Learning acquires new knowledge
Learning is acquiring new knowledge, skills, behaviors, values, understanding or preferences, and it may comprise synthesize various types of information. Human learning may well occur as part of personal development or education. It may be aided by motivation and may be goal-oriented. Moreover, our intellectual capacity and our ability to learn are intangibles. Nevertheless, these intangibles are your greatest capital because everything you do to update and reinvent your knowledge that allow you to grow more from where you are today to where you desire to go. Learning is a prerequisite to growth. As for the study of how learning occurs is part of neuropsychology, learning theory, educational psychology, and pedagogy. Besides, Learning may occur as a result of classical or habituation conditioning, seen in many animal species, or in more complex activities such as play, seen it merely in relatively intelligent animals and humans. Learning may take place consciously or without conscious awareness. Types of learning include simple non-associative learning, observational learning, E-learning, Cognitive learning, tangential learning and much more (Wikipedia, 2009). When we are learning, we normally will shape, organize, and strengthen our brains. Humans are born to have the ability of learning, so we called as learning machine. For the day humans born, our brains are all set to capture our experiences and encode them into a web of nerve connections. Moreover, human brains are the engines that drive the learning machines. More than a hundred billion nerve cells are crowded into three pounds of multiple tissues inside our skull. Recent brain research suggests that actively engaging our brains in learning throughout life significantly affects how well we age (AARP.org, 2005).
1.2 Problem Statement
Learning is a common thing that will happen for everyone. However, there are many people that apply learning in a wrong way. Learning is a very important process that student should take note of, but if the way they learn are incorrect, it will affect their academic performance. As a result, this research is conducted to find out which of the learning methods is significant for student to improve their knowledge, skill, ability and others with a right way. This is because students are supposing to study hard as well as study smart in order to do well on their academic performances.
There are few important reason that why we conducted this research. First is learning as acquiring skills, facts and methods that can be retained and used as essential. The purpose that students go to the school is because they want to learn some knowledge and lastly graduate as a useful person. Before that, we as a student should know the way of learning best suit for us but we must understand that it didn't means it is the best way to learn. In addition, not every student is suit to the same methods of learning. There should be a learning method that is more suitable in close proximity to you. There may be more than one learning methods for one student. If students are able to apply different kind of learning methods in different area, it won't be a problem for them to obtain excellent academic performances.
Second reason is to increase in knowledge and acquiring information or to know a lot. Student learn not just for their result for their academic but also to gain more knowledge that can't be learn in the work field. Learning is actions that will be happen continuously to everyone until you die. There are a lot of knowledge and information in the world, we won't able to learn all but we can choose to learn the useful one to assist and apply in at the school or working field to solve the problem cannily. Learning won't make you lose anything but it will only make you gain the chance to avoid the problematic situation.
Third, utilize the learning methods that are suitable most for the student. We should fully utilize the learning methods that we know in the appropriate place. There may be a lot of learning methods, but not all of them can be use because of different problem. For an organization, the employee may be more focus on learning such as observational learning, experience learning, and so on, but not for the student. Students may be more focus on the learning such as cognitive learning, E-learning, problem-based learning and so on. Some students are fine with more traditional way of education. They are able to absorb and retain knowledge from a teacher that presented in an oral fashion. Besides, students can learn different texts by read more and keep the knowledge. There are student who more prefer to retain information when teacher presented with visual information. Other than visual, there are different kinds of learning such as hands on, adaptability, and creativity. These are the learning that student may apply in the class. In addition, these are the kinds that use to support the learning methods in order to success in the future (Smith, 2003).
1.3 Research Question
In this research, the question is prepared to conduct the study about different learning methods affect performance on students academic. There are a lot of learning methods that is available for the students but not all of them will affects on student performances. In order to conduct the research, the main question will be asked is: How different learning methods affect students' performance?
This question is prepared before we start the research to specific the information that we want to focus on. These questions help us to conduct the research easily so that the information that is needed had been collect for our references. The main point that we need to focus on is how different learning method affect student performance.
1.4 Research Objective
The objectives of the research are:
i. To study the impact of different learning method on students' performance of Multimedia University students (Cyber Campus).
ii. To study demographic factors of Multimedia University students (Cyber Campus).
1.5 Organization of Study
The organization of this research study consists of five main chapters.
In chapter 1, the discussion will start with introduction that includes definition of learning, the learning methods for student, and some of the background of learning. Then, the explanations of problem statement of the research follow by research question and research objective will be discussed which is the guideline to conduct our research. Lastly, briefly explain about all the chapters that we will carry out in the organization of study.
In chapter 2, study the relevant literature review from different researchers and authors. These literature reviews are studied based on the learning and the student performance. First, start with the important of learning towards undergraduate student. After that, we identify the process of learning and learning methodology follow by the relationship between learning and performances. Some points of views are also included in this chapter.
In chapter 3 for research methodology, identify the theoretical framework which illustrated the independent variable that will influences towards student performance. Other than that, hypothesis statements are listed. Then, identified the sampling method, the way we use to collect data from students, and some explanation about 2 kinds of statistical methods.
In the chapter 4 is about data analysis. Conduct a survey by using the questionnaire that had been prepared to the students at Multimedia University cyber campus. Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS) will be use as a system to key in all the survey that we conducted. After that, demographic statistic will be comprise in this chapter to give an overview on the statistic of each demographic of this research. Last but not least, all the findings will be interpreted and discussed.
In chapter 5, it is about the conclusion and recommendation. This chapter will be illustrated and discussed each hypothesis testing of this study in details. After that, discussion will continue with the limitation of this research. Recommendations will be identify so that the future researchers will be able to study. Finally, these researches end with the conclusion.
2.1 Important of Learning
The objective for the learning in the context of training are often to be secondary important. Antonacopoulou (1999) concluded that learning is part of the development process. He also indicated that learning is seen as important during training through a failure to provide suitable basic whereby training takes place to support learning. Garavan (1997), who adopt the view and argues that an individual involve in the process of learning and increase their capacity to learn should be a primary concern. The author had mentioned in that by reaching the effectiveness in learning, we need to consider both learning process and the product of learning. However, improve the relative between effectiveness and efficiency of learning sub-processes would seem logical to improve result of training. A competent learner need to include the skills associated with learning, the knowledge of the learning process and awareness of learning. Learning is important because as a learner, we able to discover new knowledge by ourselves, solve the problem by applying acquired knowledge, created a new knowledge, and so on (Robotham, 2004).
According to Rockman (2002), the library took an important role in supporting the institution's objectives and goals for learning and teaching to improve the assessment of student learning outcomes and more specifically information literacy competency. Student understanding, acquisition, and transference of knowledge are main key to go on and maintain their learning behavior. In order to assess student performances, there are varieties of qualitative and quantitative measures can be use such as web-based tutorials, tests, successful completion of internships, quizzes, reflective essays, direct observations, or services learning opportunities (Rockman, 2002). The effectiveness of learning can be estimate by having examination at both the beginning and the end of student's higher education. There are many types of learning that student apply their learning skill on their education. It is very important for student to use their learning skill effectively so that they are able to get a good result in exam and apply the knowledge that they learnt to future (Rockman, 2002).
Learning for a student is a need for them to develop as independent learners to make it possible for them to deal with the demands of the structure and curriculum of higher education and to meet the expectations of employers (Cotton, 2001). Although characterizing the independent learner usually involves a range of propensities, attributes, and skills, the capability to self-assess appears essential to many studies examining the issue of independent learning. Besides, self-assessment enables the students to take responsibility for learning, encouraging independence in learning and self-motivation (Peckham and Sutherland, 2000), encouraging life-long learning and be success (McAlpine, 2000) and to be elemental to the development of autonomous learning and intrinsic motivation (van Krayenoord and Paris, 1997).
Generally, self-assessment skill involves a higher stage of self-awareness and the ability to observe our own learning and performance. As such, self-assessment is associated with cognitive awareness and skill, which Reid (2001) describes as “thinking about thinking, being aware of the learning process and utilizing that in new learning”. Both definitions and discussions of self-assessment is a particular emphasis on cognitive skill. According to Vockell (2004), cognitive skills had been described as the learners that will automatically awareness of their own knowledge and their capability to control, understand and manipulate their own cognitive processes. Both Peters (2000) and Rivers (2001) classify that cognitive skill is as important as the development of independent learners. According to Peters (2000), cognitive skills enable self-management and appraisal of own to think and learn, whereas Rivers (2001) identify that students' self-directed learning behavior as being related with students' regular assessment of their approach to learning and their academic performance.
McAlpine (2000) emphasizes goal-directed learning and preferred learning styles, while Elwood and Klenowski (2002) refer to self-knowledge about how we perceive, remember, think and act. Although passing reference to learning styles is common in the context of cognition and, by association, self-assessment, there seems little work examining the relevance of learning styles to self-assessment skill. The current study aims to establish whether learning style - ways in which individuals characteristically approach different learning tasks (Hartley, 1998) - and self-assessment skills are to provide some insight and associated into the nature of any such association.
On the other hand, there exist many models and measures of learning style (Cassidy, 2004), Entwistle and Tait's (1996) model based on depth of processing during learning was adopted given its frequent use in the context of research into learning in higher education. The model presents four approaches to learning derived from four different modes of orientation of the learner. Although there is a lack of direct research on learning style and self-assessment, Cassidy and Eachus (2000) do report relations between students' approach to learning and judgments regarding their academic proficiency.
Self-report academic proficiency was negatively correlated with a surface approach to learn and positively correlated with a deep approach to learn. Negative correlation between an apathetic approach and academic achievement and positive correlations between strategic approaches were also reported. There is some evidence that students show a preference for assessment formats which they identify to reflect their main approach to learning (Entwistle and Tait, 1990). Entwistle and Entwistle (1991) illustrate the point suggesting that deep learners for free-format assessments and surface learners would show preference for multiple-choice formats such as reports and essay.
2.2 Process of Learning
The process of student learning illustrated in 1 proposes that the interaction of two major groups of factors (the personal characteristics of the student and the context of learning) will determined the student's perception. The previous educational experience of the student maybe the most important personal factor, as the student's initial attitude will be instrumental in shaping within a given context. However, the student's orientation to study is also important. Ramsden (1992) identifies that in the context of learning include curriculum, assessment, and learning or teaching mode. Based on the empirical evidence, the most influential area is assessment. The student's perception combined with the student's personal characteristic will guide to the development of an approach to learn. Recently, researches had suggested that what students oriented towards their learning are dominated by assessment system. In conclusion, assessment system will be instrumental to decide the approach that it will be the student's perception of asssessment system and student may take in a learning situation whereby its context that will be vital (Hassall and Joyce, 2001).
In the 2 illustrates that the first stage of deep approaches, a written assignment involve the building of an overall description of the topic which includes proper supporting detail. While in the second stage, it involve connection that made with prior knowledge and between conclusion and evidence within the learning materials provided. When student's purpose is strategic, then deep and surface approaches will be well be used. However, it need to depend on the perceived requirement of the assessment procedures. 2 implied that this style of thinking make a basic contribution to understanding (Entwistle and Ramsden, 1983). Nevertheless, when operation learning carry out either without effective or casually use of comprehension learning, it may become inseparable from surface approach. Moreover, it will lead to an unfinished form of understanding in express the characteristic pathology. 2.2.2 exemplify how to differentiate process of learning that develop understanding and it helps to explain some characteristic in the quality of learning outcomes in higher education (Entwistle, 2001).
In the role of knowledge management, the action of learning process particularly fits with different phases of action learning process. The concept of learning and action is increasing reciprocity with each other (Argyris, 1991). The business driven action learning (BDAL) programs for management development is focus on develop both managers and business result through the same type of learning process. According to the author, the process begin with a sort of coherence and legitimacy for the process that provided by the preliminary phases. In different strategic business department, BDAL require people to interpret what they are doing and to work together. However, BDAL want the rest of the group people to think the same thing about the issue for those who do not think before.
There are four phases in this learning process. The first phase is business issue definition. The phases for this process begin with the definition of the strategic intent. Constantly, the issue that is belongs to sponsor is the people who want to balance the synergies between department and also units to respond its issue. Secondly, teamwork is the next phases that the participants reflect and meet the issue. In this phase, there are few goals that are focus on, such as experiences about the issue, know-how, competencies and to share knowledge. In addition, it also related about the organization and the relationship between this matter and others business units.
Next, a recommendation is the third phase and the principle of these phases is to integrate knowledge that we shared in the previous phases and determine a solution. The sponsor and some member of the senior administrative team had notice the recommendation by showed in front of them. Throughout the BDAL, practical answer must present by the participants and it depending on the firm's principles that real dialogue between the executive committee members and the participants can be open in this phase. Lastly, implementation is the last phases of the learning process. Based on the last phases, at least one participants need to be responsible for the implementation to manage effective. The recommendations are executed by participants will helps the process to be accepted by other company. In conclusion, the four of phases of this learning process is a creation of new knowledge that uses to solve the business issue (Nicolas Rolland, 2006).
The individuals are the main source of organizational transformation and the primary learning entity in firms (Dodgson, 1993). In 3 illustrates a useful learning cycle of individual learning attributes when several facets of individual learning exist (Kim, 1993; Kolb, 1984). Learning behaviors subsequently will become institutionalized in organizational routines because the learning preference may be different for every learner (DiMaggio and Powell, 1983). In 3, the main point include observe, assess, design and implement. Individual observe occasion as they arise and reflecting on their observation by assess their experiences. They design from an abstract concept of assessment and test the design by implement the concept. If there is a one individual follow the learning cycle, then the organization will be event-driven, cyclical, and highly dependent on an individual's cognitive skill because of having individual member that have the ability to manage knowledge. However, when engaging in learning activities, individual need other social skills too.
At the level of individual, interpreting and intuiting are related by socio-cognitive competences. The level of interpretation between the environment and the individual guide by the individual belief systems recommend that performances outcome maybe will restricted while an individual's schema is not highly advanced (Crossan, 1993; Neisser, 1967). In between the individual's and the cycle of learning, there is a strong link that capacity to increase the effectiveness by interprets a range of decision outcomes. On the other hand, the cycle of learning needs to infused with understanding the socio-cognitive learning to the point where the level of interpreting and intuiting improves. The interpretive and intuitive capacity of team that is made up of individuals will cooperate in increasing the central role in enhancing organizational learning (Murray and Moses, 2005).
2.3 Learning Methodology
E-learning identified in different kind of contexts, such as online learning, distance learning, and network learning (Wilson, 2001). Volery (2000) identify that the related technological advancements and rapid expansion of the Internet in coincidence along with the social demands and limited budgets meant for improved access towards higher education had produced a significant encouragement for universities to introduce e-learning courses. Nowadays, a lot of commentators illustrate the advantages of e-learning in higher education. On the other hand, there are consequences for some people that did not prepared when try to implement the distance learning courses. Regarding to O'Hearn (2000), he contends that university structures are unverified and rigid, concerning the incorporation of technological advancements. Holley (2000) demonstrates that to implement e-learning without the full cooperation and support from the lecturers, it will be a difficult to achieve. Besides, the degree of interface between students and the lecturers are still the part that is important in e-learning environments (Volery, 2000). Finally, in relation to social demands in term of globalised education services and life-long learning, are traditional universities has the capability to compete with other independent education providers? (O'Hearn 2000).
E-learning initiatives have purportedly created new educational view for lecturers, such as the indisposed integration of technology and change patterns we work. Serwatka (2002) identify that sometimes student accomplishment can be achieved merely by preventing student withdrawals from e-learning programmes. The teaching method used by lecturers in traditional courses might also need to be modified, as they do not always prove necessarily or effective convertible in e-learning environments (Serwatka 2002).
At Carnegie Mellon University (CMU) in America they make use of the concept of a “wired campus”, in which a number of disciplines will be learnt by the students through e-learning. At CMU, the traditional lecturer is considering as earlier period that ought to be replaced by electronic tutors. Scott (2000) discussed how electronic tutors at CMU will proceed as virtual teachers in the future so that the tutor will be able to offer helpful hints. In addition, if students make a mistake, they will be giving an informed automatically from the teachers. He identify that virtual tutors will be better than traditional face to face techniques for the reason that vital information in traditional lectures flows past students. The benefit of the virtual tutor is teachers can wait in anticipation of a student demonstrates an understandable knowledge repository or understandable of the information. The rigorous information manage mechanisms which include tutor invention must be facilitated in a different kind of ways, as they would contain in the contexts of class based activity. Holley (2002) concludes that if the lecturer who maintains their positive manner to guide the students towards traditional learning, as a result the students will gain a more positive learning experience. E-learning is an important method of the new education that provides students a more convenience and flexibility to learn. In addition, it is an important characteristic for working adults who come to a decision to pursue postsecondary degrees. An online learning and traditional face to face is needed so that education occurs both in the online and classroom, and where the online education will better becomes an ordinary extension from traditional classroom learning (Colis and Moonen, 2001).
One of the most valuable attributes of e-learning techniques are the potentially that provide students a greater access to education in contrast to more traditional that are less flexible educational methods. Hemsley (2002) demonstrated the view that part time and full time students can now involve you in their chosen degree courses from any location. These had give people who are travel and who are relocated, an easily accessible and transferable learning resource and experience. Throughout the advanced technology, students who did not access to higher education before, now they have the opportunity to study at any location that best suits their needs (Sadler-Smith, 2000). E-learning also offers the opportunity for those who want to further their education from home (Brown, Cromby and Staden, 2001). Even though the views expressed propose the positive aspects of working at home, but there is still evidence suggest that students will not take part in a positive learning experience if they learn from their most convenient location. For students, e-learning can provide an educationally-superior choice to traditional lectures, where learning can go on outside the lecture hall. E-learning can also provide a model for students to become self directed independent learners, which may lend a hand for them to become life-long learners (Singh, O'Donoghue, and Worton, 2005).
Nowadays, e-learning has become more and more common as our education system tool. E-learning is a multifaceted that covers a wider range of approaches and methods (Clarke, 2007). Furthermore, e-learning is the learning methods that works in which the teacher and students are separated with each other in term of place and time. E-learning enables classes and meetings with student at a wide range of characteristic than traditional class (Moore, 1993). E-learning are determined most of the adults and then the population of youngsters that turn into e-learning are also increase. By using e-learning, there will be an interaction between teacher and the students as well as among the students (Fetterman, 1998). We are able to learn face-to-face through internet by having discussion or meeting between student and the teacher.
The education institutional that execute e-learning programs is keep increasing. Therefore, teachers need to know the learning-teaching processes make different when students and teachers is not present at the same time and places. The disadvantages of e-learning such as creating meta-knowledge, structuring of knowledge, fostering of skills, and of intellectual inclinations cannot be done. According to Cohen (1999), there are two dimensions that classify virtual courses, a-synchronous learning and synchronous learning. In A-synchronous learning, teacher and learner in certain topic do not occur at the same time. On the other hand, they engage simultaneity in synchronous learning.
Based on the researchers, there are three categories of the interactions in online course include social interactions between the learner and instructor or among learners (Gilbert and Moore, 1998; Berge, 1995; Henri, 1991), academic interactions related to the learning material (Moore, 1996; Gilbert and Moore, 1998; Berge, 1995; Henri, 1991), and technical interactions which are unrelated to the learning material (Henri, 1991; Hillman, 1994). According to the author, the pedagogical technologies affect the learning material, the instructors, the information sources, the learner and ways of delivering. All of this impacts the perception of teachers to teach about e-learning (Orly, 2007).
Distance learning is also one of the method categories in e-learning. Distance learning is the delivery approaches because it does not depend on lecturer or teacher. The advantages of distances learning is that we able to bring the learning to the people not only in our own county but oversea too. The cost for student to learn per hour is cheaper than we learn at schools or universities. On the other hand, there is computer-based tutorial learning that provided for everyone at reasonable cost. The technology we have presently can use to remodel learning to make our life simple. Computer-based tutorial learning somehow won't be approaches as detailed interaction from a best tutor, but it is a greater superior of all learning today. In addition, compare to human tutor, it has much wider diversity of media. There are few advantages of e-learning such as reach everyone on each in their nation languages, student learn it anywhere and anytime they want, low cost, and so on. Someday, e-learning will be the major method that all learning will use it as a model (Alfred Bork, 2001).
2.3.2 Cognitive Learning
According to Vockell (2004), cognitive skills had been described as the learners that will automatically awareness of their own knowledge and their capability to control, understand and manipulate their own cognitive processes. The particular skills cited under the cognition banner include memory (awareness of memory systems and strategies to manipulate memory for optimal efficiency), comprehension (the ability to know what has and has not been understood and to apply strategies to improve comprehension), and self-regulation (the act of self-monitoring and evaluating and adapting learning in light of experience and feedback) (Vockell, 2004).
Both Peters (2000) and Rivers (2001) identify cognitive skills as important in the development of independent learners. Peters (2000) sees cognitive skills as enabling self-management and appraisal of own thinking and learning, while Rivers (2001) reports students' self-directed learning behaviour as being associated with students' regular assessment of their academic performance, their approach to learning, and how this compares with that of their peers and with the teaching styles used. In a study examining the development of independent learning in children aged three to five years, Anderson (2003) include some of cognitive and self-assessment skills in their list of identified factors underlying independent learning.
These include: ability to speak about own and others' behaviours; monitors progress and seeks help appropriately; negotiates when and how to carry out tasks; is aware of feelings and others; is aware of own strengths and weaknesses; can speak about how they have done something or what they have learned; can speak about planned activities; can make reasoned choices and decisions; engages in independent cooperative activities with peers; initiates activities; finds own resources without adult help; develops own ways of carrying out tasks; and plans own tasks, targets and goals (Anderson, 2003).
In addition to cognitive skills, learning style is also a feature - both explicit and implicit - of many definitions of self-assessment. McAlpine (2000) emphasizes goal-directed learning and preferred learning styles, while Elwood and Klenowski (2002) refer to self-knowledge about how we perceive, remember, think and act. Although passing reference to learning styles is common in the context of cognition and, by association, self-assessment, there seems little work examining the relevance of learning styles to self-assessment skill (Cassidy, 2006).
2.3.3 Problem-based Learning
Problem-Based Learning (PBL) is an innovative educational approach that is getting more importance in higher education. In traditional instruction, such as the representative lecture-based session that exploited before textbooks were mass-produced, frequently involves in delivering much information as quick as possible. Lecture methods will be the way that is most effective and efficient in order to spread the information. This is because many faculty members are poor lecturers whilst the participation for the students is often poor. As a result, this type of education has often allowed students to be submissive in the classroom. Therefore, the students know how to be active participants in the lecture by rely on repetition, memorization, and also transcription to learn.
Students create knowledge without acquire it in as it is dispersed, but to a certain extent they build on knowledge they gained before (Cross, 1998). They will gain benefit from working together because teaching each other will led them to learn best (Annis, 1983; McKeachie, 1986). Researchers also recommend that students will learn best in the circumstance of a compelling problem (Ewell, 1997) and they learn through experience (Cross, 1999). In brief, students are learn particularly during the experiential connections, social connections, and cognitive connections (Cross, 1990). This new messages had recommend that teaching is a general-purpose activity and it require the emergence and development of approaches to educate with what we know about the process that learning happens (Ewell, 1997). This innovative understanding has raised the idea of a paradigm shift in higher education by focus on teaching and then change to more on learning (Barr and Tagg 1995). There are a new "powerful pedagogies" that emphasize on learning. The types includes the methods such as project-based learning, case-based learning, research-based learning, situation-based learning, action learning, and Problem-Based Learning (PBL) intimate that substitute pedagogy may be gain in prominence and may eventually become the main concept for classroom.
PBL is an educational approach in which multifaceted problems serve as the context and the stimulus for learning. In group, students have the opportunity and are able to work in as a team to interpret one or more difficult and compelling problems. As a result, they develop these skills in evaluating, collecting, and synthesizing resources. Besides, they will follow by defining and then suggest a solution towards a multi‑faceted problem. Generally, students who use PBL will summarize and then present their solutions. The lecturer will refer to the learning process so as to monitor the development of the learners in a class and asks questions to help students to move on in the problem solving process. It is different with Traditional classrooms is different in term of the faculty member is not the single resource for process information, but in order to guide students as they search out appropriate resources.
PBL is a method which the curriculum is to organize those that involves confronts students with problems which provide a stimulus for learning from a practice (Boud and Feletti, 1991). Nonetheless, there are many likely forms that a curriculum and the process for learning and teaching might take and still be well-matched with this definition (Boud & Feletti, 1991). For instance, professional and educational schools where they have the same needs as medical schools, thus they will began to use the approach as well. Although in dissimilar forms, such as hybrid PBL and course‑by‑course models and also the traditional curricula; the approach spread to all the institution around the world.
After all, employers and educators similar began to require change in undergraduate institutions (Jones, 1997). They also required for those students who could think critically, work as a teams, and solve problems. In the U.S., the University of Delaware has turned attention toward PBL, as well as the Samford University in Birmingham, Alabama. Besides to these more comprehensive efforts, more than 250 institutions of individual faculty members are using PBL at the undergraduate level. In building the expectations for PBL about the outcomes that they can take, we are able to study from the research that we had conducted in the medical schools. The research from medical schools had shows that PBL provides students with the chance to increase theory and also content comprehension and knowledge. Moreover, PBL helps students highly developed in cognitive abilities. The cognitive abilities method included such as communication skills, critical thinking and problem solving. On the other hand, PBL have the benefit that improve students' attitudes toward learning. Hence, as an educational method, many educators advocate that problem-based learning promotes the kinds of active learning (Barr and Tagg, 1995).
There are much of the researches on medical school shows that the attitudes for students toward learning will be changes. For those students that apply PBL courses had described a bigger satisfaction with their experiences regularly than non-PBL students. For instance, PBL medical students at Harvard reported their studies to be more useful, difficult, and engaging than what non-PBL students did (Albanese and Mitchell, 1993). Additionally, based on the research studies document, researchers classify that students have a more positive attitudes toward the instructional environment on condition that they experience PBL compare to those students that did not experience PBL. Moreover, PBL students will probably give themselves a better rate for their training whereas for those students in traditional programs will classify their training as boring and irrelevant (de Vries, Schmidt, and de Graaff, 1989; Schmidt, Dauphinee, and Patel, 1987). As a result, an impact on student retention had been marked consequence by the changes in attitudes.
Researches had also shows the changes in student study behaviour. Some researchers identify that PBL students will probably use in term of meaningful approaches and versatile to study compare to non-PBL students, who are more likely to use reproduction (Coles, 1985; Newble and Clark, 1986). Nolte (1988) identify that use of reserve material went up. While Blumberg and Michael (1992) found that PBL students were more likely to make use of textbooks and also other books and have an informal discussion with peers than those non‑PBL students who were more likely to depend on lecture notes.
However, PBL presents some exclusive challenges for assessment. It is because this pedagogy is mainly focus on learning and less on the mastery of a particular body towards knowledge and traditional methods for course evaluation such as examinations may not be useful (Major, 1999). If traditional assessment is a good consider of traditional pedagogy, it will the reason that an alternative assessment may be essentially a better assess for an alternative pedagogy, such as PBL. By having different kind of assessment in the case of PBL, it can help link the gap between the instruction and assessment.
Recently studies have begun to examine PBL outcomes in term of presentation skills or teamwork, which may not be related with traditional lecture methods. For instance, recently conducted study investigative student perspectives on their learning as members of mutual groups (Cockrell, Caplow, and Donaldson, 2000). By applying the interpretive methods, the researchers may found that the mutual groups accelerated students' sense of ownership of the knowledge that was formed over the semester. The researchers also recommended that in the groups, leadership may move from student to student as situations is to arose and resolved. In conclusion, more studies like these one are necessary to resolve the effectiveness of PBL in higher education.
2.4 Relationship between Learning and Performance.
In order to define and demonstrate the effects of a student's learning style on academic performance in the classroom, cognitive style one of the entity. Researchers examining learning styles and proven that there are varied views on the precise components and characteristics of learning styles. According to Keefe (1982), learning styles are affective, cognitive, and physiological traits that serve as relatively stable indicators of how learners respond, interact with, and perceive to the learning environment.
Rasinski (1983) identified that field independence/dependence is currently the most researched of all cognitive styles. These learning approaches measure how much students are capable to overcome the effects of distract background elements when they try to differentiate related aspects of a particular condition (Dembo, 1991). Witkin (1977) stated that field independent students show greater interest in more impersonal, conceptual aspects of various stimuli. on the contrary, field dependent students will prefer structured activities that require involvement with others and prefer a higher level of social sensitivity.
Independent and dependent learning style has an impact on academic performance in classrooms that use computer aided instruction. Cheney (1980) recommended that computer aided instruction can be made more effective if it is personalized to an individual's cognitive style. Based on the research from MacGregor, Shapiro, and Niemiec (1988) of the effect of computer aided mathematical instruction, they found that although field independent students outperformed field dependent students in all teaching methods, field dependent students particularly benefit from computer aided instruction as it provided the needed consistency and cognitive structure that they lack.
A frequently dilemma experienced by agricultural educators is how to react to the changes look of society and stay alongside each other of the possible impacts that technology could have in the teaching-learning context. A comparatively new dimension of microcomputer technology entitled, “multimedia” possesses the prospective to influence student learning and knowledge acquisition on their performances. Multimedia is a multi-faceted approach to computer-based education that brings together animation, text, audio, graphics, still images, video, and motion video.
Based on the impact of computer multimedia on student achievement, nobody have been undertaken to resolve the effect that learning style has on student performance when utilizing the multimedia instruction. In this study, the researcher required to identify the effects of students' learning styles on academic achievement and perceptions of two particularly different methods of instruction. If agricultural educators can adapt and utilize multimedia technology is a new teaching tool and capable of improving each of the student ability to learn, then definitely all individuals involved in agricultural education will gain benefit (Marrison and Frick, 1994).
There are many factors influence students' learning, such as students' interest in the material under study, their learning style preferences, and the learning environment. A student learning style preference refers to the way they act in response to stimuli in a learning context, and to their characteristic way of using and acquiring information. These learning styles identify that individuals learn in different ways, as a result the students in any course will place a variety of different interpretations on their lessons (Bailey and Garratt, 2002). Since learning style preferences differ between students, so the most effective mode of education will also be different. If any consideration is to be given to accommodate students' learning style preferences when considering the design of instructional or assessment materials, then it is necessary to know whether the academic performance of students is dependent upon their preferred learning style, and also the sharing of learning style preferences within the students must be well-known. In conclusion, the strength of the relationship between learning style and academic performance can be investigated along the aspect (Yeung, Read and Schmid, 2005).
In this chapter, we begin by illustrate the theoretical framework from the research that we study from the case study. In addition, we will briefly give some general information about the case study method between the independent variable and dependent variable. Then, the following section will discuss about the hypothesis statement. Next, we will explain the research methodology for sampling method following by the data collection methods. After that, the statistical method for descriptive statistics and inferential statistics for this study will also be discussed.
3.2 Theoretical Framework
The theoretical framework for this study is adopted based on the learning method. The learning method may be relevant to the effect of learning performance for student. Based on the literature review, the effectiveness of student learning can be developed since the important variable was being determined. In this framework, there will be variables such as independent variable and dependant variable. As a result, the variable listed in the literature review will be categorized in those and proper framework will be formulated. The theoretical framework for the effectiveness of learning performance is illustrated on 4.
As shown in 4, the theoretical framework for the effect of student toward learning consists of independent variable (the variable that could influence the dependant variables) and dependant variable (the variable which is the primary interest of researcher). The framework postulates on the effectiveness of student learning is determine by three factors which is E-learning, Cognitive learning, and Problem-based learning.
3.2.1 Relationship between independent variables and dependant variable
184.108.40.206 E-learning versus Performance
E-learning will be a benefit for the student to take online classes compared to traditional age student, and that computer competency helped improve performance in online classes over time. For some student, they will feel convenience for them to learn it at a comfort place whatever they want, but the motivation of learning may be not there for them to learn. On the other hand, traditional learning may benefit in term of motivation because of face to face interaction between lecturer and students. E-learning is a more on flexible learning approach that gives advantages for student to learn anytime they want. However, E-learning is a technology that cannot be less. For those adult who are working, e-learning may provide the services for them to learn some new knowledge so that they are able to improve their working performance in the work fields without going to school.
Lieberman (2002) identify that student participation is a primary feature of improved their performance in higher education. For the distance learning courses, students are more prefer to participate in group work and class discussions than in traditional lectures. Since they are have more time to prepare for the responses and questions. In contrast, O'Connell (2002) classifies the student that is quieter and seldom communicates with others students will still be excluded from virtual discussions. This is because there will still exist the students who will monopolize conversations. Consequently, control extrusive students are far more complicated in e-learning environments compared to traditional lectures (O'Connell, 2002).
These indication shows that e-learning in university students do better than those on traditional courses. For example of Carnegie Mellon University (CMU) in America, where e-learning have not only enhanced exam results of students but have also acted as breaking the ancient boundaries between disciplines, educational bridges between subjects (Scott, 2000). Furthermore, CMU students have the opportunity to control their own company in a virtual working environment by participate in e-learning initiatives and then students be able to analyze competitor business plans. Besides, e-learning also allow them to trade virtual stocks and even track the performance of their business. In the conclusion, higher education institutions which utilize effective and efficiency e-learning methods not only improve the performance of students in assessments but also turn out graduates who are practically and theoretically prepared for working in an information age (Holley, 2002).
220.127.116.11 Cognitive Learning versus Performance
Generally, there are few step of process that we can use to evaluating student performance of cognitive learning. The first step is to examine the objectives to determine what level of knowledge is to be evaluated. The second step is to determine what evaluation techniques such as tests, questionnaires, checklists, rating, scales and so on, use to measure student progress toward achieving the objective (College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, 2006). As a result, if student is less of cognitive learning, it will affect their academic performance.
According to Riding and Sadler-Smith (1992), among secondary schools or college students, types of instructional material treatment, such cognitive styles, have very important influences on learning performance. Specifically, students on the analytic-imager dimension improve most in learning due to the inclusion of more pictorial presentations about certain types of contents. According to Kolb (1984), the above patterns connected with these four basic learning styles are exhibited consistently at various levels of behavior, from personality type to some specific task-oriented skills and performance, such as professional career and current job role.
This section reviewed five major dimensions of cognitive learning: field independence-dependence, holist-analytic, sensory preferences, hemispheric preferences, and Kolb's learning style model. These major dimensions have been shown that they have important influences on an individual's performance (Yuliang and Ginther, 1999).
18.104.22.168 Problem-based Learning versus Performance
By examine the outcome of problem-based learning (PBL) on student achievement, two groups of students studying subject A were compared - one having undertaken the traditional lecture-based program, and the other the problem-based learning program. The performance of the students on the written Provincial Registration Examinations of subject A was examine utilizing independent t-tests and demonstrated that the PBL group of students achieved significantly higher overall examination scores than the traditional group. In additional, the analysis revealed that no significant difference existed between student groups with the factual knowledge, but that the PBL students performed significantly better in tests by understanding more. As a result, PBL group of students was more knowledgeable on their performance than their traditional counterparts. If the student did not apply correctly, it will affect their performance in a negative way (Finch, 1999).
3.3 Hypothesis Statement
3.3.1 E-learning versus Performance
H0: E-learning has no positive relationship with the performance of students.
H1: E-learning has positive relationship with the performance of students.
3.3.2 Cognitive Learning versus Performance
H0: Cognitive learning has no positive relationship with the performance of students.
H1: Cognitive learning has positive relationship with the performance of students.
3.3.3 Problem-based Learning versus Performance
H0: Problem-based learning has no positive relationship with the performances of students.
H1: Problem-based learning has positive relationship with the performances of students.
3.4 Research Methodology
3.4.1 Sampling Method
Convenience sampling method is the way that we will use to complete the survey for my research. In addition, Convenience sampling is also known as Opportunity Sampling, Haphazard Sampling or Accidental Sampling. This method is a sample where the students are selected in part at the convenience of the researcher. It is a method that researcher used it frequently in exploratory research because it is an inexpensive approximation of the truth to conduct a survey. Convenience sampling method is a non-probability method that normally used from the beginning of research efforts to get a gross approximation of the results without incurring the time or cost required for me to decide on the undergraduate students (StatPac, 2009). On the other hand, the example of a convenience sample is to pick a shopper at the shopping mall to fill out a survey. Likewise, do use as many people as possible to ensure result from a single test is not just a coincidence.
Besides, convenience sampling method be capable of provide us with the useful information particularly while in a pilot study. We have to illustrate how an ideal sample would different with our sample that was select randomly to construe the findings from a convenience sample appropriately. Besides, we need to pay attention for those who might be left out or who might be underrepresented in our sample. If there are people who underrepresented in our sample, our statistic result will not be accurate with others. Therefore, we should note the people who were left out that might behave differently than the people in our convenience sample. If our result measures are not relatively more to this factor, we might be okay. A measurement of eye color is probably secure in this situation. Other than that, a street corner interview would become a tragedy if you were measuring something like the degree of disability.
We also have to be cautious to be eligible with our findings suitably. As a result from a convenience sample, it would duplication in a more controlled setting and would usually require considered less definitive. We can also qualify our result by targeted and narrowly defined population for them. However, it since the representation of the population will become not accurate if we fail to achieve it (Simon, 2008).
3.4.2 Data Collection
Data can be collect in form of primary and secondary data. As a result, we use primary data in this research. We will conduct our research by giving questionnaire for our data collection. In addition, it is essential aspect to any type of the research. If the data collection is inaccurate, it will affect the results of a study and at last lead to futile results. This method designed for impact the evaluation vary all along a continuum. This continuum end with two methods, there are quantitative methods and qualitative methods for data collection.
Questionnaire is the methods that we use to collect the data. We choose this method is because questionnaire capable for us to send to a large number of students so that it can saves time and money. Students is more honest while respond to the questionnaires regarding controversial issues especially their responses will be anonymous. Other than that, questionnaires also have the weaknesses. There might be some of the student that did not representative the originally selected of sample (People at UW-Eau Claire, 2008).
In this research, 150 sets of question had been prepared for our respondents. The respondents are chosen from Multimedia University students, Cyber campus. The students are chosen at the faculties that included Faculty of Engineering (FOE), Faculty of Information Technology (FIT), Faculty of Creative Multimedia (FCM), and Faculty of Management (FOM). We will go to Multimedia University Cyber campus by distribute the questionnaires to the student in a situation of face to face. Therefore, we may capable to get an honest answer from the students to fill in the questionnaires in order to meet the accuracy.
3.4.3 Statistical Method
22.214.171.124 Descriptive Statistic
Descriptive statistics is a technique used to describe or summarize the basic features of the data in our study. It provides simple summary about our sample and the measures. Additional with simple graphics analysis, they form the foundation in effect to every quantitative analysis of the data. This is useful in research, when communicating the results of experiments. Besides, patterns in the data may be modeled in a way that accounts for an uncertainty in the observations, and are then used to describe inferences about the process or population being studied (Trochim, 2006).
The main point that descriptive statistics used is to summarize a collection of data in a more understanding way as well as clear. For instance, imagine that a psychologist gave an individuality test measure the shyness to all 1000 students that attend a small college. How we are going to calculate this measurement? There are two basic methods which is graphical and numerical. The graphical approach one might use to create a leaf and stem display and a box plot. In relation to the distribution of shyness scores, these plots will show the detailed of information. On the other hand, numerical approach might use to calculate statistics such as the standard deviation and mean. These statistics shows information about the average degree of shyness and the degree to which people different in shyness (Lane, 2007).
In a research study we may perhaps have a lot of measures and measure a large number of people. Descriptive statistics have the ability to help us in order to simply large amounts of data into a more sensible way by showing the quantitative descriptions in a handy form. In addition, each of the descriptive statistics has capability to reduce lots of data into a simple summary. Whenever you try to express a large set of observations with a particular indicator, you might run the risk of losing the important detail or distorting the original data. The Grade Point Average (GPA) does not tell you whether the student was in easy courses or difficult ones. Even given these limitations, descriptive statistics may enable comparisons across people or other units in order to provide a powerful summary.
Descriptive statistics are typically difference compared with inferential statistics where descriptive statistics are simply describing what is or what the data shows and inferential statistics are trying to reach conclusions that extend beyond the immediate data alone. In conclusion, we use inferential statistics to make inferences from our data to more general conditions, whereas we use descriptive statistics simply to describe what's going on in our data (Trochim, 2006).
126.96.36.199 Inferential Statistic
Inferential statistics is a method that used to make claims as regards to the populations that result in the data we collect. This requires for us to go further than the data existing to us. Therefore, this claims that what we we make about populations are always subject to error. Hence, the term is not deductive statistics and inferential statistics.
Inferential statistics encompasses a diversity of procedures to make sure that the inferences are rational and sound, although they might not always be precise. Briefly, inferential statistics give us the opportunity to make confident decisions in the face of indeterminate (DeCaro, 2003).
Through the inferential statistics, we are trying to attain conclusions that expand beyond the immediate data. For instance, we use inferential statistics to judge the probability that an observed differentiation between groups might have happened by chance one or one that might dependable in this study. As a result, we use inferential statistics to make inferences from our data to more general conditions. It is a useful in quasi-experimental and experimental research design or in program outcome evaluation. Inferential statistic may be the simplest inferential tests that are used when it come to compare the average performance of two different groups on a single measure to distinguish the distinction. We should consider by using the t-test to differentiate between two groups before we compare their average performance (Trochim, 2006).
There are two main methods used in inferential statistics, estimation and hypothesis testing. In the point of view, the purpose of sample is used to approximate a parameter. Besides, a confidence interval in relation to the estimate is constructed. On the other hand, hypothesis testing is a null hypothesis that place frontward. Then, it will determine whether the data are powerful enough to reject or not (Lane, 2007).
The General Linear Model is the major inferential statistics that is occur from a general family of statistical models. General Linear Model included the t-test, regression analysis, Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA), Analysis of Variance (ANOVA), and many of the multivariate methods. The multivariate methods like factor analysis, multidimensional scaling, cluster analysis, discriminate function analysis, and so on. General Linear Model is an important method because it does provide a good idea for those researchers in serious social to become common with its workings (Trochim, 2006).
Generally, we had chosen multiple regression as part of our research from inferential statistics. The point of multiple regression is to learn more on the relationship between the independent variables and the dependent variables. (Stat Soft, 2008) Besides, multiple regression is modeling that is not consider as descriptive even though you might be capable to make an argument for some assumption-free methods. The example of assumption-free method is such as locally-weighted regression. Multiple regression is typically prepared hence the model may be interpreted to concern what it says about a target population (Statistics.com, 2009).
In addition, it is a statistical technique that allows us to predict someone's score on one variable on the basis of their scores on several other variables. For the independent variables such as E-learning, experiential learning, cognitive learning, observation learning, problem-based learning and so on, all might contribute towards student performances. We collected data on all of these variables by surveying a few hundred of student in the Multimedia University Cyber campus, we would be able to see how many and which of these independent variables gave rise to the most accurate prediction of student performances. We might find that student performance is most accurately predicted by methods of e-learning, cognitive learning and problem-based learning, with the other variables not helping us to predict student performance. (Brace, Kemp and Snelgar, 2009).
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