregnancies is reduced or if more pregnant teens are carrying their pregnancy to term (Teen abortions 2003). In addition, young pregnant women will be short of experience in taking care the baby, and so they also unable to foreseen the baby’s later life, because of that, they may decide to terminate the pregnancy rather than carry on the fetus. In certain country, such as China, they have carried out a policy which the government tend to control the population in their country, which is one child per family policy, this policy was applying in year 1980 (Abortion in China 2001). Introduction of this policy has contributed to the increased rapidly in the number of abortion and there are reports show that forced abortions are uncommon nowadays. In several unique circumstances, the pregnancy women can be legalizing by obtaining the approval from the population authorities. Therefore, those women who are from urban area in China show higher possibility to attain the permission to carry more than a child (Illegal births and legal abortion – the case of China 2005). Besides, abortion is a legal practice in Brazil if it is the only means to save the woman’s life or if the pregnancy is the result of rape. Although this has been the law for over 60 years, it has almost never been applied until recent years. In the past five years, the number of hospitals providing care to women victims of sexual violence has increased from 4 to 63, of which 40 people are currently providing legal abortion (Making legal abortion accessible in Brazil 2002).

Furthermore, condition of an economic in certain country will give an impact to the statistic of abortion in a nation, such as during unemployment, inflation and deflation. A simply define that inflation is where a situation that ‘too much money chasing too few goods’, and this will influenced directly toward the distribution approach in the market (Inflation 2000). On the other hand, unemployment is where a situation the worker wants to work, but is unable to work and it may have advantages as well as disadvantages for the overall economy, notably, it may help turn away from inflation, which will negatively affects almost everyone in the economy (Unemployment 2007). During a high unemployment rate, there will be recession in market, which the employee will face financial difficulty to afford an additional child and as well as the parents and the existing children. If this happen, the pregnant women will think about whether they should carry on or terminate the pregnancy. In contrast, while there is boom in the economic, and so there will be a different choice on the pregnant women. While sometimes the parents will make a decision to take on an abortion, where there is a prospect in their career and they are unwilling to sacrifice the precious opportunity. Some will think the parents are cruel and selfish, but we are not them and we will not know the situation and feeling on them. Yet, economic boom will promote international business in the country, and the people will gain benefit through it, such as advanced in technology. International businesses encourage exchange of knowledge and experience between the countries, and it will built good relation between nations. As we know, Japan always adopting and possessing the advance technology and technique among the countries; many people in our country are fancy to get trained from them. Unable to deny that, failure rate in our country have been minimized by the advancing of medical technique in our country’s which compare to previous stage and currently the people are become more assurance with our country’s medical system, and technique and they are willing to carry out some high risk operation, such as heart operation. Recently, our country ex-prime minister has successfully done the heart operation in Malaysia. Subsequent to this incident, some of the pregnant women will possibly more confidence, and fewer anxious toward the possibility of failure in an abortion, and so they are able to make a quicker decision when they in the choice of either terminate or carry on the pregnancy.

A worst health condition of the pregnant women may not encourage to carrying on the pregnancy, because there will be a risk to the fetus and the pregnant women too. Women who use drugs often will suffer from serious health problems, sexually transmitted diseases, and mental health problems. Studies have found that at least 70 percent of women who are drug users have been sexually abused by the age of sixteen. Drugs use is a serious health problem for many reasons. Women who use drugs may at the risk of becoming infected with HIV, which it is a virus that causes AIDS. These viruses can be spread through needless used to inject drugs. As a result, women who inject drugs and share needles are especially at the risk. A mother who uses drugs may possibly threat her life and her baby’s. When a pregnant woman uses drugs, she and her unborn child may face serious health problems. For instance, during pregnancy, the drugs used by the mother can enter the baby’s bloodstream. The effect on the baby can be HIV infection, AIDS, prematurely, low birth weight, small head size, poor motor skills and behavior problems. The mother who is continuing drug use will puts her children at risk for neglect, physical abuse and malnutrition (Pregnancy and drug use 2001). In addition, drug abuse may also cause underweight babies, birth defects or withdrawal symptoms after birth. For those pregnant women who are infected with serious harms of health, and they will be advice by doctor which come to an end of the pregnancy rather than bring on, because the virus possibly will transmit to the baby during pregnancy, labor and delivery, and through breastfeeding. If the pregnant women no take any preventive drugs and breastfeeds then the chance of her baby becoming infected by the virus is around 20-45% (HIV AIDS & Pregnancy 2007). Although pregnancy is often portrayed as a time of great joy, that is not reality for all women. At least one in ten pregnant women will be suffers with depression. For years, experts mistakenly believed that pregnancy hormones protected against depression, leaving women more in danger to the illness only after the baby was born and their hormone levels plunged. They now believe that the brain chemistry will be interrupt in the rapid increase in hormone levels at the start of pregnancy and lead to depression. Hormonal changes will make the pregnant women feel more anxious than usual. Anxiety is another condition where that can and should be treated during pregnancy (Depression during pregnancy 2005). In these days, there are many young women in high school or college find out themselves pregnant and they are confront with emotional difficulties, which is due to that they are unprepared to enter parenthood and raise a child, or they are too young to do so and not have a reliable partner with who to raise a child. Besides that, they are required to choose either continuing education which can survive economically in their later life or dropping out to have the baby. Young couples who are just starting their lives together and want children might prefer become financially secure first to provide better care for their future children. In addition, the health of the baby will be affected if the pregnant women are dealing with mentally difficulties, such as anxiety and stress. In contrast, condition of a fetus during the pregnancy period will not only due to mental illness of the pregnant women, the lifestyle of the pregnant women will give a big impact toward the baby’s strength. For those pregnant women who take in alcohol regularly, smoking and any others bad habit will all provide a serious impact to the baby, which the possibility of carry an abnormal baby is extremely high. While the pregnant women smoking during pregnancy period will passes nicotine and cancer-causing drugs to the baby and smoke will also keeps the baby from getting nourishment and raises the risk of stillbirth or premature birth. On the other hand secondhand smoke exposure will cause disease and premature death in children and adult who do not smoke. For those children who are exposed to secondhand smoke are at increased in the risk for sudden infant death syndrome, ear problems, and more severe asthma (Health harms from secondhand smoke 2007). Alcohol can cause life long physical and behavioral problems in the children, including Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS), which mean it will cause the baby mental retardation, abnormal facial features, growth problems, vision or hearing problems, all this causes will be lasts for a life time, and there is no cure for this. So, if the pregnant women are doing so, the health care provider can recommend programs, such as abortion, to help you quit and so the pregnant women and the baby will be better off (Pregnancy and substance abuse 2007). In contrast, relationship with husband or partner and family members will affect the pregnant women judgment. Nearly all of the teenage pregnancy, will not support by their family members, because they believe that though of the teenage pregnancy are still immature and they are unable to educate their child in the right way, due to this the family members will suggested them to terminate the pregnancy. Because of opposition of the young pregnancy will feel homeless and though of terminate the baby’s life even suicide. In addition, if the relationship with partner or husband had broken up before or since pregnancy discovered it will as a result of why women have abortions (Reasons why women have abortions 2002). If there is a problem in the relationship between pregnant women and the husband or partner and will lead to the pregnant women decides to abort the child because she does not want to be a single parent (Abortion: Pros and cons 1999). On the other hand, if in a family which the husband is contributing the main financial support, and once they have broke up or divorce, the pregnant women may think to abortion instead of carrying on which due to the pregnancy women will not be able to work for a certain period and so she will have no sufficient financial support during and after pregnancy time. Moreover, abortion may also cause by the husband or partner or the pregnant women are in jail or prison because violation of discipline, which this incident is force to terminate the baby and not abort with willingness. In the opinion of Pro-life people, they believed ‘psychological harm’ is one of the effects of abortion. They argue that women will get horrible nightmares of their children after they have abortion, and they will regret and feel guilty about their decision. They physical effects from the abortion usually appear in the future, such as tubal pregnancy and sterility. People from the pro-life group have evidence that abortion can breast cancer and the worst physical effect is death, it’s recoded that 200 women have died from legal abortion since 1973 (Abortion: Pros and cons 1999).

For those women who decide to take on an abortion, they must be willing to bear the effects after the abortion neither it is physiology nor psychological. The worst physical effect is death, in record, there are 200 women have died from legal abortion since 1973 (Abortion: Pros and cons 1999). In addition, approximately 60 percent of women who experience of abortion follow-up a report with suicidal ideation, with 28 percent actually attempting suicide, of which half attempted suicide two or more times. Researchers in Finland have identifies a strong statistical association between abortion and suicide in a records based study. They identified 73 suicides associated within one year to a pregnancy ending either naturally or by induced abortion. The mean annual suicide rate for all women was 11.3 per 100,000. The suicide rate associated with birth was significantly lower at 5.9 per 100,000 (Abortion hurts women psychologically and emotionally 1999). There is another case where too much blood run off during abortion may lead to both mother and the baby or either one death. There is a risk in performing abortion, and if the pregnant women decide to take the risk, and so she must keen to tolerate the implication which due to abortion. According to Cr. M. C. Pike, at University of Southern California in 1981, he has demonstrated a direct association of induced abortion with breast cancer. He studies 163 women who developed breast cancer before age 33, and compared them with 272 controls. He showed that if a woman had aborted her first pregnancy, her change of developing breast cancer was increased by a factor of 2.4 times (Breast cancer 2006). While there is another view with risk of abortion, which in February 2003, the US National Cancer Institute (NCI) held a workshop of more than 100 of the world’s leading experts who study pregnancy and breast cancer risk. The experts’ assessment existing human and animal studies on the relationship between pregnancy and breast cancer risk, including studies of induced and spontaneous abortions. Among their conclusion, breast cancer risk will increased after a term pregnancy, which is a pregnancy that results in the birth of living child or abort it (Can having an abortion cause or contribute to breast cancer 2007). In another word, breast cancer may due to hormonal changes during pregnancy; furthermore, change in hormone will cause the handicapped of the newborn in later pregnancies. Post abortion syndrome (PAS) is a term that has been used to describe the emotional and psychological cost of abortion, in order to cope with the emotional pain that accompanies abortion; woman may develop a set of resistance mechanisms to defend their decision. They may include rationalization, repression, and compensation. Moreover, there may have several symptoms of PAS, where some will occur immediately after an abortion and other may take months or even years to surface. One of it is strong feeling of guilty, which is a normal reaction that usually surface after the woman recognize that abortion is wrong and that she is responsible for committing her own abortion (Physical and psychological complications of abortion 2002). For those who are feeling extremely guilty, they will repeat and persistently dreams or even nightmare which is about the child. In addition, where a new research from New Zealand has confirmed that abortion substantially increases the risk for mental health problems, such as anxiety and depression in young women. According to David Fergussen, psychology professor, had found a relative rate of mental health-related concerns, such as a tendency to suicide, and drug and alcohol abuse were all significantly increased in women with a past history of abortion (New research supports abortion-mental health risk claims 2007).

A social will straightforwardly influence ones behavior, and there are some people who are arguing that abortion is morally wrong on the basis that a fetus is an innocent human being, however, there are still a group of people who are not agree with that (Abortion debate 2007). If a society allows the people to carry out abortion legally, the peace in a nation will be affected, because the people will now become more cruel and unethical, which they will never feel any guilty after the doing any crime act, such as abortion, and so the society will be terror. On the other hand, the performing of crime will increase unconsciously due to the immorality of the human. Besides that, in the developing country, there may possibly arise an incident where the citizens are lack of information about the sexually intercourse, thus the people there are unaware regarding the cause and effect of abortion and casual sexual practice. Because of the ignorant, will confidence the public to carry out casual sexual relationship among the teenagers. Moreover, this will boost up in the of infection venereal disease due to violence in sexual activity, such as AIDS, which are common in these days (Nine reasons why abortions should be illegal 2001).

In summary, issues arise in social, economic and health condition of pregnant women will cause an abortion activity taking place. Besides, the will be some specific impact which due to the abortion. Crime rate in a nation is slightly related to the abortion, because pregnancy result from rape will be an unwanted child, and the pregnant women will decide to abort it. Additionally, knowledgeable in a certain nation will affect the idea of abortion in the public, and rule and regulations of a country will give an impact to the people as well. However, tendency of economic will illustrate in the rate of the abortion rate, for example, during high unemployment rate, the abortion rate will go high as well, and it may due to the financial problem which will confront by the family later. Next, technology advancing in a country, will encourage the people to take on an abortion, because the risk of failure can be minimize, and so their concern. In fact, lifestyle and health condition of pregnant women are linked, for instance, those women who are drug abuse will present an impact toward the fetus, which is a life long impact. Abortion may take place where there is a matter arise either with husband or family member and it will influence the sensation of the pregnant women. Nonetheless, abortion could come along with the implication either mentally or physiology or both affection, such as feeling guilty and depression. Besides that, they will also be infected with breast cancer, or even death during or after the abortion. Subsequently, social will also be affected if the abortion carries out legally in a certain homeland. As a conclusion, abortion will surely lead to a bad tendency in society, so government should play their role, which control the abortion activities, ensure that, there is a good reason for abortion, and not the reason of feeling curious toward sexual intercourse. Also, pregnant women should aware about the cause and effect of abortion and ensure that you and your partner are free from venereal disease, which mean that carry out the sex in a safe condition.

R E F E R E N C E

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