Erikson, maslow and newman: compare, contrast and apply
Several developmental theories have been put forward by different theorists. Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs theory, Erik Erikson’s psychosocial theory and Newman-Newman life stage theory are good examples of such theories. Apart from application into our life developmental stages, some of these theories are also often applied in management of employees. Maslow’s hierarchy of needs is largely applied by managers in order for them to understand the needs that are more important for their employees. In his model, he shows that there are low level (physiological) needs that we must satisfy first before we move to actualization level. Erik Erikson’s model on the other hand has eight stages of development and his ideas were largely influenced by Freud. Erikson’s theory pays much attention to culture influence on people’s behavior and thus his theory sheds more light on external world influence like wars and depression (Harder, 2009). Newman-Newman life stage theory studies life span using a chronological approach and most of his ideas are drawn from Erikson’s psychosocial theory. People often use these theories and apply them into their life stages. It’s true that for individual’s dealing with horrendous childhood circumstances, they often have problems to negotiate later life stages. For example, an orphan stroked or who wasn’t held while he was an infant experience difficulties to connect with others when he becomes an adult. The objective of this paper is to describe the aforementioned three theories and later apply Erikson’s psychosocial theory and Maslow’s hierarchy of needs in our life stages.
It was in 1943 when psychologist Abraham Maslow put forward his hierarchy of needs concept in a paper titled “A Theory of Human Motivation.” Subsequently, he produced his famous book “Motivation and Personality” and these two contain his ideas on how we are motivated so that we may fulfill our basic needs before we proceed to other needs. His hierarchy of needs is often displayed in form of a pyramid. The lowest levels of this pyramid consist of our basic needs while at the highest levels we have the complex needs. Basic needs at the bottom of the pyramid include warmth, food, sleep and water. According to Boeree (2006), when these physical requirements are met, we move to the next level in the pyramid to look for security and safety needs. This is a theory that indicates that the more a person progresses up the pyramid the more our needs become social and psychological. Need for friendship, intimacy and love become important as we progress up the pyramid.
According to Davis and Haverford (1995), Erik Erikson’s psychosocial theory on psychosocial development states that a child develops in a predetermined order. There are eight distinct stages in this theory and every stage has possible outcomes. A child who completes one stage successfully is capable of completing other stages in the development. Where there is successful completion of these stages, such a child has a healthy personality and his/her social interactions are good. A child who fails to successfully complete these stages has reduced ability and his/her personality is unhealthy. Such a child is incapable of socializing with peers. The eight stages in this theory are present at birth implicitly and they unfold according to an innate scheme and the way the child is brought up in his/her family in expression of culture values. One stage builds on the preceding one paving way for subsequent stages in the theory. In every stage, a person has a mixture of traits that he/she attains. Personality development in this theory is considered successful when a person has less “bad” traits and more “good” traits.
Newman and Newman life stage theory takes a chronological approach in studying our life span. Most of the ideas in this theory are drawn from Erik Erikson’s psychosocial theory. It addresses intellectual, physical, emotional and social growth in all the life stages and its main focus is placed on the idea that our development is as a result of interdependence of all these areas. This theory also places emphasis on optimal development in an individual’s life (he37.insurefinancexpense.com, 2006).
Section 1 (literature review)
Maslow’s Hierarchy of needs
Maslow’s hierarchy of needs is a motivation and personality theory developed by Abraham H. Maslow (1908-1970). His hierarchy explains our behavior in terms of basic requirements for growth and survival. The needs in Maslow’s hierarchy are described and arranged according to their power to motivate a person and their importance for survival. Basic physical requirements like oxygen, water and food are at the lowest level of this hierarchy. These are the needs that a person must first satisfy before proceeding to the others. Those needs at the lowest level of the Maslow’s hierarchy are important for a person’s physical requirements. According to researchers, the needs at the lowest levels are more oriented towards a person’s physical survival as opposed to the high level needs that are more oriented towards his/her growth and psychological well-being. Needs at the higher levels of the hierarchy are less likely to motivate a person and these are more influenced by the individual’s life experiences and formal education. The result is a pyramid that depicts this hierarchy as a pyramid of needs where the individual’s physical and survival needs are at the base while at the top of the same pyramid, we have the self-actualization needs. According to Boeree (2006), this theory was developed in the 1940s and remains valid even today in understanding certain concepts such as personal development, management training and human motivation. Even in employment avenues, the hierarchy of needs is so relevant that employers are expected to provide a workplace environment that enables and encourages employees in fulfilling their unique potentials.
Needs motivates all of us and the most basic needs a person has are inborn. According to Carpenito-Moyet (2003), Maslow’s hierarchy of needs explains how the needs motivate all of us. Each need must first be satisfied starting with the first in the hierarchy. It’s only after the lower needs of the hierarchy are satisfied that an individual can proceed to the higher order needs. The theory explains that once the things satisfying the low level needs in the hierarchy are swept away, a person is no longer concerned about maintenance of higher level needs. Five levels are specified in this hierarchy. Physiological needs are in the first level. This level ahs several essentials such as shelter, sleep, food, oxygen and water. In case where one is unable to meet them, he’/she will focus only on satisfying the low level needs and ignore the rest in the hierarchy. The second level consists of the safety needs and they follow if the physical needs of water, food and clothing have first been met. Needs in this level comprise of world predictability and a sense of security. A person in this level tries as much as he/she can to maintain conditions allowing him/her to avoid any danger and feel safe. If needs in this stage are inadequately fulfilled, a person may experience neurotic behavior and some emotional problems as seen in some people. Once our safety and physiological needs are met, we crave for belongings and love. This is where a person longs for an intimate relationship with another. There is also need to belong to a given group and feel you are appreciated. At this level, Maslow explained that needs involved love giving and receiving. The fourth level involves esteem needs and these include esteem of others and self-esteem. Self-esteem means that a person is feeling independent, competent and worthwhile while esteem for others means that a person has the feelings that other people appreciate and respect him/her. These are needs that can only be satisfied if the basic needs have been satisfied. In this level, a person’s focus is not only about survival but it also involves doing well in relation to communal standards that are meaningful. The last level involves self-actualization. At this level, a person’s needs are associated with realization of full potential. The moment these needs emerge, a person only focuses on those things he/she is meant to do in his/her life. The focus is to develop careers to the fullest (Chang and & Hsiao, 2006).
Strengths and weaknesses of Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs
Psychological though of the 20th century is characterized by three waves: humanistic, behavioral and psychodynamic philosophies all of which have been the dominant topics in the dialogue. Maslow as a psychologist is associated with the field of humanist psychology but it has been found that other major theorists in the three aforementioned waves influenced him and thus between 1930 and 1970, he made groundbreaking contributions in all the three fields. His contribution especially in the development of Hierarchy of needs continue to motivate, inform and challenge other areas of scholarship such as motivation, personality and human development. A theory that constitutes the thoughts of several key thinkers has high reliability and validity. Maslow’s hierarchy of needs has its roots in the field of social sciences with contributions from several theorists’ ideas. Several key functionalist thinkers provided the ground for this theory such as Dewey, James, Fromm (1941), Freud (1920, 1923), Horney (1937, 1939) and Goldstein (1939). Due to its relevance, the field of clinical psychology has widely utilized this theory. The business sector has also used it widely since it was developed in the 1940s. Since those years, it has become one of the frequently cited theories in the fields of organizational behavior and management in business institutions. Maslow’s Hierarchy of needs is a theory that conforms to experimental, observational and clinical evidence since its publication. Self actualization concept was explored severally by him through chapters like cognition, normality, love and psychological health. This made the theory more flexible, valid and responsive model of personality, motivation and human behavior. It’s a theory that describes social sciences development since Maslow’s revisions of his theory were due to motivations emanating from advancements in knowledge, further reflection, empirical studies, rigorous analysis and other new paradigms and theories. Probably another major strength of this theory lies in the fact that it is a hierarchy of needs representing a vital shift in psychology. This is so because Maslow’s hierarchy of needs bases its focus on development of healthy people rather than basing his focus on abnormal behavior and development.
Chang and Hsiao (2006), states that several researches have not been in a position to substantiate the hierarchy of needs idea despite others showing massive support for it. Historically, there is little evidence that the needs involved in his hierarchy are in a hierarchical order and moreover, very little evidence is available in ranking of needs. It’s difficult to test the definition of self-actualization scientifically in relation to the way Maslow defined it. When he was conducting research on self-actualization, he focused on a limited sample of personalities. This included mainly those people he knew and biographies of other individuals who were famous during his times such as Eleanor Roosevelt and Albert Einstein. These are individuals he believed that they were already self-actualized.
Erikson’s Psychosocial Theory
According to Lowis and Brown (2003),this theory was first published in 1950 in a book titled Childhood and Society. The chapter with this theory was titled ‘The Eight Ages of Man.’ He used the word psychosocial which was coined from two words psychological (mind) and social (relationships). According to him, this theory applies to all and the psychosocial principle involved in it is something that is genetically inevitable for any human being. Erikson and his wife Joan were psychoanalysts and writers who were mainly interested in childhood development and the emerging effects on people when they grew up. This is a theory that has been relevant since it was developed. Most of the ideas contained therein are relevant today especially due to the current pressures on different societies, quest for our individual development and fulfillment and the pressures in family and relationships. These have made the ideas described in Erikson’s theory to be more relevant than before. His theory asserts that there are eight psychosocial crisis stages that every person experiences and they affect individual’s personality and development. Psychosocial crisis is what is what is refereed to in Erikson’s theory. Sigmund Freud used the word ‘crisis’ and what Erikson developed was just an extension of it. This is a term that describes an individual’s internal emotional conflict. Internal emotional conflict is a challenge or an internal struggle and this must be negotiated and dealt with by every individual in order for him/her to develop and grow. In all the eight stages, there are two opposing emotional forces. Erikson used the term ‘contrary dispositions’ to refer to it. According to Harder (2009), every crisis stage corresponds to an individual’s life stage and the inherent challenges. The word ‘syntonic’ is used to refer to the first positive disposition listed in every crisis while ‘dystonic’ refers to the second negative disposition listed. “Versus” is the word that was used to show the conflicting and opposing relationship between a given pair of dispositions. The moment an individual passes through a crisis successfully, he/she achieves balance or a healthy ratio between the conflicting dispositions. As an example, a healthy ratio in crisis stage 1 (trust v mistrust) may be described as growing through the crisis ‘Trust’ (our life and future development) and experiencing a healthy capacity for ‘Mistrust’ in a position where we are not gullible or unrealistic and not to be mistrustful of everything. The balanced outcomes are referred to as ‘basic strengths’ or ‘basic values.’ In every crisis stage there is a word that is used to refer to the fundamental strength or virtue and these are evident in his works and many other explanations from other theorists.
In case an individual unsuccessfully passes a crisis stage, he/she develops tendency towards opposing forces (syntonic or dystonic). This later becomes a mental problem or a behavioral tendency. An extreme tendency towards the first disposition (syntonic) is referred to as ‘maladaptation’ and every stage has a specific word that was identified to represent identified maladaptation. On the other hand, an extreme tendency towards the second disposition (dystonic) is referred to as ‘malignancy’ and each stage has an identified word that represents the malignancy. Other researchers have shown that Erikson gave emphasis on the ‘generativity’ and ‘mutuality’ significance when he was developing his theory. Mutuality refers to the effect a given generation has on others and this especially among family institutions. These effects are usually between parents and their children and grandchildren. Every person passing through the crisis stages affects the experiences of others. Generativity reflects the relationship between adults and the interests of young ones or all other generations. This theory asserts that each generation affects others. A child’s psychosocial development is influenced by the parent and in the same process a parent’s psychosocial development is also affected due to pressures produced and the experience they have in dealing with the child. This is the same case for our grandparents. This is what helps to explain why teachers, grandparents or siblings as parents normally struggle to deal properly with a young person just like the way it is for us to deal with our own emotional challenges. Development in this theory peaks at the seventh stage since the last stage is all about coming into terms with the manner in which one made use of his life. It is at the eighth stage where a person tries to live at peace.
After the death of Erikson, his wife Joan developed the ninth stage of this psychosocial theory. In this stage, the previous resolved crises are confronted again. Using the first stage of basic trust versus mistrust as an example, trust as the syntonic element supports potential for development since an infant has ego strength of trust if this stage is resolved favorably. But in later life as awareness grows on physical and mental decline, the increasing frailness in a person as he ages cause him to lose trust in his ability to maintain independence and thus this is a crisis at this age involving the same previous feature. Joan Erikson thus used this stage to place emphasis on importance of recognizing that tension and conflict may be a source of strength and growth (Lowis & Brown, 2003).
Strengths and Weaknesses of Erikson’s psychosocial theory
Every concept has its critics but Erikson’s psychosocial theory is considered to be so significant. This theory was generated by a theorist who was both a humanitarian and a psychoanalyst. This translates that one of the chief potency of this theory is that it may be used beyond psychoanalysis concepts. We can apply Erikson’s theory in development and self-awareness of oneself as well as for others. Erikson’s model has a strong element of Sigmund Freud. This means that fans of Freud work may find this influence interesting to them. For those who disagree with the ideas of Freud especially on the psychosexual theory, they may ignore the aspect derived from Freud and still find that the aspect of Erikson alone is useful enough. This is a theory that stands alone without dependence on Freud to demonstrate its relevance and robustness. Erikson not only developed his theory from Freudian psychoanalysis but he also depended on practical field research which he conducted on Native American communities and clinical therapy in leading universities and mental health centers. His theory incorporates social and cultural aspects since he had strong compassion and interest for young people. His research was mainly carried out on human societies and thus it was not focused on the world of psychoanalysts which is inward-looking. The eight stages are so accessible and so relevant to our modern life especially in understanding and explaining behavior and personality development in people. Due to this, his theory is useful in managing and coaching, understanding self and the rest, parenting, teaching and when dealing with conflict.
There is a weakness in Erikson’s eight stages since in some cultures timing for ages of development may be off when compared to his eight stages. A good example is in toilet training. There are some cultures where children are toilet trained when they are nine months old while in others, they are toilet trained after several years. Some children in other cultures may also be breastfed until they are five years. There is deficiency in this theory since more time should have been paid to our adult lifetime. Despite being described as entire-life theory, more attention was paid to childhood and infancy.
Difference between Newman and Newman life stage theory and Erikson’s psychosocial theory
Erikson’s psychosocial theory explains changes occurring in our self-understanding and social relationships. Erikson manages to explain this through description of relationship between societal, biological and psychological development and the connection with an individual’s relationship with his/her society. In his theory, Erikson states that where conflict arises in an adolescent and is not resolved this occurs in later stages (Kishton, 1994). A past conflict may arise in other life experiences. On the other hand, Newman and Newman use a chronological approach to study our life span. To develop their theory they have however drawn from the theory of Erik Erikson in order to come up with a framework. Their works mainly address social, emotional, intellectual and physical growth in all human beings life stages. Their main focus is the idea that our development is due to the interdependence in of the mentioned areas in all life span stages. Their version places special emphasis on our life’s optimal development. Newman and Newman life stage theory contains 11 stages of development which are in an ordered sequence. From this version, developmental tasks are due to interactions of societal, psychological and biological systems in every stage. There is a normal crisis that arises in each stage with a central process always operating to resolve this. There is an addition of new research on psychosocial constructs which includes shame and guilt, hope, wisdom and expertise, fidelity v group belonging, hope and will versus effortful control.
Newman and Newman life stage theory is actually a revision of Erik Erikson’s psychosocial theory and extends the developmental stages from eight to eleven. A lot of psychographical materials is used in coming up with this theory (Newman, 2006). The emphasis in Newman and Newman life stage theory is on descriptions of issues in development which mainly pertains to alte life, outcomes, the ego strengths and life tasks. Erik Erikson’s psychosocial theory gives eight stages of development and a ninth one that was added by Joan Erikson with their stages most concentrated in the childhood stages of development while the chronological approach applied by Newman and Newman draws mainly in adult development. Newman and Newman use human growth and development in the theory as from conception to adult life and it mainly apply a biopsychosocial framework (Kishton, 1994).
Section 2 (self-evaluation)
Applying Maslow’s hierarchy to my life stages
At this stage, the student develops relationship with the mother. Needs at this level are mainly sleeping, warmth, comfort and to be breastfed. These are the biological and physical needs of the student while the major issues here include teething. The student successfully passed this stage because of his hardworking parents and thus physiological needs such as warmth were well provided for.
Toddlerhood (2-3 yrs):
The student’s need for safety emerge. The student now seeks security from both parents not only from the mother as in infancy. For safety reasons, this is the stage where the student seeks to be toilet-trained; emphasis is also placed on muscular control, bodily functions and walking. The student successfully reaches this level to be toilet trained if there is a close relationship with the mother. It becomes a barrier to progress to this stage if there is separation between the infant and the mother. The domestic violence in the student’s backyard was a great barrier to achieving the safety need required in order to move on to the next stage. In such a case, the student mostly clings to the mother for protection.
Early school age (4-6 yrs):
This is where the student is in pre-school age. The student develops family relationships with main emphasis to seek love and belongingness. Adventure, discovery, play and exploration are the student’s main focus. Main barrier to reach this stage successfully is failure to attain enough personal security in the preceding stage. Students who fail to get this security that may successfully be attained through walking, muscular control are unable to explore, play and to be adventurous since these are some of the requirements to reach this stage. Domestic violence hindered the student from proper development of relationships.
Middle childhood (6-12 yrs):
Self esteem needs emerge. This is a schoolchild at this level whose relationships are with the neighborhood, schoolmate and teachers. Students who properly get safety needs from both parents reach this stage successfully. The main barrier to reach here is inability to explore the world since self esteem is built on capability to adventure and explore. Student’s main issues are accomplishments and achievement and only when these are met that self esteem may be attained.
Early adolescence (12-18 yrs):
The student seeks esteem needs even more. At this moment he is an adolescent whose relationships are with peers. There is a lot of per and group influence. Barriers to development of relationships with peers at this stage mainly come from poor orientation in the early school age (4-6yrs) where the student was supposed to seek love and belongingness through play and exploration. Adventurous students at the third stage reach this stage successfully. The student at this stage is now becoming a grown up.
Later adolescence (18-40 yrs):
The student is now a young adult. Relationships are developed with workmates, lovers and friends. According to Carpenito-Moyet (2003), this is a level where one may also be in mid adult-hood and one seeks to have children, to help, to contribute in the community, have intimate relationships and a social life. Self-actualization is the main goal and a student seeks to accomplish and fully develop his careers. Successful actualization is barred by failure to develop self esteem. Regression occurs for students at this level and they find themselves not developing their careers but instead trying to develop their self-esteem. Many mid adults are negotiating for this stage since they don’t have enough self-esteem. The student has experienced divorce twice since there is a problem with trusting people easily. Development of relationships is a big problem to the student since this mostly depends on events that took place in earlier life stages. Domestic violence and the need to have control all around him must be other major hindrances since few people may appreciate to be contained in such an environment.
Applying Erik Erikson’s psychosocial theory to my life stages
Basic Trust vs. Mistrust (0-1yrs):
Wallerstein (1998) indicates that the infant’s main event is feeding. Sense of trust develops successfully because the caregivers are there to provide affection, care and reliability. Lack of this makes an infant to develop mistrust. The student’s parents worked a lot and thus they didn’t have enough time with him. Failure to have comfort from both parents affected the student and thus developed mistrust.
Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt (1-3yrs):
Most important event for the student is toilet training. The student needs to develop sense of personal control on his/her physical skills. There is also need to develop a sense of independence. Success in this stage leads to autonomy but failure results in doubt and feelings of shame. Barrier in this stage is development of mistrust in trust vs. mistrust level.
Initiative vs. Guilt (3-6 yrs):
Most important event is exploration. The student starts exerting power and control over his surrounding environment. Success leads to a sense of purpose. For students who exert a lot of power, they experience disapproval and this result in guilt. Residual conflict over initiative is normally expressed as a hysterical denial and this causes repression of child’s wish which may include showing off, overcompensation, inhibition and paralysis. An oedipal stage may result and this sets direction towards tangible and possible. This permits the student to have early childhood dreams and these may be attached to an active adult’s life.
Industry vs. Inferiority (6-12yrs):
This is schooling stage. A student is required to cope with new academic and social demands. Success in this stage results in a sense of competence and if the student fails there are feelings of inferiority. The student develops technological fundamentals. A student who looses “industrious” association hopes is pulled back to the less conscious rivalry and isolated oedipal life time. Any student who unsuccessfully passes this stage becomes a thoughtless slave and a conformist who is easily exploited by his/her peers. Failure to develop a clear picture of how one appears to others or where a student feels his appearance to others is not pleasing; this creates a barrier to successfully pass this stage.
Identity vs. Role Confusion (12-18):
Development of social relationships is the main event for a student in this stage. A student seeks to develop personal identity and sense of self. According to the Journal of the American psychoanalytic Association (1998), success in this stage makes the student to stay true to him/her while failure results in a weak self sense and role confusion. Barrier to successfully pass this stage is due to being pulled back to oedipal time. Such a student fails to successfully identify himself in front of others and this may result to inability to settle in a school setting. Successful students in this stage are those who escape role confusion. Development of mistrust in the first stage is a major barrier to development of proper relationships for this student.
Intimacy vs. Isolation (20s):
Development of relationships is the student’s focus. These are young students who are fond of developing loving and intimate relationships with their peers. Successful passing of this stage builds strong relationships while for those who are unable to have isolation and loneliness. True and full genitality develops and severe character problems develop if isolation is the result. The student had a big problem of developing relationships since there is already a problem of mistrust that developed in the first stage due to lack of parental comfort. His parents had domestic violence and the explanation that they worked hard in the farm may give us a clear message that they didn’t have enough time with him.
Generativity vs. Stagnation (20-50):
Main event is parenthood and work. A student nurtures things that outlast them and this is achieved by coming up with positive change that influences the rest and having children. Success in this stage results in feelings of accomplishment and usefulness whereas failure leads to inadequate world involvement. Those who think that by having children they will attain generativity normally become failures. Isolation is a huge barrier to successfully pass this stage and such a student may stagnate and be left negotiating in the Intimacy vs. Isolation stage trying to re-establish himself. The student wants to successfully raise his daughter with the best norms and moral values and to provide education to them. The crisis that the student evidenced between his parents in his childhood makes him to rethink about his child’s future. This is a crisis that in one way it has helped him to look for the best way in which his children are going to grow in the best way possible.
Pros and Cons of the two theories
Maslow’s hierarchy of needs theory is the best for a student to apply in self-assessment. This is a theory that is more comprehensive and all the five stages indicate the different levels of needs in the manner that a human being seeks them. Its true that a human being will only start with the basic needs of food, warmth, shelter, sex, clothing, sleep, oxygen and water before he can move on to the next level in this hierarchy. Those who fail to get the basic needs first don’t have to seek safety, self-esteem, love and belongings and self-actualization since each preceding level determines whether the next level of needs will be satisfied. It’s only those who have attained all the first four categories of needs in Maslow’s hierarchy who may think of how to self actualize. This theory is easy for students to apply as they may look at what people arte doing in the society when seeking to satisfy their needs and understand easily. Its simplicity and easy application in a society shows the reason why it’s the best in assessment of a client’s behavior. A major advantage of Maslow’s hierarchy of needs is that instead of focusing on abnormal development and behavior of people it focuses on development of healthy people. This theory can be applied in different disciplines including management, clinical psychology and consumer behavior. Relevance and validity of this theory is however compromised by the fact that when he was conducting research on self-actualization he used personalities who were known to him and people he already believed were self actualized.
Erik Erikson’s theory is advantageous since it’s through it that we are able to understand child development as well as for adults. The efforts of this theory are to understand how behavior and personality are influenced after we are born but not before birth. This model is very simple and elegant. Since Erikson was a humanitarian and a psychoanalyst, his theory may be applied in development and personal awareness of oneself and others. The theory is beyond psychoanalysis concepts and thus application may be in several fields. According to Rose (1988), this theory has one major disadvantage: it cannot be applied in all cultures. For example, toilet training in some cultures may not happen in the same stage as in the theory. There are some cultures where children are toilet trained after several years have passed.
Developmental theories are important since they assist teachers, managers and parents to understand where their children are in terms of development. It’s through these theories that even employers have taken measures to make working environments more attractive in their efforts to maximize their outputs. By applying Maslow’s hierarchy of needs, we are able to have a clear understanding of consumer behavior in different market segments. Maslow’s hierarchy of needs may be used to determine if there are a considerable number of people in a market segment who are in self-actualization stage. As a result, such a business creates efforts to provide those commodities that are relevant to this group. It has become possible for clinical psychologists to apply the knowledge of these theories in assessing their clients and as such they can pinpoint the major hindrances to the client’s full development. Even without consulting a clinical physician, we can possibly know the developmental stage at which our children are. By doing this, we may end up focusing on giving the child the required comfort, love, training, allowing them to play, explore and be adventurous sine we have understood that failure to this we may have a child with low self-esteem. It’s therefore important that we all understand the two theories since they are significant not only in the growth and development of the young ones but also for the adults as they cover the whole life span.
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