Print Email Download Reference This Send to Kindle Reddit This
submit to reddit

In developmental psychology, childhood is divided into the developmental stages

Childhood is the age span ranging from birth to adolescence. In developmental psychology, childhood is divided up into the developmental stages of toddlerhood (learning to walk), early childhood (play age), middle childhood (school age), and adolescence (post-puberty).

When 20% of the world population is between the age of 0 to 14 years, India is rich in its children, with a child population of 440 million, about 31.1% of its population, and another 26 million being added every year, India is the youngest country in the world. As per the 1991 Census, there were 1, 98, 81,540 children (0-14 years) in Tamil Nadu, constituting 35% of the State’s total population.

Behavioral problem commonly occur during childhood. It is defined as behaviors, thought or feeling differ quantitatively from the norm, and as the result of this differences, the child is either suffering significantly or development is being significantly impaired (David Cottrell 2000).

Behavioral problems that commonly occur during childhood are attention deficit hyperactive disorder, oppositional defiant disorder, conduct disorder, mood disorder and anxiety disorder. Among these common behavioral problems, selected behavioral problems such as attention deficit hyperactive disorder, oppositional defiant disorder and conduct disorder were taken for the research study.

Numerous behaviors considered appropriate at early developmental levels, are obviously pathogenic, when they present at later age. The abnormal behaviors create problems not only for themselves, but for others also. The behavioral problems in children are monumental one. Children under 15 years of age constitute approximately one third of the world’s population and less number of children are affected by some type of behavioral problems. Malhotra , 1999.

Behaviour problems in the age group of 6-15 years and distress in adult life. Results show that 40% of children had behavioral problem. Follow up study showed 27% have disturbances in adult life. Buchanan A (2002).

Children living in residential and orphans homes are highly vulnerable than population for mental health problems and disorders because of damaging and violence experience of part which can affect relationship and identify formation , tarnishing the young person view of the world , leading to hopelessness and risk taking behaviors.

An orphan is a child permanently bereaved of their parents. In common usage, a child who has lost both parents is called an orphan. In United States a legal definition used is a minor bereft through "death or disappearance of, abandonment or desertion by, or separation or loss from, both parents".

Determining the number of orphans in orphanages as opposed to the total number of orphans worldwide will be all but impossible to determine for several reasons, the primary being a very dynamic number as children come and go to and from these orphanages as well as the lack of reporting and monitoring of orphanages in several third world countries

NEED FOR THE STUDY

Behaviour problem among children may be due to genetic factors, psychological factor or environmental factors .Although; it is very difficult to get accurate estimate of orphans’ children mental health problems. A few available epidemiological data, indicate that majority of children suffer from emotional and other behavioural problems, that warrant mental health treatment. And less number of children are seriously emotionally disturbed, who need intensive psychiatric care.

Children who are in orphanage at an early age often demonstrate delays in emotional, social and physical development. In orphanage home children at great risk for certain diseases. Institutional care may affect a child’s capacity to make smooth transitions in development stage to another throughout life. Children who are in institutions may suffer from severe behavior problem have less knowledge and become adults with psychiatric problems. Finally children raised in orphanage home are risk for learning problems ability and have more difficulty with critical thinking, establishing cause, effect and impulsivity.

Behaviour problems in the age group of 6-15 years and distress in adult life. Results show that 40% of children had behavioral problem. Follow up study showed 27% have disturbances in adult life. Buchanan A (2002).

All the children belonged to lower socio-economic class, all these findings of the present study are in agreement with the findings of a study conducted on orphanage meant for boys in Kashmir. Post-traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) was the commonest diagnosis present in 40.62% (n=13) of the sample, followed by Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) 25% (n=8), Conversion Disorder 12.5% (n=4), panic disorder 9.38% (n=3), Attention Deficit Hyperkinetic Disorder (ADHD) 6.25% (n=2) and seizure disorder 6.2% (n=2). In the earlier study PTSD was present in 16% of children (boys) in orphanages.

On personal experience of researcher as a student nurse there is a need to create awareness regarding management of behavioral problems among the orphan children. The investigator is curious to know the biological, psychological and social factors in order to reduce the complications of behavioural problems in the orphans as fear, lying, stealing and poor self-image.

STATEMENT OF PROBLEM

A study to assess the behavioral problems among the institutionalized children in a selected institution at Salem and develop a booklet for caretaker/warden to manage the behavioral problems of institutionalized children

OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY

1. To assess the behavioral problems among the samples.

2. To find association between the behavioral problems and their selected demographic variables.

3. To develop a booklet regarding management of behavioral problems.

OPERATIONAL DEFINITIONS:

1. Assess:

Refers to the process of documenting, usually in measurable terms, knowledge, skills, attitudes and beliefs

2. Orphanage

Refers to A residential initiation devoted for a care of orphans

3. Orphan

Refers to child who has lost both parents is called an orphan. In this study it refers to children at selected orphanage home at Salem.

4. Institutionalized Children:

Refers to the individuals who are having the age of 6 - 15 and living in selected orphanage home at Salem.

5. Behavioral problem

a. It is assess the response or behavior that children exhibit in relating to the state of orphan hood and is measured with interview schedule for age group of 11-15 years.

b. It is assess the response from caretaker regarding behavior problems of institutionalized children for the age group of 6-10 years.

6. Demographic Variables:

These is variable which includes age, age of entry into the institution, duration of staying in the institution, which class you studying, percentage in academic, participate in sports, anybody visit you except your family members, contact with your family members.

a. Age:

In this study the age between 6-15 years, which is divided into two groups a) 6-10 years & b) 11-15 years

b. Age of entry into the institution.

It refers the age at which child is admitted to the Institution.

c. Duration of staying in the institution

Refers to how many years the child was staying in the Institution.

d. Which class you studying?

At which class the child studying

e. Percentage in academic

It shows the academic levels with academic register.

f. Participate in sports

It refers to whether the child is interested to participate in sports.

g. Anybody visit you except your family members?

It refers to whether the child having any visitors except their family members.

h. Contact with your family members?

It refers that the child having any contact with their family members.

ASSUMPTIONS

1. Institutionalized children may have varying degree of behavioural problems.

2. Behavior of the Institutionalized children can be influenced by various demographic factors like age, age of entry into the institution, duration of staying in the institution, which class you studying, percentage in academic, participate in sports, anybody visit you except your family members, contact with your family members.

3. Self-instructional module helps to improve the knowledge level of care takers regarding the behavioural problems among orphan children.

ETHICAL CONSIDERATIONS

Ethical considerations were taken into the account for the purpose of the study to assess the behavior problems among the institutionalized children and develop a booklet for caretaker/warden to manage the behavioral problems of institutionalized children.

Permission was obtained from the administrative authority of all the selected institutions in Salem.

 Oral consent was obtained from the caretakers and institutionalized children, who were participated in the study.

 All the information collected from the samples were kept confidential.

DELIMITATIONS

1. The study was delimited to only select institution in Salem.

2. Data collection period was delimited to 6 weeks.

SUMMARY

This chapter dealt with the contents of introduction, need for the study, and statement of problem, objectives, operational definitions, assumptions, ethical considerations and delimitations.

CHAPTER – II

REVIEW OF LITERATURE

Good research does not exist in vacuum. Research finding should be an extension of previous knowledge and theory as well as guide for future activity. In order to build an existing work, it is essential to understand what is already known about a topic. A thorough review of literature provides a foundation upon which to base new knowledge.

This chapter dealt with two sections

SECTION – I

1. Studies related to behavioral problems among children.

2. Studies related to behavioral problems among institutionalized children.

3. Studies related to behavioral problems and its outcome.

SECTION - II

1. Studies related to research based on Peplaus Interpersonal model.

2. Conceptual framework based on modified Peplau’s Interpersonal Relationship Theory

SECTION - I

1. STUDIES RELATED TO BEHAVIORAL PROBLEMS AMONG CHILDREN

Gupta (2001) identified the prevalence of behavioral problems among school going children , Ludiana. Finding showed that among 957 children, 14.6% of children had behavioral problem and it was found out by using Rutter behavioral scale.

Marrel C. and Tymmr P.B (2001) assessed the impact of inattention, Hyperactivity and impulsiveness on academic and progress. It was concluded that the behavior rating scale could be a useful tool for raising the awareness of teacher to young children with severe behavioral problems of inattention, hyperactivity and impulsivity.

Cotrell (1999) conducted a study on prevalence rate of behavioral problems among orphan children . results showed that behavioral problem are prevalent among orphan children . children in the age group of 3 year, have 7 % of prevalence ratio, children in the age group of 7-12 of prevalence of behavioral problems.

2. STUDIES RELATED TO BEHAVIORAL PROBLEMS AMONG INSTITUTIONALIZED CHILDREN.

Zohra Lassi, MSc, Epi, &, Bio, MHM, BScN (2009) Community Health Sciences, Aga Khan University, Karachi, Pakistan Conducted A cross-sectional study on 330 children of 4 – 16 years of age from an SOS village and other conventional-orphanages in Karachi.

Study done among the orphanage children in Karachi shows the prevalence of behavioral problems as 50%. Among the prevalence 49% was conventional orphanage in 51.6% of village children. The factors associated were malnourishment and foster mother depression, while increase in years of stay in the institution had an effect on behavioral problems. There was significant relation between behavioral problems with gender and facility. There was no difference in the behavioral problems of male children but female children in conventional orphanage were having greater higher risk than female in SOS village. There was significant relation between living status of the parents and gender. There was no difference in male children with their parental living status even though females had a protective effect against behavioral problems when they had no parent.

3. STUDIES RELATED TO BEHAVIORAL PROBLEMS AND ITS OUT COME

Juli M . Canoll (2005) conducted a study on relationship between specific learning difficulty and psychological disorder. It was a survey approach and sample of 1020 children aged 9-15 years were selected. A structured questionnaire was used to collect the data. The unpaired ‘t’ test showed that specific learning difficulties were common in children from poor socio- economic status and were having association with increased risk of ADHD, conduct disorder in both male and female.

Bhelt jyoth (2003) did a study on academically poor performing children and to examine the impact of counseling. The samples were 12-14 years old and from Raipur, having several behavior problem and poor academic performance. Counseling was done in 3 stages 1 day, 1 week and 1 month. The study clearly showed that major reason for poor academic achievement is low intelligence level, poor parental support and poor peer tutoring. Results revealed that sincere efforts made through proper counseling.

Horwood L. john (2003) conducted a study on the association between attention difficulties and impact of psychosocial outcome, among the sample of 320 children. Results showed that attention difficulties at the age of 8 years were associated with academic difficulties during middle childhood.

SECTION - II

1. STUDIES RELATED TO RESEARCH BASED ON PEPLAUS INTERPERSONAL RELATIONSHIP.

Sindhu T. (2002) conducted “A study to assess the behavioral problems of orphan children from selected village in New Delhi”. In this study, conceptual framework was based on the Peplaus interpersonal relationship theory. This study consists of four phases. In orientation phase, the investigators meet the orphan’s children and explain the objectives of the study. In identification phase, the investigator uses the Rathus Assertiveness scale, to collect the data. And the investigator clarified the do doubts. In exploitation phase, orphan children responded to the question. The investigator analyzes the data and prepares a booklet on development of assertive behavior based on the findings. In resolution phase, the investigator distributed the booklet to the students, who were unassertive to develop their assertive behavior. By applying Pepalus interpersonal relationship relation theory, the investigator assessed the studies assertive level and distributed booklet on development of assertive behavior, to those orphans who are unassertive. so effort is made to improve the orphans children assertiveness level.

Sindhu C.V (2007) conducted “ A study to assess the level of assertiveness among 9th standard students in a selected school, Salem”. In this study , conceptual framework was based on the Peplau’s Interpersonal relationship theory. This study consist of four phases. In orientation phase, the inventigators meets the students and explains the objectives of the study. In identification phase, the investigators use the Rathus Assestiveness scale , to collect the data. And the investigator clarified the doubts. In exploitation phase, students responded to the question. The investigator analyze the data and prepare a booklet on development of assertive behavior based on the findings. In resolution phase, the investigator, distributed the booklet to the students, who were unassertive to develop their assertive behavior. By applying Pepalu’s Interpersonal relationship theory, the investigator assessed the students assertiveness level and distributed booklet on development of assertive behavior, to those who are unassertive. So, effort is made to improve the students’ assertiveness level.

2. CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK BASED ON MODIFIED PEPLAUS INTER PERSONAL RELATIONSHIP THEORY

Polit And Hungler(1999) state that conceptual framework is interrelated concepts or abstraction that are assembled together in some rational scheme by virtue of their relevance to a common scheme. The present study is aimed to determining the identification of selected behavioral problems of institutionalized orphan’s children.

The conceptual framework is based on the Peplaus Interpersonal Relationship theory. This theory was development by Hilegard Peplau , and it was published in 1952. This theory defines an understanding of one’s own behavior to help others and identify their activities their activities. Peplau explained that the theory has four phases.

1. orientation phase

2. identification phase

3. exploitation phase

4. resolution phase

Peplau’s theory suggested that nurses may assume various role in order to assist the clients to progress & to achieve their appropriate development level. Nurse serves as a teacher to facilitate learning which has not been learned in earlier experience. So the nurse investigator, to assess the behavioral problems of institutionalized orphan children and booklet for the management of behavior problems, hence the investigator chooser Peplau’s inter personal relationship theory.

a. Orientation Phase: the nurse & the patient meet as stranger & strive to become comfortable with each other doubts, which allows the patient to reduce anxiety & helps in constructive activities.

Here the nurse investigator first introduce herself and explain the objectives of the study to the orphan children. Then get the oral consent from all the orphan children, who are meeting the inclusion criteria.

b. Identification Phase: Patient respond selectively to the people who can meet the patients defined needs. Patient develops confidence in dealing with the problem. It decreases a sense of hopelessness and creating an optimistic attitude that further promotes inner strength.

Nurse investigator assesses the behavioral problems of the orphan children by administering, interview method and self-structured questionnaire and management of selected behavioral problems of orphan children. Orphan children are asked to respond to the question appropriately. The orphan children are given are hour to complete the structured questionnaire. The children are having varying levels of behavioral problems.

c. Exploitation phase: the patient may use all available resources based on their personal interest & needs.

Self-instructional module on identification and management for selected behavioral problems of orphan children is given to the entire caretaker by the investigator. Encourage the orphan children to read the self-instructional module and clear their doubts on self-instructional module if any.

d. Resolution Phase: After the patients’ needs have been met by the collaborative efforts of the nurse and the patient, the therapeutic relationship.

In this study, no resolution phase is included.

SUMMARY

This section dealt with the conceptual framework based on Pepalu’s interpersonal relation theory. It describes four phase, under each phase, how the investigator made effort to improve the knowledge level of the teachers, were well describe.

CHAPTER – III

METHODOLOGY

Research methodology is the way to systematically solving the problem. It may be understood as a design of study how research is done scientifically. (Kothari R. 2004)

Methodology of research organizes all the components of study in a way that is most likely to lead to valid answers to the problem that have been posed. (Burns and Groove, 2002)

This chapter includes the description of research approach and design, study setting, population, sampling technique, description of tool, method of data collection and plan for data analysis.

RESEARCH APPROACH

Quantitative descriptive survey approach will be considered as the best to assess the behavioral problems among the institutionalized children between 6 - 15 years of age at Salem.

RESEARCH DESIGN

Research approach is the umbrella that covers the basic procedure for conducting research. (Treece and Treece, 1986)

It means the overall plan for addressing a research question including specification for enhancing the integrity of study (Polit and Hungler, 1999). Research design helps to observe, describe and explore the aspects of situation. The research design selected for this study is descriptive survey design.

SETTING OF THE STUDY

The study was conducted in Anbu Illam Orphanage, which is located at Nattamangalam, Salem, about 14 Kms from our college. The orphanage home is under the management of Christian missionaries. Mother Superior, Sr. Bonyfus was in charge for the home. There are 4 Nun-sisters and five helpers for day and night time. The total bed capacity of the home is 100. At the time of this study 83 inmates were staying in that home, 62 males and 21 females. All the inmates are staying without pay.

POPULATION

The entire set of individuals or objects has the same common characteristics (Polit and Hungler, 1999)

The target population of this study is the institutionalized children residing in Anbu Illam Orphanage, Naattamangalam, Salem.

SAMPLING TECHNIQUE

Sampling is the process of selecting a portion of population to represent the entire population. The sampling technique is non-probability, convenient sampling.

SAMPLE SIZE

The sample size is 50 individuals who are having the age of 6 -15 and living in Anbu Illam Orphanage, Naattamangalam, Salem.

CRITERIA FOR SELECTING THE SAMPLE

Inclusion Criteria:

1. Children population residing in a selected orphanage at Salem.

2. Children populations, who can speak, read and write Tamil / English.

3. Children population who are willing to participate in the study.

4. Children population who are males.

5. Children population who are at the age group of 6 years to 15 years.

Exclusion Criteria:

1. Children population with physical and mental illness and under treatment.

2. Children population with physical impairment.

3. Children population, who cannot communicate properly.

4. Children population who had previous exposure to behavior Therapy.

SELECTION AND DEVELOPMENT OF THE TOOL

The instrument selected in a research must be the vehicle, that obtains best data for drawing conclusions of the study (Treece & Treece, 1986). The tools act as an instrument to assess and collect the data from the respondence of the study. Self-administered questionnaire & interview schedule on assessment of behavioral problems among institutionalized children was prepared with the help of review of related literature experts opinion and past experience of the investigator. Investigator had discussion with experts and incorporate there valuable suggestion in the tool.

DISCRIPTION OF THE TOOL AND SCORING PROCEDURE

TOOL 1 – Demographic data

It included the demographic characteristics of the institutionalized children’s age, age of entry into the institution, duration of staying in the institution, which class you studying, percentage in academic, participate in sports, anybody visit you except your family members, contact with your family members.

TOOL 2 A - Structured interview for caretaker /warden of institutionalized children at the age of 6 – 10 years.

It consists of 25 items, which was prepared to collect information regarding the behavioral problems of institutionalized children, each item has 4 options and the answers were given the score of 3, 2, 1, and 0 accordingly. Time given for completion of the questionnaire was one hour.

TOOL 2 B - Self-administered questionnaire to assess the behavior problems among the institutionalized children at the age of 11 – 15 years.

It consists of 25 items, which was prepared to collect information regarding the behavioral problems of institutionalized children, each item has 4 options and the answers were given the score of 3, 2, 1, 0 accordingly. Time given for completion of the questionnaire was one hour.

Degree of behavioral problems among orphan children was assessed and the highest possible score is 105. For the purpose study the degree of behavioral problems among the orphan children were classified as follows: if the score is less than 40 (38%) is mild, 41 – 75 (39 – 71%) is moderate and 76 – 105 (72 – 100%) is severe.

VALIDITY OF THE TOOL

The content validity refers to the degree to which instrument measures, what is supposed to be measured (Polit and Hungler, 1999).

The tools, statement of problem, objectives and evaluation criteria were submitted to experts from 3 psychiatric nursing, 1 psychiatrists and 1 psychologist. In tool -1 got 100 percent agreement. In tool -2a, 23 items got 100% agreement and 2 items got 80% agreement. In tool -2b, 23 items got 100% agreement and 2 items got 80% agreement. Suggestions were considered and modification of tool was done according to the opinion of experts and tool was finalized.

RELIABILITY OF THE TOOL

Reliability of research instrument is defined as the extent to which the instrument, has the same result on repeated measures (Polit & Hungler,1999).

The tool – 2a was administered to 5 samples from Karunya Nilayam Orphanage home, Gaurimedu, Salem and reliability of tool was checked by Split Half Technique and ‘r’ was calculated by Spearman Brown Prophecy formula and the value was 0.87 and it indicated that the tool was reliable.

The tool – 2b was administered to 5 samples from Karunya Nilayam Orphanage home, Gaurimedu, Salem and reliability of tool was checked by Split Half Technique and ‘r’ was calculated by Spearman Brown Prophecy formula and the value was 0.91 and it indicated that the tool was reliable.

PILOT STUDY

Pilot study is the miniature of some part of actual in which the instrument is administered to subjects drawn from the same population, “Talbolt 1997”.

The pilot study was conducted from 20.08.2010 to 27.08.2010 at Neasakarangal, Gorimedu Salem to test the feasibility and practicability of the tool. After obtaining the permission from the higher authorities, of the concerned institution, the pilot study was conducted among 10 samples who fulfilled the criteria for sample selection. The consent was taken after explaining the purpose of the study. Time taken for completion of the tool was 45 mits. The investigator found that there was no problem with the tool. The concise data analysis was done by using descriptive statistics. The result of the study showed that among samples, 30% of samples found to have mild behavioral problems, 60% have moderate and 10% found to have severe behavioral problems. Behavioral problems include depression, aggression, anxiety, attention problem, hyperactivity, withdrawal, learning problem. Association between the levels of behavioral problems among the samples and their percentage in academic are significant.

DATA COLLECTION PROCEDURE

Data collection is the gathering of information needed to address a research problem. (Polit & Hungler,1999). The data was collected over a period of 6 weeks from Anbu Illam Orphanage at Salem. The permission for the study was obtained from the Institution authority. Written consent was obtained from the samples after explaining the purposes of the study. Data was collected from Monday to Friday between 4.00 pm to 6.00 pm. The investigator went to institution, got the children register from the care taker. After considering the inclusion criteria the samples were selected. 50 samples, which fulfilled the inclusion criteria, were selected as samples and the data was collected through interview method and self-administered questionnaire. Interview schedule was administered to care takers for the age group of 6 – 10 yrs and self-administered questionnaire to the children for 11 – 15 yrs. In first 3 weeks, Interview schedule was administered for the caretakers of 6 – 10 yrs children and next 3 weeks, children in age group of 11 – 15 yrs were assessed with self-administered questionnaire. Booklet on management of behavior problems for institutionalized children will be distributed to the caretakers after the statistical analysis of the study.

PLAN FOR DATA ANALYSIS

Data obtained were analyzed based on the objectives of the study by using descriptive and inferential statistics. The plan of data analysis was as follows.

1. Organized data in the master sheet.

2. Frequency and percentage distribution of socio- demographic data.

3. Chi-square test to determine the association of degree of behavioral problems among orphan children with selected demographic variables.

SUMMARY:

This chapter dealt with the methodology of how research has been planned and organized to do the data collection, description of the tool, and gives details about the complete data collection procedure.

CHAPTER – IV

DATA ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION

The analysis is a process of organizing and synthesizing data in such a way that research questions can be answered and tested

–Polit and Hungler 1999

Statistical procedure enables the researcher to organize, analyze, interpret, evaluate and communicate numerical information meaningfully. This chapter deals with descriptive and inferential analysis of data collected from 50 samples.

STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

A study to assess the behavioral problems among the institutionalized children in a selected institution at Salem and develop a booklet for caretaker/warden to manage the behavioral problems of institutionalized children

OBJECTIVES

1. To assess the behavioral problems among the samples.

2. To find association between the behavioral problems and their selected demographic variables.

3. To develop a booklet regarding management of behavioral problems.

PRESENTATION OF DATA

The data were entered in master sheet for tabulation and statistical processing. The obtained data were analyzed, organized and presented under the following headings.

Section – I : Description of socio- demographic data of the samples.

Section – II : Frequency distribution of samples and their degree of

behavior problems.

Section – III : Association between the levels of behavioral problems among the samples and their demographic variables.

SECTION -I: Description of socio- demographic data of the samples.

This section deals with the details of analysis about the distribution of samples according to frequency and percentage of distributing the behavioral problems among the institutionalized orphan children in selected institutions at Salem. The selected variables are 1) Age 2) Age of entry into the institution 3) Duration of staying 4) Which class you studying 5) Rank in academic 6) Involvement in sports 7) Any visitors except your family members? 8) Any contact with your family members?

Table: 4.1 -Frequency and percentage distribution of samples based on their demographic variables for the age group 6-15 years.

n=50

Sl. No Variables Frequency Percentage

1.

a)

b)

c) Age in years

6-8

9-11

12-15

11

18

21

22.00

36.00

42.00

2.

a)

b)

c)

d) Age of entry into the institution

1-3

4-6

7-9

10 & above

11

16

17

06

22.00

32.00

34.00

12.00

3.

a)

b)

c)

d) Duration of staying in institution

1-3 years

4-6 years

7-9 years

10 years & above

17

18

11

04

34.00

36.00

22.00

08.00

4.

a)

b)

c) Which class you are studying?

1-3

4-6

7-10

11

18

21

22.00

36.00

42.00

5.

a)

b)

c)

d) Percentage in academic

<44%

45-59%

60-79%

80-100%

04

14

24

08

08.00

28.00

48.00

16.00

6.

a)

b) Participate in sports

Yes

No

28

22

56.00

44.00

7.

a)

b) Anybody visit you except your family members?

Yes

No

05

45

10.00

90.00

8

a)

b) Contact with your family members?

Yes

No

04

46

08.00

92.00

The table 4.1 shows:

• 26 % of the sample belongs to the age group of 6-8 yrs, 36 % of the samples belong to the age group of 9-11 yrs, and 42 % of the samples belong to the age group of 12- 15 yrs.

• Age of entry into the institution of these samples are 22% of the sample belongs to the age group of 1-3 yrs. 32% of the sample belongs to the age group of 4-6yrs , 34% of the samples to the age group of 7-9yrs, 12% of the samples belongs to the age group of 10 years and above.

• Duration of staying into the institution of these samples 34% of the samples belongs to the age group of 1-3 years, 36 % of the samples belong to the age group of 4-6 years, 22% of the samples belong to the age group of 7-9 years, and 8 % of the samples belong to the age group of 10 years and above.

• Among these samples 22 % are studying in 1st – 3rd standards, 36 % are studying in 4th -6th standards, 42 % are studying in 7th – 10th standards.

• Percentage In academic section, 8% of the samples are belongs to less than 40% of mark, 28% of the samples are belongs to 45-59% of mark, 48% of the samples are belongs to 60 – 70 % of mark, 16% of the samples are belongs to 80 – 100% of marks.

• Among these samples 56 % are participating in sports and 44 % are not participating in sports.

• Among these samples 10% are having the visitors except family members and 90% are not having.

• 08% are having contact with their family members and 92% are not having the contact with their family members.

SECTION – II: Frequency distribution of samples and their degree of behavior problems.

Fig 4.1 : Bar diagram showing the percentage distribution of samples and their level behavior problems.

Fig. 4.1 shows 18% of samples found to have mild behavioural problems, 76% have moderate and 6% found to have severe behavioural problems. Behavioral problems include depression, aggression, anxiety, attention problem, hyperactivity, withdrawal, learning problem.

Table 4.2: Degree of behavioral problems among the institutionalized children at the age group of 6-15 years.

n=50

Sl. no Behavioral problems Degree of problem

Mild % Moderate % Severe %

1. Depression 6 12% 40 80% 4 8%

2. Aggression 14 28% 34 68% 2 4%

3. Anxiety 10 20% 40 80% 0 0

4. Attention problem 6 12% 42 82% 2 4%

5. Hyper activity 6 12% 44 88% 0 0

6. Withdrawal 6 12% 44 88% 0 0

7. Learning problem 8 16% 42 84% 0 0

Data in the table 4.2 reveals that degree of behavioral problems among the institutionalized children for the age group of 6-15 years. That indicates,

• 6 (12%) of them are mild problem of depression, 40 (80%) children are moderate problem of depression and 4 (8%) are severe problem of depression.

• 14 (28%) are mild aggressive behavior, 34 (68%) are moderate aggressive behavior and 4 (8%) are severe problem of aggression.

• In anxiety, 10 (20%) are in mild, 40 (80%) are in moderate and no severe anxiety problem occur.

• 6 (12%) of children are having mild attention problem, 42 (84%) of children are having moderate attention problem and 2 (4%) are having severe attention problem.

• 6 (12%) of children are mild hyper active, 44 (88%) children are moderate hyper active and there is no severe hyper active children.

• In withdrawal, 6 (12%) are mild, 44 (88%) are moderate and no severe withdrawal problem occur.

• 8 (16%) children are mild learning problem, 42 (84%) are moderate learning problem and there is no severe learning problem children.

SECTION III: Association between the level of behavioral problems among the samples and their demographic variables.

This section deals with the association between the level of behavioral problems among the samples and their variables. It was associated with chi- square test.

SECTION III (a): Association between the levels of behavioral problems among the samples and their age.

Table 4.3: Chi-Square value on level of behavior problems and their age in years. n=50

Sl. No Age in years Mild behavioral problem Moderate behavioral problem Severe behavioral problem Chi-square value

Frequency % Frequency % Frequency %

a. 6-8 3 6 7 14 1 2 3.51

b. 9-11 3 6 15 30 0 0

c. 12-15 2 4 17 34 2 4

t4= 9.49

Data presented in table 4.3 reveals that Chi-square value (3.51) is lesser than the table value (9.49), which indicate that there is no significant association between the age and behavioral problems. Table 4.2 shows that the age group of 12-15 years is having more behavioral problems (42%). And the age group of 6-8 years is having less behavioral problems (22%).

SECTION III (b): Association between the levels of behavioral problems among the samples and age of entry into the institution.

Table 4.4: Chi-Square value on levels of behavior problems and their age of entry into the institution. n=50

Sl. No Age of entry into the institution

Mild behavioral problem Moderate behavioral problem Severe behavioral problem Chi-square value

Frequency % Frequency % Frequency %

a. 1-3 1 2 9 18 1 2 9.20

b. 4-6 5 10 12 24 0 0

c. 7-9 2 4 11 22 2 2

d 10 & above 2 4 5 10 0 0

t6=12.59

Data presented in table 4.4 reveals that Chi-square value (9.20) is lesser than the table value (12.59), which indicates that there is no significant association between age of entry into the institution and behavioral problems. Table 4.3 shows that the age group of 4-6 years is having more behavioral problems (34%). And the age group of 10 years and above is having less behavioral problems (14%).

SECTION III(c): Association between the levels of behavioral problems among the samples and their Duration of staying in institution.

Table 4.5 -Chi-Square value on level of behavior problems and their duration of staying in institution n=50

Sl. No Duration of staying in institution Mild behavioral problem Moderate behavioral problem Severe behavioral problem Chi-square value

Frequency % Frequency % Frequency %

a. 1-3 years 5 10 12 24 2 4 6.16

b. 4-6 years 4 8 15 30 1 2

c. 7-9 years 0 0 8 16 0 0

d. 10 years & above 0 0 3 6 0 0

t6=12.59

Data presented in table 4.5 reveals that Chi-square value (6.16) is lesser than the table value (12.59), which indicates that there is no significant association between duration of staying in the institution and behavioral problems. Table 4.4 shows that the age group of 4-6 years having more behavioral problems (40%). And the age group of 10 years and above is having less behavioral problem (6%).

SECTION III(d): Association between the levels of behavioral problems among the samples and class which the samples are studying?

Table 4.6: Chi-Square value on level of behavior problems and their class of sample studying n=50

Sl. No Which class you are studying?

Mild behavioral problem Moderate behavioral problem Severe behavioral problem Chi-square value

Frequency % Frequency % Frequency %

a. 1-3 4 8 6 12 1 2 5.32

b. 4-6 3 6 14 28 0 0

c. 7-10 2 4 18 36 2 4

t4=9.49

Data presented in table 4.6 reveals that Chi-square value (5.32) is lesser than the table value (9.549), which indicates that there is no significant association between which class the sample are studying and behavioral problems. Table 44.5 shows that the children who all are studying in the class of 7-10 is more behavioral problems (44%). And the children who all are studying in the class of 1-3 are less behavioral problem (22%).

SECTION III (e): Association between the levels of behavioral problems among the samples and their Rank in academic.

Table 4.7: Chi-Square value on level of behavior problems and their percentage in academic n=50

Sl. No Percentage in academic

Mild behavioral problem Moderate behavioral problem Severe behavioral problem Chi-square value

Frequency % Frequency % Frequency %

a. <44%

1 2 1 2 2 4

22.23

b. 45-59% 1 2 12 24 0 0

c. 60-79% 3 6 20 40 0 0

d. 80-100% 4 8 5 10 1 2

t6=12.59

Data presented in table 4.7 reveals that Chi-square value (22.23) is greater than the table value (12.59), which indicates that there is significant association between rank in academic and behavioral problems. Table 4.6 shows that 46 % of the children are scoring 60-79% mark. And 8% of the children are scoring less than 44 %.

SECTION III (f): Association between the levels of behavioral problems among the samples and their Involvement in sports

Table 4.8 - Chi-Square value on level of behavior problems and their participation in sports

n=50

Sl. No Participate in sports

Mild behavioral problem Moderate behavioral problem Severe behavioral problem Chi-square value

Frequency % Frequency % Frequency %

a. Yes 6 12 19 38 2 4 8.02

b. No 2 4 19 38 2 4

t2=5.99

Data presented in table 4.8 reveals that Chi-square value (8.02) is greater than the table value (5.99), which indicates that there is significant association between involvement in sports and behavioral problems. Table 4.7 shows that 54% of children are participated in sports and 46% are not participated.

SECTION III(g): Association between the levels of behavioral problems among the samples and visitors except their family members.

Table 4.9: Chi-Square value on level of behavior problems and visitors except their family members n=50

Sl. No Any

body visit you except your family members? Mild behavioral problem Moderate behavioral problem Severe behavioral problem Chi-square value

Frequency % Frequency % Frequency %

a. Yes 1 2 4 8 0 0 0.36

b. No 8 16 34 68 3 6

t2=5.99

Data presented in table 4.9 reveals that Chi-square value (.36) is lesser than the table value (5.99), which indicates that there is no significant association between visitors except their family members and behavioral problems. Table 4,8 shows that 90% of children having no visitors except their family members and 10% are having visitors except their family members.

SECTION III(h): Association between the levels of behavioral problems among the samples and contact with their family members.

.

Table 4.10: Chi-Square value on level of behavior problems and contact with their family members.

n=50

Sl. No Contact with your family members? Mild behavioral problem Moderate behavioral problem Severe behavioral problem Chi-square value

Frequency % Frequency % Frequency %

a. Yes 0 0 4 8 0 0 1.37

b. No 9 18 34 68 3 6

t2=5.99

Data presented in table 4.10 reveals that chi-square value (1.37) is lesser than the table value (5.99), which indicates that there is no significant association between the contact with their family members and behavioral problems. Table 4.9 shows that 92% children are no contact with their family members and 8% children are having contact with their family members.

SUMMARY

This chapter dealt with the analysis and interpretation of data collected through structured questionnaires and interview method. The association between the behavior problems and demographic variables were also done.

Print Email Download Reference This Send to Kindle Reddit This

Share This Essay

To share this essay on Reddit, Facebook, Twitter, or Google+ just click on the buttons below:

Request Removal

If you are the original writer of this essay and no longer wish to have the essay published on the UK Essays website then please click on the link below to request removal:

Request the removal of this essay.


More from UK Essays