psychology

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Music Therapy in the Education Service

Warwick, A. (1995) ‘Music Therapy in the Education Service: Research with Autistic Children and their mothers’, in Wigram, T., Saperston, B. and West, R. (ed.) The Art & Science of Music Therapy: A Handbook. Switzerland: Harwood Academic, PP.209-225.

This material focuses on the relationship between music therapy and music education from two angles: music therapy in school education and music therapy in family education. The author states that ‘music therapy and music education should be complementary’ (p.210), namely, the roles of teachers and therapist should be combination. Also considered is ‘good communication between school and home is vital, the education must allow for teacher contact time with therapist, parents and children.’ (p.224) Except introduction and conclusion, this article includes another five sections: Development of Music Therapy in Oxfordshire, The challenge of Autism, The Role of Music for the Autistic Child, The Research Project, Case Study: Richard and Pat.

In this source, the author’s point of view is quite distinct, particularly, some specific projects and cases are used to illustrate and support the point (which is mentioned before) made. Such as author’s own applied experience when the author was a music teacher and as a music therapy: a case about a mother and her son shows how the family education and music therapy relationship provide a more consistent environment to children. In this way, it attempts to provide persuasive presentation of the issues which help the reader to consider the author’s points of view. Yet, it seems that the article just concentrates on positive aspect of combining education and therapy, therefore, the reader could know this topic from one aspect, and it might be lack of negative aspect about the topic.

This article is useful and valuable: firstly, it provides much more useful empirical detail; moreover, this topic is specific, fresh and attractive, especially in terms of comparing the difference between music therapy and music education. While this article might be suitable for someone who wants to be a music therapist or parents, because it links music education and music therapy together. This chapter is the distinct in the literature because it explores therapy in a wider educational contact.

Schalkwijk, F (1994) ‘Care Through the Medium of Music—Making’, in Schalkwijk, F. (ed.) Music and People with Developmental Disabilities: Music Therapy, Remedial Music Making and Music Activities. London and Bristol, Pennsylvania: Jessica Kingsley, PP.7-31.

This book is about the care for people through music. In this article, there are three forms of working with music have been described: music activities, remedial music—making and music therapy. The distinction is made between these three forms of care. The author states that ‘musical activates is education and development by means of and in music, while, the activity takes a central place and no specific responsibility for the music therapist.’ (p.15) However, music therapy has no connection with the level of musical activities, and the therapist has to own the special skills and the knowledge. ‘Remedial music—making is a matter of how to handle musical tools and client relationship.’ (p.25) It is a little similar with music therapy. ‘The music therapist also has insight into how to handle methodically a therapeutic relationship.’ (p.27) Some detailed examples are used to illustrate and support the concepts and points made which help the reader to consider each of three forms and to compare the differences between them clearly.

Moreover, the special part in this article is that many logical separate points are listed in different sections. In this way, it attempts to provide a brief and distinct presentation. Furthermore, quotes from people with different viewpoints included which help the reader to consider from different angles of the issue. Yet, the weakness of this article might be there are a few examples, namely, lack of practical projects or cases; generally, it only offers some simple examples. In addition, the published time of this article is old, thus many modern and new information could not be involved.

This article benefits from three specific definitions. It provides many useful and fresh points on this topic. Overall, by virtue of its scope and accessibility, this resource constitutes a responsible and detailed addition on music therapy from the aspect of care through the music.

Skewes, K (2002.7) A Review of Current Practice in Group Music Therapy Improvisations, Journal of British Journal of Music Therapy, 16(1), PP.47-55.

This material focuses on ‘music therapy group improvisation’. (p.46) The new information was offered through the current author who is an Australia music therapist who had the opportunity to interview a number of music therapy pioneers who outside her own country, such as Britain, America. The information in this article is diverse and insightful. In this article, there is the similarities of opinion between those interviewed, for instance, it states that ‘music therapy group improvisations are a powerful tool for working with groups of clients who do not communicate successfully using verbal means.’ (p.46) However, each specialist has their own unique ideas which were influenced by their own experience. And they wish ‘to have their opinions published is greatly appreciated by the current author and hope to be a vital influence on group music therapy improvisation practice in the future.’ (p.54).

On the one hand, the strength of this article is that in order to organise the logistics of the interviews, the author offers the table which to display the interview of music therapists who come from New York and London area. In this way, the reader could catch the information and different points clearly and quickly. Moreover, the attractive point in this article is that the author used the way of interview and list the question, answer. Instead of usual method, the article would be more interesting in this way. Furthermore, this article is a current one, thus it includes latest information. On the other hand, the weakness of this article in its lack of a clear identified as it is not entirely evident what constitutes reside the point of view about music therapy group improvisations. There are only various opinions, even no author’s point of view.

This material will be useful in terms of thinking method, especially organizing information logically.

Aldridge, G (2000) ‘Improvisation as an Assessment of Potential in Early Alzheimer’s Disease’, in Aldridge, D. (ed.) Music Therapy in Dementia care: More New Voices. London and Philadelphia: Jessica Kingsley, PP.139-165.

This chapter discusses the phenomenon in terms of ‘the value of music therapy for the sufferers of Alzheimer’s disease’ (p.139) It says ‘there are two principal ways of doing music therapy: activities music therapy and passive music therapy.’ (p.139) The evidence of this article suggests that ‘quality of life of Alzheimer’s patients is significantly improved with music therapy.’ (p.162) While one of the contributors states that music therapy plays an essential role in daily life to enhance the ability to take part in actively. However, the author argues that ‘the improvisation of music would fail in the same way in which language fails.’ (p.161) In addition, a specific case study with some different pieces of figure are provided for explain music and therapy are ‘interlinked’ (p.146) and ‘music is the vehicle for the therapy.’ (p.146) In this way, the analysis of music and music therapy makes Aldridge’s point of view more attractive and vivid, while, making it possible to discover how the patients are influenced by music in music therapy.

Although quotes from people with different viewpoints are included which help the reader to consider this issue, and at last the article does not present some detail of argument. It only offers the different points of view by author and other contributors.

This article could be useful for me in terms of thinking about the issues involved. Especially it also provides some helpful music figures.

Bunt, L and Pavlicevic, M (2001) ‘Music and Emotion: Perspectives from Music Therapy’, in Juslin, N.Patrik and Sloboda, A. John. (ed.) Music and Emotion: Therapy and research. New York: Oxford University. PP.181-201.

This material focuses on the relationship between music and emotion in terms of what is generally called ‘improvisational music therapy’ (p.181) to explore how a music therapist to receive patients’ emotional by music. The author states that ‘an emotional response to music is a basic aspect of music therapy and it appears as a central link for people of all ages with wide-ranging clinical needs.’ (p.197) There are main sections involved: some general background to music therapy, a summary of a study that how music therapy are able to judge emotion by listening to short improvisations and to explore music with patients in music therapy by examining recent work on early infant development.

On one hand, this chapter provides table and figure to show the various ‘parameters’ used by music therapists in different emotions. In this way, more detailed cases and examples are used to illustrate and support the points made which help the reader to consider the main point of this article. While, there is recently research, thus the reader could know the latest information. On the other hand, some sections of the article are general, not accurate, such as music material in therapy, receptive approaches. Detailed or specific concepts, evidences are not offered.

This material could be helpful for me only as it can provide various aspects which I can know how various emotion is effected by music therapy.

10 other items

Elizabeth Scott, M. S. (2007) ‘Music and Your Body: How Music Affects Us and Why Music Therapy Promotes Health. Available at: < http: //stress. about. com/od/tensiontamers/a/music_therapy. htm > (Accessed: January 2007).

Jones, P. (2000) ‘Music Therapy in the Later Middle Ages: The Case of Hugo van der Goes’, in Horden, P. (ed.) Music as Medicine: The History of Music Therapy Since Antiquity. England and USA, Ashgate, PP. 120-144.

Mayer, L. (1956) ‘Note on Image Processes, Connotations and Moods’, in Mayer, B. L. (ed.) Emotion and Meaning in music. Chicago and London, the University of Chicago, PP. 256-272.

Darnley-Smith, R. and Patey, H. (2003) ‘Improvisation’, in Smith, D.R.(ed.) Music Therapy: creative Therapy in Practice. London, California and New Delhi: SAGE, PP. 71-89.

Bunt, L. (1994) ‘Music therapy and child health’, in Bunt, L. (ed.) Music Therapy: An Art Beyond Words. London: Routledge, PP. 75-108.

Richards, E. (2007) ‘What bit of my head is talking now?’ : music therapy with people learning disabilities and mental illness, in Watson, T. (ed.) Music therapy with Adults with learning Disabilities. New York and Canada: Routledge. PP. 58-70.

Oldfield, A. (2006) ‘Music therapy Research’, in Oldfield, A. (ed.) Interactive Music therapy in Child and family Psychiatry: Clinical Practice, Research and Teaching. London and Philadelphia: Jessica Kingsley. PP. 110-122.

Wigram, T. (2004) ‘Basic therapeutic Methods and Skills’ in Wigram, T. (ed.) Improvisation: Methods and Techniques for music therapy Clinicians, Educators and Students. London and New York: Jessica Kingsley. PP. 81-109.

De Silva, S. (2006) ‘Music therapy’ in Hunter-Carsch, M., Tiknaz, Y., Cooper, P. and Sage, R. (ed.) The Handbook of Social, Emotional and Behavioural and Difficulties. London and New York: Tower Building and Maiden Lane. PP. 199-204.

Magee, W. (1999) ‘Music Therapy in Chronic Degenerative illness: Reflecting the Dynamic Sense of Self’ in Aldridge, D. (ed.) Music therapy in Palliative care: new voices. London and Philadelphia: Jessica Kingsley. PP. 82-94.


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