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Protean Attitude And Career Success Psychology Essay

Institutions of higher education manufacture for the intention of produce yield of Pakistan. Education has become commerce. Therefore opposition is rigid in the university industry. The changing environment of agreement among the employee and employer is altering and organization cannot assurance the worker lifetime service through upright development. Instead the employees have to shape themselves into a “protean career attitude” by taking concern of his or her service requirements and assure their “employability” by “increasing the capabilities” in nature of KSAO’s.current study shows the relationship of various variables like Protean Career Attitude, Career insight and perceived Employability within their careers. A close-ended questionnaire is built to measure the variables and to test the hypothesis. University of Gujrat is taken as a sample, proportional stratified sampling is used and our sample size is consisted on 324 participants. Data Analysis is done through Descriptive Statistics and Inferential Statistics.

Keywords:

Protean Career Attitude, Career Insight, Perceived Employability, Career Self Management Behavior, Career Satisfaction.

INTRODUCTION

Every individual is looking toward his career and prepare his-self for achieving the desirable career and achieve success in his career. In assessing and achieving success in one’s career insight ,career satisfaction ,job satisfaction, perceived employability, competency development and his protean attitude that lead toward the career success of one’s life. A protean career attitude is considered as an important determinant of career success in the contemporary career era. In a protean career an individual pursues his or her personal conception of what is important in work and life. Protean attitude can change as to become an individual to empower to take control of career in different ways. Through that the individual can identify its market. The individual can be as powerful to make and implement strategies that promote and enhance confidence, courage that resulted in employment. In this research we test a model in which we specify the relationships between protean career attitude, career self-management behaviors, career insight, and career success outcomes (career satisfaction and perceived employability).Career success is an outcome of experience of a person’s career. Career success can be defined in two parts subjective career success and objective career success. Subjective career success may be defined as the individual’s internal apprehension and evaluation of his or her career objective. Objective career success may be defined as an external perspective that delineates more or less tangible indicators of an individual’s career situation. To analysis our research topic we have selected the education institution of public sector of Gujrat region. The organization cannot assure life-time employment to the employees they have to make themselves employable by self management a activity that involves increasing their Knowledge, Skills, Abilities and Opportunities (Briscoe & Hall, 2006). The participation of Employees in different developmental activities, increase their competitiveness.

STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM:

Every individual is looking toward his career and prepare his-self for achieving the desirable career and achieve success in his career. In assessing and achieving success in one’s career insight, career satisfaction, job satisfaction, perceived employability, competency development and his protean attitude lead toward the career success of one’s life. Choosing a career and maintaining that career and achieving success in the career life. Therefore every one always tries to maximize his success in his career. The problem related to career success in these days is organizations are changing rapidly therefore they want new and developed competencies in their employees to meet the emerging trend everyone tries to maximize his career success chances and involve in development activities. As our area of research in Gujrat and its education industry our problem statement of the study is following.

What is the relationship of Protean Career Attitude, Competency development and perceived employability with Career Success by mediating role of Self-Management in education industry of Gujrat?

OBJECTIVES OF STUDY

Main Objectives

Following are the main objectives of this study;

To examine the relationship of Protean Career Attitude and Career Success.

To find relationship between Protean Career Attitude and Supported Culture.

To find relationship between Protean Career Attitude and Perceived Employability

Sub Objectives

Following are the sub objectives of this study;

To find out the relationship Between Perceived Employability and Career Success.

To determine how Perceived Employability mediates the relationship between Protean Career Attitude and Career Success.

To determine how Perceived Employability mediates the relationship between Competency Development and Career Success?

To find relationship between Protean Career Attitude and Commitment Organization.

To find the mediating role of .self-management behaviors.

To find relationship between Protean Career Attitude and Competency Development

Significance of the study

That research is important as it helps us in assessing protean attitude related to the jobs. How the respondent can manage their career independently. What are the perceptions of respondents towards their employability? It helps in assessing the attitude towards their career. The finding of this study will helps in understanding the subjective and objective career success attitudes. It also helps in determine at what extent the career self management is playing its mediating role in protean attitude and career success relation. That study helps us assessing the how individuals perceive their employability their careers and what they do to achieve their desired outcomes and who much they are satisfied from their careers. That study also helps us in understanding the concept of career insight and protean career attitudes and the situations in which an individual change its self according to the situations.

LITERATURE REVIEW

Protean Attitude:

The study of (Junaid Zafar &Prof Dr Norazuwa Bint Mat, 2012) provides significant contributions in the success of employee’s career. That study stress upon the factors that might influence Pakistani academician’s career success. It focused on protean career attitude, competency development and perceived employability. (RE-AN REN HONG, 2012) His study supported the two factor mode; of the boundary-less career. The study of (Mihaela Enache, Jose M. Sallan, Pep Simo and Vicenc& Fernandez, p. 2006) has been added the knowledge about individualism impacting on career attitudes and satisfaction, direct influence of job satisfaction and adoption to changing work environment. The study on gender differences in the relation between protean and boundary-less career attitudes and subjective career success, dynamic organizational context. That study indicates that career is directly related with self direction and negatively related to own values. The gender is not related with person’s career attitudes.

Career Self Management:

The study of (Jane Sturges, David Guest, Neil Conway & Kate Mackenzie Davey, 2002) on organizational career management showed the importance of career self-management for enhancing organizational help in career management. It also distinguishes between the types of organizational career management and types of career self-management.it also states the importance of career self management selecting the people who have capacity to engage in relevant self management behaviors. (Zella King, 2004) Career self management may be greatly beneficial for self motivation of highly skilled worker and undermining for the lower skilled worker towards seeking to adopt a changing world of work. . (Jasper van Loo, 2005) The training for career advancement is related to the self management initiatives. The component of career self management plays a very important role in career-related self-management, training participation and labor market outcomes

Job Satisfaction:

(Jun a Liu, Qi Wang and Zu X Lu, 2010) Township health centers of Employees have moderate job satisfactions in poor areas, which need to be raised further by improving their working conditions and reward. (Mohammod Mahamuda Parvin & M Nurul Kabir, 2011) This study tested factors affecting job satisfaction for pharmaceuticals companies where work conditions, fairness, promotion, and pay, are key factors affecting pharmaceuticals companies employees’ job satisfaction. (Randy Hodson, 1989) Their analysis of gender differences in the determination of job satisfaction has found only minor differences in the process between men and women. (Miss Neeraja Behera, 2003) The study is all about using unbiased performance appraisal and how top management has to be convinced about the benefits of retention as well as the disadvantages of high employee turnover. Supervisors or line managers have to be involved and encouraged to create a culture that facilitates employee satisfaction.

Perceived Employability:

(Berntson, 2008) The results contribute to the literature on employability by focusing on the perceptions of being employable. This is important in the present labor market. For improve understanding of the nature, determinants, and implications of perceived employability. (J. Shane Robinson & Bryan L. Garton, 2008) the study shows graduates believed that it is important to be able to solve problems, work independently, deal with stress, stay positive, and listen. (Jeremy Mitonga-Monga, Melinde Coetzee and F. V. N. Cilliers, 2011) The results indicated that the participants’ perceptions of a leader’s behavioral style have a significant influence on their perceptions of employee participation. The study further found that male participants perceived their leader’s style significantly more positive than their female. (Sarah Stawiski, Jennifer J. Deal , and William Gentry, 2010) Leaders who stay aware of corporate social responsibility and the implications for their organizations will be able to make the most informed decisions.

Career Self Management Behavior:

(Zella King.2003). This article offers insight into a deferent kind of vocational behavior that people use within a chosen occupation to remain economically productive, to keep pace with developments in technology and opportunity, to maintain contacts and acquaintances, to move between employers and to fit work in with the rest of their lives. (Wiese, 2008) This study indicates of career success in terms of three important success dimensions (objective success, self-referent subjective success, and other-referent subjective success) and to understanding of the impact of self management strategies on these different success criteria.

Relationship between Perceived Employability and Career Satisfaction:

(Tanzia Frances João, 2010) this study indicates that practitioners can benefit from understanding the relationship between perceived career mobility, career mobility preference, job satisfaction and organizational commitment in order to inform talent retention practices.( Ayman Alnems RN, Fouad Aboads RN, Murad AL-Yousef RN, Nabeel AL-Yateem RN, Nazih Abotabar RN,2005) This study indicates the importance of adopting strategies to reduce the perceived job related stress and also adopting strategies to demonstrate more social support for the staff nurses in the work place in the private hospitals in Amman. (WANDA ROOS, 2005) The study indicates a statistically significant three-way relationship between employee motivation, job satisfaction and corporate culture, within which several aspects of these constructs contributed more powerfully towards the relationship than others.

Relationship between Protean Career Attitude and Career Insights:

(Vicenc Fernandez & Mihaela Enache, 2011)These findings highlight the importance for individuals to take active responsibility in managing their careers instead of passively relying on the employing organizations to provide them with a clear career path.

THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK:

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Predictive Structure Equation Model of Study with Factors of protean career attitudes, career insight, perceived employability, career self management behaviors and career satisfaction

Variables of Model:

Dependent Variables

Career Success

Perceived Employability

Independent Variable

Protean Attitude

Moderating Variable

Self-Management Behaviors

Career Insight Behaviors

Control Variables

Age

Level of Education

Gender

HYPOTHESIS

This study will help to test following hypothesis.

H1: Protean Career Attitude and career success are directly linked with each other.

H2: Protean Career Attitude and Career insight are directly linked with each other.

H3: Protean Career Attitude and career self management behavior are directly linked to each other.

H4: Protean Career Attitude is directly linked to perceived employability.

H5: Protean Career Attitude and Career satisfaction are directly linked with each other.

H6: career self management mediates the relationship between protean career attitude and Career satisfaction.

METHODOLOGY

Population

The population of my study includes the part time job holder of graduate level students of university of Gujrat. As academicians in the country are exposed to the same external and internal conditions therefore we are going to conduct our research on students of morning and evening program students and faculty members that are also engaged in completing their education to be more competent, of university of Gujrat. Internal conditions include company politics, performance management and supervisor subordinate relationships while external might include socio-cultural, economic and technological.

Sampling Design:

Firstly we divide the population into two different strata’s; faculty of UOG and students of UOG. After driving strata’s we divide the population by using proportional stratified sampling. “Proportionate stratified sampling in which number of elements from each stratum in relation to its proportion in total population is selected”. (kumar) As we are using two types of stratified who are our participants in our research and that are easily available. Therefore we divided our population into 2;

Students

Faculty of UOG

By using the formula of (toro yamni, 1967)

By applying that formula we got the sample size for our research that is 324 participants in which 9% participants are from faculty of UOG and 91% participants are students of UOG proportionally.

Data collection methods:

For this study we will collect the data by using a questionnaire that will be delivered to the targeted respondents of University. A close-ended questionnaire is used to gather information about individuals’ protean career attitude, competency development, perceived employability, and career success.

Questionnaire:

The proposed questionnaire for this study will be consisted of two different parts that are as follows;

Protean Attitude

Career Success

Job Satisfaction

Career Satisfaction

Objective Career

(Appendix 1)

We will collect the data by using a set of questionnaire that will be delivered to the 324 participants of University. The representatives are liable to inform the respondents’ regarding the purpose of this study, importance of their participation, and the confidentiality of data; explaining to them that this study is being conducted for academic purposes only. The researcher then collects the questionnaires from on an agreed date. A close-ended questionnaire is used to gather information about individuals’ protean career attitude, competency development, perceived employability, and career success.

Protean Career Attitude:

A protean career an individual pursues his or her personal conception of what is important in work and life. An 18 factor of value driven used that is known as protean career attitude scale developed by (Jon P. Briscoe , Douglas T. Hall , Rachel L. Frautschy DeMuth, 2006).In that article settled upon 10 self-directed and eight values-driven items to submit to factor analysis. The response of population is ranged on to little or no extent, to a limited extent, to some extent, to a considerable extent, to a great extent.

Career Success:

The career success of an individual is analyzed on two levels subjective career success and objective career success. Career success outcomes (career satisfaction and perceived employability).Career success is an outcome of experience of a person’s career. Career success can be defined in two parts subjective career success and objective career success. Subjective career success may be defined as the individual’s internal apprehension and evaluation of his or her career obj. Objective career success may be defined as an external perspective that delineates more or less tangible indicators of an individual’s career situation. The career success measure on its two outcomes that are job satisfaction and career satisfaction, objective career success. An adaptation of questions from the Job Diagnostic Survey, as developed by (Hackman and Oldham, 1980)assessed job satisfaction is used. A seven point Likert scale, with responses that ranged from (1) strongly disagree to (7) strongly agree, was used. The seven items produced an arithmetic mean of job satisfaction score. To analysis the objective career success a questionnaire is used of (Farheen Batul Zaidi, Saba Iqbal, 2012) .

Data Analysis:

The data analysis of our study will be consisted on two major parts,

Descriptive Statistics

Inferential Statistics.

Descriptive Statistics:

For our study we will use mean mode median, standard deviation alpha reliabilities and to understand the direction of relationship between independent dependent and mediating variable. Charts like pi-charts, frequency chart and graphs should be used to show results.

Inferential Statistics:

AMOS 7.0, chi-square goodness of fit to degrees of freedom ratio will be used. (Ans De Vos , Nele Soens, 2008)

LIMITATIONS:

The limitation of our research is following;

We didn’t have enough time to perform that research.

We did not have enough resources to complete that study.

We have limited approach to the available sources.

This topic is less concentrated in Pakistan

Limited researches are performed in Pakistan therefore we didn’t found any literature’s help regarding the variables situation in Pakistan.

REFERENCES

Bibliography

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Berntson, E. (2008). Employability perceptions. ISBN , 79.

Farheen Batul Zaidi, Saba Iqbal. (2012). Impact of career selection on job satisfaction. African Journal of Business Management , 18.

Hackman and Oldham. (1980). work Design. reading,MA:adision-wesley.

Jasper van Loo. (2005). Training, Labor Market. 231.

Jeremy Mitonga-Monga, Melinde Coetzee and F. V. N. Cilliers. (2011). Perceived leadership style and employee participation. African Journal of Business Management , 10.

Jon P. Briscoe , Douglas T. Hall , Rachel L. Frautschy DeMuth. (2006). Protean and boundaryless careers: An empirical exploration. Journal of Vocational Behavior , 18.

Jun a Liu, Qi Wang and Zu X Lu. (2010). RJeosebarc hs aartticilse faction and its modeling among township. BMC Health Services Research , 9.

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Mihaela Enache, Jose M. Sallan, Pep Simo and Vicenc& Fernandez. (n.d.). Career attitudes and subjective. Departament d’Organitzacio´ d’Empreses, Universitat Polite`cnica de Catalunya, , 17.

Miss Neeraja Behera, D. C. (2003). Retaining High Performing Employees through Job Satisfaction. 12.

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Randy Hodson. (1989). GENDER DIFFERENCES IN JOB SATISFACTION. THE SOCIOLOGICAL QUARTERLY , 30, 15.

RE-AN REN HONG. (2012). THE IMPACT OF CULTURAL INDIVIDUALISM & COLLECTIVISM ON JOB SATISFACTION. Submitted to the Faculty of the , 108.

Sarah Stawiski, Jennifer J. Deal , and William Gentry. (2010). Employee Perceptions of Corporate Social Responsibility. Center for Creative Leadership.

Tanzia Frances João. (2010). THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN PERCEIVED CAREER MOBILITY, CAREER MOBILITY PREFERENCE, JOB SATISFACTION AND ORGANISATIONAL COMMITMENT.

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WANDA ROOS. (2005). THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN EMPLOYEE MOTIVATION,. fulfilment of the requirements, UNIVERSITY OF SOUTH AFRICA.

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