Philosophy Of The Person Centered Approach Psychology Essay
Natalie Rogers is a psychologist, group facilitator, and artist. Her mission for the past 30 years has been to bring creativity, soul, and spirit into our lives, to empower ourselves as activists in this troubled world. "Each individual has worth, dignity and the capacity for self-direction if given an empathic, non-judgmental, supportive environment." The philosophy and values of the person-centered approach inform all her work in group facilitation, psychotherapist training, personal growth, and communication. She has developed and teaches a certificate program for psychotherapists, educators, mental health workers, artists and others within Say brook Graduate School. Natalie H. Rogers, M.S.W., C.S.W., the founder and president of Talk Power Seminars, is a Behavioral Psychotherapist and a Fellow in the Department of Psychiatry, Cornell Medical College. Her skill and knowledge of the principles of behavior modification are key factors in the scientific validation of this unique program. Ms. Rogers is the author of "Talk-Power, How to Speak without Fear," published by Dodd, Mead in 1982. "Talk-Power" was a Book-of-the-Month selection for the Fortune Book Club and has been sold for publication in England, France, Sweden, Norway, Denmark, India, Bangladesh, Germany, and the U.S.A. Ms. Rogers new book, THE NEW TALKPOWER: THE MIND BODY WAY TO SPEAK WITHOUT FEAR.
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In a previous career Ms. Rogers was the Artistic Director of The Dove Theatre Company in New York City. Here she acted, directed, and taught the fundamentals of performance ease for the actor. From this experience, the basic principles of the Talk Power training program were formulated. She was the recipient of grants from The National Endowment for the Arts as well as the New York State Council on the Arts for her innovative work in experimental theatre.
"HOW TO SPEAK WITHOUT FEAR" has also been written by Natalie Rogers but according to her this book was born when her husband Harold Herbstman, urged her to try to translate the work that hse was doing in her seminars into a book. We are all born into a society in which conversation is a matter of daily exercise. We learn to talk, to listen, to interact and when to react or not react to other as a matter of familiar experience. We learn to expect the obvious and to interpret more subtle clues. We develop the ability to gauge the feed back we are getting, whether the response are positive or negative, becoming aware of a system in which smiles, nods, frowns, questions, responses and interruptions all have their place. We learn to converse with others in a close exchange.
As per the contents of the book we can clearly understand that book is basically written on the people who get little hesitant or face problem while giving different presentation or making understand their point of view giving their public speeches. Author of this book had conducted different seminars and techniques which she has described in her book which is very effective and interesting.
Author of this book used to sit in class listening to lengthy speeches being delivered, watching the nervously uncomfortable students make their presentations and it seemed to her there was no visible improvement in their performances over time. The speeches were just as ineffectual at the end of the semester as they had been at the beginning. The students looked just as uncomfortable as they had on the very first class.
As a theater person with years of acting, teaching, and directing experience under her belt, she sat there in utter disbelief. When author recovered from the sheer of amazement of it all, she had what you might call a moment of "aha" That is, she had a wonderful idea. She realized that the training that proved helpful to actors in overcoming their inhibitions could be applied to public speaking. With this in mind, she designed a step-by-step plan acquiring the basic presentational skills.
That idea has been developed over the past ten years into a systematic training program enhanced by my experience as a behavioral psychotherapist. The knowledge and training that she has accumulated over this period have expanded the scope dimension of the program. She developed by setting it in a theoretical framework that was both scientific and practical.
She first taught this program, which she called TALK-POWER at the 92nd Street YM/YWHA in New York City, she went on to conduct seminars and courses at LaGuardia Community College, the National Congress for Neighborhood women and for such corporations as J.C Penny and IBM. She has also had many individuals' clients, including not only lawyers and business executives but also a number of political figures. Her experience in dealing with their problems had helped her to perfect a program that has literally changed the lives of hundred of her students and clients. The purpose of this book is to share the idea with us so that we can have Talk-Power.
In this book MS. Natalie Rogers said that Talk power is different from all other methods of teaching public speaking because it is the only program that deals with fear as the basic problem standing between us and successful public speaking. The Talk-Power program utilizes a synthesis of techniques derived from three different fields: -
in order gradually to change our fear response to a controlled response. In the traditional approach, fear of public is dismissed as an isolated occurrence, a simple case of nervousness that can be dealt with through a series of hints, tips, advice and gimmick. The traditional assumptions have been that willpower can do it for us. If we just think positively, we can will our heart to stop beating too fast when you have to speak in public.
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In the Talk Power system the significance of the fear response is fully acknowledged and approached scientifically from a behavioral point of view. This means that although we have learned to respond to the problem of speaking in public with fear, we can now, through planned and organized training, learn a new and more satisfying way to take control of ourselves when we have to speak in public.
Another area where the Talk Power system differs from other approaches to public speaking is in the detailed and systematic attention it pays to actual crafting of the speech. By Contrast, according to traditional methods, students were assigned complete speeches from the very first day. Even, if that speech is only three or four minutes long, a student who has no knowledge of the basic structural rules for organizing an oral presentation will never be able to mater the task or develop a repeatable techniques for doing so.
CONTROLLING YOUR FEAR RESPONSE:
It may be that you are seated in the midst of the group that you are about to address and that you will have to rise from your chair walk forward to the front of the group and turned to face them the before beginning to talk. Or you ,may be sitting in a chair or stage facing the audience and will need only to stand and walk forward to a podium.
It is essential to learn how to slow down how to regain control while you are still on the launching pad. Of you sit twitching nervously in your chair stumble awkwardly to your feet and bold forward beginning to speak before even taking a breath you are going to be in trouble from the start.
SETTING THE STAGE:
To carry out these exercises properly you will need a quiet room without distractions. People coming in and out a constantly ringing telephone or a radio blaring will make it impossible to concentrate to the necessary degree.
1. Decide exactly where the audience is by placing the several empty chairs in the audience section.
2. Decide where you will be sitting before you get up to give your talk.
All of us have individual ways of sitting the chair although the way we sit is likely to change according to the situation. Accomplish public speaker may sit in a chair in many different ways, ways that often reveal something about there personality.
The purpose of the following exercise is to teach you to resist the impulse to bolt out your chair and rush to the front of the platform or group. Resistant skills can only be acquired through systematic practice. You have to train your body to slow down.
FACING THE AUDIENCE:
If you have been sitting in the audience it self you will have to turn to face the group after completing your walk forward turn slowly if you have been sitting on stage and have walked forward toward the audience come to a full stop.
Do not try to fix your eyes on the eyes of audience members. When you first begin to speak high level of excitement causes your eyes to dilate. If you try to focus on any specific person or thing at a distance this will cause enormous strain and tension on your eyes which can easily add to the emotional stress of the movement.
In this book MS. Natalie Rogers said that the untrained speaker may encounter a variety of problem when first beginning a speech. One person may talk much to fast another may stutter hesitantly while a third speak just above a whisper in an almost in audible voice. Once again overcoming such problem is a matter of training of taking things step by step. The best way to training yourself to begin a speech confidently and smoothly is to practice with a simple uncomplicated story a short but complete story that has a beginning middle and an end. In other words tell a joke or relate a humorous anecdote.
She forced that even if that case that's the case the telling of a joke anecdote remain the best method for training yourself to begin a speech. When the time comes for you to give an actual speech before a real audience you can begin your speech in a number of other ways if you don't feel comfortable telling a joke.
THE BUILDING-BLOCK APPROACH
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The Talk-Power program teaches the craft of speech writing through the use of simple formula and this formula breaks every speech into seven basic sections. Each section is worked on individually. Initially the sections are never longer than one minute of speaking time. After each section is completed, an assignment is included for a complete rehearsal. In this way we begin our training with very small units that grow longer as we complete more sections of our speech. In addition we learn how to group and categorize our ideas around one central thesis, thereby becoming familiar with the process of systematic thinking.
According to Natalie, organizing a speech in this manner reinforces our confidence, because the structure of the formula guides and directs us so specifically that it is impossible to feel overwhelmed or lost. In addition, the rules for designing a balanced, well put-together are easily learned and remembered.
This building-block approach for breaking a speech down into a series of small steps in unique to this program and has proven successful in two crucial areas.
Through a gradual series of steps, it desensitizes the fear-full speaker to the fear of public speaking.
It gives one mastery in speech-writing skills. This two-prolonged approach puts a minimum of pressure upon the student, since it conditions his or her body to respond in new and more desirable ways to the stress of speaking at the same time that it helps overcome fear of writing and delivering a talk.
Because this program deals with the issue of fear of public speaking as a perfectly natural and universal condition, the system of training makes it possible for feelings of control give hope and encouragement and are crucial to the reversal of the fear response. As we follow the systematic practice schedules that are laid out step by step, feelings of control will grow into a sense of mastery, eventually eliminating the terror that comes with the thought of having to speak in public. This is the secret of the program and why it had succeeded where conventional methods have failed.
The Talk-Power approach has been extraordinarily successful in helping people to overcome their fear of public speaking and in turning out speakers who look and sound professional. For that reason this book has been organized to duplicate the structure of actual training seminars. To that end, each chapter contains a sequential aspect or step of the program's formula plus instructions for writing and rehearsal of that step. As we follow the assignment outlined in each chapter, we will find that a gradual desensitization process begins to shape and change our fear response into Talk-Power.
HOW TO BEGIN TO WRITE THE SPEECH?
In following the material below first choose the topic for the speech. Having a definite topic in mind will help you focus more concretely on the explanation an exercise presented.
Choose a topic that falls into one of the following categories:
A talk or speech you might be called on to make as part of your job.
A talk or speech you might be asked to give before an organization or club you belong to.
A talk or speech asking people to support a political candidate or lobbing organization.
A talk or speech asking people to spoke a charity.
An inspirational talk or speech.
A talk or speech about something you particularly enjoy doing.
A talk or speech about your favorite restaurant.
A talk or speech is an important opportunity for you to charge your audience with the kind of confidence and enthusiasm that motivates them to move on your recommendations. Your vision of exactly what it is that you would like them to do is essential to this process. Without this articulated vision you run the risk of an energy inhibited presentation.
If you feel truly uncomfortable with the idea of beginning your speech with the joke, or if a joke dose not seem appropriate to the occasion there are other kinds of introductions you can use. For instance, you might well prefer to use a different approach for a business presentation. Business presentations may differ from other public speaking situations in several ways. You may be speaking to a small group consisting of people who know one another to some degree. There may be no need to set those who are listening to you at ease or you may feel that joke would seem frivolous and put you in a bad light.
In most speaking situations however including business addresses before large groups some kind of introductions should precede the topic sentence.
A PAUSE AFTER YOUR INTRODUCTION:
After the last word of your introductory remark you will need a brief pause or a rest period. This is done by not speaking and silently counting to five. This pause allows you to let go of some tension and allows for a brief transition period before you go on to the next idea in using the top power action for MULA you will find that a rest period is called for after each section is completed. Once you have finished your introduction your audience should be ready to listen. You will have given every one the few movements needed to take you in and settle down.
GETTING YOUR MESSAGE ACROSS (THE TOPIC SENTENCE AND THESIS SENTENCE)
The topic sentence always follows the last line of your joke. The purpose of the topic sentence is to point you and your audience in the general direction your talk is headed. The topic sentence should be like the title of a book short. It is simply a title or head line with out explanation. Keeping the topic sentence as short as possible will discourage any tendency you have to wander, drift or lose control. It is a simple direction sign functioning some what like a street sign.
The wrong topic sentences are all too long, too complicated and give too much information. Length, complexity and excess information hinder clear communication with the listening audience.
Your thesis sentence is the most important sentence in your talk. It is the one idea you would like your audience to hear and remember clearly. It is your main point of view, the spine or central pillar of your presentation.
A thesis is a powerful idea that moves in one direction. It is like a spine attached to one pair of legs. If you have two spines with two different set of legs, the movement would be in two different directions and the result chaotic.
The placement of this thesis sentence is crucial to the success of your talk, because:
It gives the audience a path to travel.
If you tell the audience where you are going, they will help you get there.
A sense of security develops in the audience when they have a firm, clear grasp of what it is you mean to say and what it is you wish them to do.
There is much greater willingness to trust a person who declares his intensions early on in the game.
It becomes the frame of reference for all the other remarks you make. As a result, there can be little opportunity for misunderstanding.
HOW TO GET PEOPLE TO CARE (THE BACKGROUND SECTION):
The background follows directly after your thesis sentence. It should contain a maximum of 150 words and a minimum of 75 words. No matter how long your speech will be the purpose of the background is to make a personal connection between you and your audience. If you humanize yourself when making a speech your audience will be come more interested in what you are going to say about your topic more receptive to your thesis. Just as your entrance remark allows the audience time to adjust to your physical or vocal presence so the background gives the audience a chance to know you a little. It gives them a chance to begin to identify with you. Without that kind of identification your audience will be less receptive to the facts and figures you present in the main body of your speech.
HOW TO THINK SYSTEMATICALLY (THE POINT SECTION):
Barbara G. avoiding any kind of public speaking. This is difficult to do because Barbara works for the educational department of a government agency where the presentations and seminar are frequent. Barbara was told by her teachers and friends that when she got up to speak her talks seemed endless. So, Barbara took public speaking courses in which she was taught how to develop the main point in the body of her speech. But this information has not been too helpful. Although Barbara is quiet intelligent. She continuous to feel that her talks are too long, of the track & boring and she still has no idea how to organize her points.
Barbara has sorted her problems by making sure she will never have to expose her self by talking in public. By using the talk power system, however even someone like Barbara can learn to write a speech that presents facts and statistics in a controlled way, so that each makes its points instead of being just one more item on an endless list of information.
There are few points for how to think systematically which are as follow:
Brainstorming is a process for coming up with as many creative ideas as freely & as quickly as possible in a given time frame. Without passing judgment on any of the ideas.
In selecting your points do not exceed seven points. Seven point including your climax no matter how long your speech is, this is not an arbitrary member. It is based on the amount of information that the human brain can absorb at a given time.
DEVELOPING YOUR POINTS:
Once you have chosen your points write out on separate cards all of the information that falls under the heading of each point. Work on card at a time, as if it works at independent unit. Put your information into and easily followed logical order.
PUTTING YOUR POINT IN ORDER:
When you have finished developing each of your points in turn gather all of your cards together and read them through to certain they are arranged in a dynamic order. From least exciting to most exciting. Number each card in accordance with the order you decide on.
How to say Good Bye? Saying good bye is often a problem. Perhaps you have experienced the jolt of listening to a speaker who suddenly out of nowhere uttered an abrupt "thank you" and left the stage with the speech of a frightened rabbit. A more common experience is to be forced to listen to final remarks that gone endlessly and the speaker sorts through the odds and ends of left over nods clutched in his hands talking himself to death and his audience into insensibility.
The lake of understanding about how to say good bye when speaking in public is in some ways curious. After all most people know perfectly then how to conclude a business letter or a telephone call. The explanation for the difficulties the same people encounter when making a speech once again lies in the strangeness of the public speaking experience thus, as with the other sections of a speech, knowing exactly what needs to be accomplish in making a conclusion and having clear definite rules to follow in carrying out that intension can spell the difference between a graceful exit and a meandering or overly abrupt one. The purpose of your conclusion is to inform the audience that your talk is over, to give a brief summation of your past point, to repeat your thesis message and then to leave.
Natalie Rogers said that to make your presentation more effective use Visual aids. The purpose of visual aids is to add variety to your talk and to illustrate and further clarify your point of view. However if your visual are handled nervously, or if your visuals are too small to be seen comfortably by the audience, they can become hindrance than help. In considering the handling of visuals, the presentation mode must be emphasized once again. You are not operating in social mode. Therefore, the way that you pick up objects how you told them in front of an audience, and the speed at which you move a pointer across a chart or a map must be different than would be the case in a casual social situation.
You speech is your personal production. Anything that beings as an idea and makes it appearance in the world as a finished product goes through a process of production. And as any good manager can tell you, the most successful productions are envisioned, planned and scheduled with explicit goals, records & budgets.
After review a whole book finally it is conclude that Natalie Roger focus on those people who are confused to perform their presentation at front of audience. In her book she thoroughly discussed the problems which faced by people in real life. She also gave the solutions to give presentation at front of audience. She made all of her work in group facilitation, psychotherapist training, personal growth, and communication. She has developed and teaches a certificate program for psychotherapists, educators, mental health workers, artists and others within Say brook Graduate School. Natalie H. Rogers the founder and president of Talk Power Seminars, is a Behavioral Psychotherapist and a Fellow in the Department of Psychiatry, Cornell Medical College. Her skill and knowledge of the principles of behavior modification are key factors in the scientific validation of this unique program. If we work on all these steps which she discusses in her book really it become easier to give presentation at front of audience.
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