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Food body nutrients

Food is defined as material, often of plant or animal origin, that contains of essential body nutrients, such as carbohydrates, proteins, vitamins, minerals, fats, and it is ingested and assimilated by an organism to produce energy, stimulate growth as well as maintain life.( http://www.thefreedictionary.com/food). In this research, food acts as a factor that will affect tourism. Nonetheless, we will only focus on Malacca local delights and Malacca tourism. Malacca can be said as a "food paradise," I am sure that no one will oppose this. Malacca is famous for its Nyonya cuisine.Nyonya food, also referred to as Straits Chinese food or Lauk Embok Embok,it is an interesting amalgation of Chinese and Malay dishes that is said to have originated from the Peranakan(Straits Chinese) of Malacca over 400 years ago(www.marimari.com).Nyonya cuisine is basically a combination of Chinese ingredients with Malay herbs.The most significant Nyonya food that can be found in Malacca are Nyonya Assam Curry Fish , Brinjal Sardines Curry, Pongtay Chicken, Cencaluk ,Spicy Tamarind Shrimps and others.Besides that , satey celup(satay stick with raw meat/vegas dipped in hot boiling satay sauce for cooking) ,chicken rice ball(a rice pudding shaped like a golf ball) also a must eat when people make a visit to Malacca.Other than that , many people come to Malacca just to have a try on the "cendol" ( a kind of pandan flavoured jelly served with coconut milk) and the wide variety of nyonya kuihs , for example, onde onde,kuih koci,nyonya kuih lapis,ang koo kuih ,almond layered cake and others.Also , not to forget the pineapple tarts which most of the people would bring back to their family and friends after they have tasted it. Seafood is also a specialities in Malacca. Urban centres worldwide boast of their restaurants and Oriental cities,in which Hong Kong and Singapore proclaimed themselves to be "food paradises" ,Hong Kong are said to have over 9,000 restaurants from which tourists can select(Au and Law,2002 ; Henderson, 2009). In my opinion, Malacca is also a "food paradises" with the wide variety of food. We must make an effort to make the tourists to position their mind with Malacca food. When they think of Malacca food ,they think of Malacca , tourism of Malacca will be boosted as well. The westerners found the hawkers across much of Asia as an interesting novelty and illuminating facets of society (STB,2005; Tourism Malaysia, 2007; Henderson, 2009). An example provided by them that Malaysia and Singapore are being portrayed as the representative of multiculturalism in both states as there are Chinese , Malay , Indian,Eurasian,Western,other cusines and "fusion" food are all on sale from hawker centres and more formal outlets. Malacca is one part of Malaysia and can be considered as multiculturalism as well.Malacca is well known for its flavourful dishes for being a cultural melting-pot. Portugese, Nyonya, Chinese, India are included in Malacca cuisine. (www.thestar.com.my)


"Food is an important tourist attraction in an assortment of forms and enhances or is central to the visitor experience." (Henderson, 2009, p.317). He added that food is said to have assumed a prominent role in tourist decision-making and satisfaction,tourism products and place promotion strategies. For media director Melissa Pordy, "food is so much a part of one's lifestyle, it lends itself naturally to encompass more about travel and how it can be interwoven."(Lefere, 2000, p.2; Sparks et a.l., 2003). "Food and tourism have a very close relationship and food is a critical tourism resource.(Henderson, 2004; Quan and Wang, 2004; Joan C. Henderson, 2009, p.317)."Apart from being a form of tourist attraction,food is a significant area of interest for organizations making up the tourism industry (Henderson, 2009). For Meler and Cerovic ( 2003), they proposed that food do have a strategic importance in each national economy.Simultaneously,they also stated that it has a great specific preponderance in the establishment of a quantitatively and qualitatively satisfactory tourism industry. Food services is said to have brough contribution to the competitiveness of a country as a tourism destination(Dwyer et al.,1998; Svetlana Rodgers, 2005). "Food tourism is defined as a visitation to primary and secondary food produces , food festivals, restaurants , and specific locations for which food tasting and /or experiencing the attributes of specialist food production region are the primary motivating factor for travel." (Hall and Mitchell 2001,p.308; 2005,p74; Tikkanen, 2007).The authors themselves already relates food to tourism as food tourism. In their study,they recognizes food as a part of the local culture in which tourists consume and as a part of tourist promotion. They further recognized that food as a potential component of local agricultural and economic development. Food is a regional factor that is influenced by the consumption patterns and perceived preferences of the tourists.(Hall and Mitchel, 2001; Misiura, 2006, pp.207-208; Tikkanen , 2007). From the above statements, we can see that food and tourism is actually closely related and much discussed in most of the authors' research. Since every person must eat , what people eat has become a most powerful symbol of who they are (Fox, 2003; Wim Verbeke and Gisela Poquiviqui Lopez, 2005).They mentioned that it is important for physical sustenance and all tourists have to eat when travelling , nonetheless food can be a major draw and primary motivator for some that satisfies a multiplicity of physiological and other needs and wants. (Tikkanen, 2007; Henderson, 2009). The main role of food is to satisfy hunger and physiological needs,but now food has increasingly exerted many roles in human life (Lowenberg et al.,1979; Wim Verbeke and Gisela Poquiviqui Lopez,2005). Food has definitely exerted a role in tourism.As we travel or make a visit to another country or places, we must eat. Tikkanen ( 2007 ) also proposed that " Eating is one of our physiological needs even when outside our usual environment." Another group of authors also presented that there are tourists who travel to a destination so as to understand and experience the local cuisine. On the other hand , they said that there are also a set of tourists who want to be served the kind of food they are used to in their home country.The availability and taste of local food that the tourist would prefer to eat then become indicative of the dimension. (Narayan et al., 2008).


In Tikkanen (2007) study , five approaches to food with respect to motivation for a visit can be identified. In the first approach, food is said to act as a tourist attraction (Hjalager and Richards, 2002; Tikkanen, 2007). On the other hand , food in tourism is defined as an attraction and impediment ,the complications and impediments which are experienced by the tourists in the local culinary sphere in unfamiliar destinations (Cohen and Avieli, 2004; Tikkanen , 2007). The second approach is foodstuffs are seen as a tourist product component (Meler and Cerovic, 2003; Tikkanen ,2007).They further claimed that there are multiple factors that affects the volume of foodstuff and the structure of consumption as the tourist product component.In the third approach, food is seen as an experience in tourism (Quan and Wang, 2004; Tikkanen , 2007).They then introduced the conceptual model of tourist experience with two dimensions ,where the first dimension indicates that peak tourist experiences refer to the experience of the attractions that bring the major motivations for tourism.In contrast , they added that the second dimension refers to the experiences of gratifying basic consumer needs on the journey namely eating , transport and sleeping , which do not constitute the primary motivations for tourism.The fourth approach defines the role of the food in cultural extent (Hegarty and O'Mahony 2001; Williams 1997; Quan and Wang,2004; Tikkanen, 2007).They added that food consumption is regarded as one of the most vital factors in the destination marketing development.The fifth approach mentions about the linkages between tourism and food production (Telfer and Wall ,1996; Tikkanen , 2007).They claimed that the relationships between food production and tourism arises from the range which is the conflict over competition for land , labour and capital to a symbiosis where sectors tend to benefit from each other mutually.Food and tourism are increasingly combined , e.g. in agri-tourism,wine tours and the sale of food products as souvenirs (Hjalager and Antonioli Corigliano,2000; Tikkanen ,2007). They added that ,nevertheless, the development and standards of food for tourists are not determined by tourism policies uniformly , but more significantly determined by national economic,agricultural and food policies.The previous research in food tourism had illustrated food as an attraction , as a product component , as an experience and as a cultural phenomenon (Tikkanen ,2007).He further claimed that food tourists may have multiple motivations for their visits , hence , tourists' real motivations to visit the attraction can be found out only by asking the food tourist themselves.


Food quality and safety

Quality includes a professional approach to do things correct at all times and meet legitimate expectations of consumers. (www.unwto.org/quality/index.htm; Narayan, et al., 2008 ). In their research, a "quality tourism product" is defined as the sum of contributions and processes which results from many stakeholders from both private and public. They proposed that assurance of safety and security is seen as a basic factor for the notion of quality of the tourism product.They further claimed that food safety is a multidisciplinary problem that consists of food processing and legislation , management systems and organizational culture ,microbiological , chemical and physical hazards and human behaviour. Food is also a tourism product ,and thus the safety and security of food should be paid attention to. Dwyer et al. (1998 ) further acknowledged that modern tourism and hospitality organizations are facing formidable challenges which are consumers' demand on higher quality of food, governments' guarantee of safety. Meler and Zdenko Cerovic (2003) presented their view that we should always bear in mind that the foreign tourist consumers are very demanding and simultaneously dainty, this is primarily due to to their relatively greater purchasing power. They further claimed that a search for high-quality , highly diversified , healthy , natural and biologically specially selected food , preferably to bear a renowned trademark as a guarantee of quality, begins to prevail. From these , we can see that how much tourist consumers care about the quality.According to Lepp and Gibson (2003) and Tikkanen (2007) , they hypothesized that more experienced tourists intend to satisfy higher order needs while less experienced tourists are more likely to be occupied with lower needs such as food and safety.The authors discovered that the mass tourists perceived strange food to be more of a concern. They further claimed that men perceived less risks than women and the respondents with the least experience will perceive greater risks. They ,on the other hand , stated that strange food was seen as a risk factor among the tourists most averse to novelty, namely the mass tourists. The perception of risk associated with strange food varied in which the familiarity seeking individuals' perceived higher degrees of risk is also presented by them. This point is also affirmed by another author that the perceptions of the availability of good food and an absence of anxiety about food hygiene being seen as a strength and opportunity and is acknowledged to be a visitor concern and possible priority. (Centre for Hospitality Research, 2005; Henderson, 2009). I agree with this point since risk , anxiety , and safety are actually interrelated.When we perceive high risk and feel high level of anxiety , the degree of safety will directly become lower.It is rather common that we do not have a sense of security in terms of food quality and safety on which the food we have never tasted before when we travel to another places away from our home countries. The issues of tastiness, hygiene will definitely incur in our minds before we taste the food. Food hygiene is another matter of significance (Griffth, 2006; Henderson, 2009). Another group of authors agreed with this point by stating that tourists do place their concern on the accommodation which they stay,tourist spots and restaurants,the cleanliness of streets and hygiene level of food available at a destination besides from the cleanliness and hygience at airports. (Yuksel and Yuksel, 2001; Kozak, 2001; Narayan, et al., 2008) The hygience level is moving the same way with the level of safety.The higher the hygiene level,the higher the level of safety.


Poor quality and service failure can bring a negative impact on health, disrupting trips and tarnishing destination reputations.(Pendergast, 2006; Joan C. Henderson, 2009). Health risks stemming from poor food and water quality are perceived to be greater in Asia and Africa than in Europe and Australasia. (Lepp and Gibson , 2003; Tikkanen ,2007). Since poor quality and service failure bring negative impacts on health,trips and destination reputations,as well as Asia gives other perception for poor food and water quality , certain measures should be taken.For example, if tourists get food poisoning after having their meal in one of the hawker or restaurant in Malacca, this will not only affect the reputation of the hawker or restaurant but also bring negative impact to Malacca tourism. If this particular tourist shares his/her unpleasant experience to others after returning to his/her country, this will undoubtedly bring a negative impact to Malacca tourism since word-of mouth is a very powerful tool to consumer's intention and decision making. Word-of-mouth(WOM) information brings a major influence in consumer decision-making process. (Dichter, 1966; Bayus, 1985; Bansal and Voyer, 2000; Ho Lai Ying and Cindy M.Y. Chung, 2007 ).With this supporting point from the authors, the word-of-mouth is indeed an powerful tool in affecting consumers' perception. Henderson (2009) stressed that the food hawkers who are ubiquitous on streets and beaches in part of the developing world should not be neglected,even though they are often unregulated and belong to the informal tourism economy.This may give us an awareness that as some countries may just focus on the quality of those hotels and restaurants and overlook those food hawkers.Actually,when the tourist first come to a country , they will get a prior exposure to the hawkers before the hotels and restaurant.The very first impression they get from the hawker may affect their impression on the country overall image. Henderson (2009) also mentioned that a country's food said to be a vital dimension of destination image and the theme has always been used in advertising,notably of locations which are traditionally associated with fine foods namely France and Italy.In this case , if a tourist experiences a pleasant dining experience and trip in Malacca , he/she will help Malacca to give a free advertising to others via word-of-mouth.The destination image of Malacca is then build up and promoted widely. Tourists expect top service and food quality and they demand for a various dining venues and menu options with an increasing emphasis in regional specialities and fresh ingredients.I agree with this point as when the tourist make a trip to another places, they are usually with a very relaxed and pleasurable mood , and they will often expect a high quality of food to get satisfaction in which they may not have tasted it before in their home countries. (Brumback, 1999; Sparks et al., 2003 ).


Formal systems of regulation ,inspection and control are vital to build and retain tourist confidence. (MacLaurin, 2002; Larsen et al., 2007 ; Henderson, 2009).They stated that with these procedures in guaranteeing standards and preventing outbreaks of food poisoning or disease due to inadequacies in storage and preparation,tourists and the tourism industry can then be reassured about personal safety within a food context,threats that may bring damage to destination image and visitor arrivals if sufficiently grave.The authors had seen the importance of the impact of food to tourism and stressed that regulation , inspection and control should be implemented.They brought up his additional concerns about the quality of food and service , as well as its provenance and authenticity.They further emphasized that tourism industry should emcompass the competences to fulfil marketing promises so that disappointed customers and harmful publicity and be avoided. Tourists and the tourism industry around the world hence said to have shared an interest in food,despite that certain concerns must be addressed to ensure visitor expectations are met and perhaps exceeded (Herderson, 2009). Gastronomic experiences play a role in determining perceptions and sastisfaction with the overall travel experience (Remmington and Yuksel, 1998; Neild et al., 2000; Henderson, 2009). Even one low-quality partial product especially food might affect tourist consumers' dissatisfaction and which might also influence consumers' dissatisfaction with an overall integrated tourist product, as the consumers comprehend the tourist products integrally (Marcel Meler and Zdenko Cerovic,2003).They stated that this might lead to an expenditure cancellation in an entity of the tourism industry offer or in a specific spatially encompassed environment , being in any case the most undesired results when it comes to foreign consumers.Morever,the authors specified that although food , be it to a lesser extent , might be a motivational factor when it comes to tourist trends ,in contrast , it might also be a decisive factor in the abandonment of a tourist destination.The authors here again bring up the point that how the quality of food can influence the destination image either in the positive or negative way. Henderson (2009) agreed this point by saying that food tourism is seen as a possible competitive advantage and it can be a primary element in the branding of a country or destination by marketers. From here , we can see that the tourists' overall travel experience is much link to the food.Dissapointed customers ,vistitor expectation ,perception and satisfaction is mentioned above.A customer will be disappointed if his/her expectation is not met ,what he/she perceive is not presented to him/her and thus satisfaction is not achieved. Thus , the quality and safety of food in terms of tastiness, hygiene should be paid attention so as to ensure the tourist a pleasant travel experience.If they have a great experience with Malacca food , I am sure they will make a repeat trip to Malacca in the future.As such , food will then play an essential role in boosting Malacca tourism. Henderson (2009) stated that even Las Vegas is investing in food to assist in its reinvention and repositioning as a tourist destination , and no longer rely on gambling alone. He added that Las Vegas already have existing outstanding restaurants with famous chefs now (Henderson, 2009). In this case , we can see that Las Vegas also sees the strengths of food to the tourism and try to invest and invent more in their food industry, Malacca should also follow suit and place the importance on food so as to help to boost the Malacca tourism. Herderson (2009) further proposed that the Scottish agency has also launched a nationwide programme to act as a reminder for the hospitality industry to the importance of the role of food in a successful tourism industry and encourage improvements.


Maslow's hierarchy and food tourism


Food tourism based on physiological needs

When physiological needs are the motivation for food tourism , food is then regarded as a tourist attraction. (Hjalager and Richards,2002; Tikkanen ,2007) .They brought up an example that the quality claimed and the variety of meals on the cruise lines is attracting customers.They added that tax-free alcohol shopping and excellent meals on the boat are said to be the main motivations for cruising.In addition, they claimed that both the plentiful food offered on boats and with reasonable prices will attract tourists. There has been cross-border food tourism between Finland and Sweden since 1960s.(Heiskanen,2006, Tikkanen ,2007).They reported that Finnish people used to travel to Sweden to buy foodstuffs, especially butter in the 1960s. However, the differences in the taxation on the foodstuffs between the countries are said to have brought an impact on cross-border food tourism by them.As mentioned above , we do also discuss about the link between physiological needs and food tourism.For cross-border food tourism,for example ,maybe the tourists are addicted to the nyonya kuih and the pineapple tarts after they have tasted it for the first time , then the next time they may plan to travel from their home countries just to buy them.


Food tourism based on safety needs

Food tourism related to safety needs consists mainly of domestic and international food , as well as health and safety conferences , where participants are mostly university researchers ,health officers and retailers. (Tikkanen ,2007).Food safety is an international concern.(CIES,2006; Tikkanen ,2007).Tourists do put much concern on the safety of the food they consume when they travel abroad.


Food tourism based on social needs

Food is becoming the focus point of festivals and special events that attract tourists as well as local residents.(Getz,1991; Tikkanen ,2007).The wine and food trails is said to have helped the tourists to create their personal experiences while "crawling " through agricultural landscapes.The availability of special kinds of food e.g.wines fruits , fish have given rise to festivals and other events in numerous places throughout the world.(Hjalager and Antonioli Corigliano,2000; Tikkanen ,2007).Social interaction with others,creation of a community spirit,status or recognition of achievement , and philanthropy or charitable contributions are said to be the possible social motives for attending events.Futhermore, the possible physiological motives for attending such events are to eat ,drink or to be entertained.(Shone and Parry,2004).(Levinsanomat,2006; Tikkanen ,2007) proposed that food and food events can be seen as complementing the trip and contributing to the trip's success and to the tourist's consumption experience,however, they can also form a top event during the trip.Thus , the food and activities linked to it may result in the region's core attraction.Example was presented by (Kuopip,2006, Tikkanen ,2007) that the International Wine Festival in Kuopio collected about 50,000 visitors in 2003.(Bell and Valentine, 1997; Joan C. Henderson, 2009) shared the same opinion that with regard to benefits , food do offer pleasure and entertainment and serves as a social purpose.She stated that dining habits can also afford insights into ways of life,(Hegarty and O'Mahoney, 2001; Williams, 1997) further stated that it helps tourists understand differences between their own culture and those with which they come in to contact and and interact with.


Food tourism based on esteem needs

(Kainuu,2006; Tikkanen ,2007) stated that provincial ala carte projects have been set up to promote the culinary food tourism.There is perhaps a continuum of commitment among tourists and organized activities like sampling , and learning about food are said to be undertaken by those with a more serious and with special interest(Enteleca Research and Consultancy, 2000; Joan C. Henderson, 2009).Such food-based tourism has been variously labeled by them as culinary tourism(Wolf, 2002; Joan C. Henderson, 2009),gastronomy tourism(Hjalanger and Richards,2002; Joan C. Henderson, 2009) and tasting tourism(Boniface, 2003; Joan C. Henderson, 2009) in addition to food tourism.(Hall et al.,2003; Joan C. Henderson, 2009).(Hall 2003; Joan C. Henderson, 2009) further stated that these types of tourism usually incorporate an appreciation of beverages,for both alcoholic and non-alcoholic.Wine tourism is nonetheless be studied and marketed independently.(Hall et a.l 2000; Joan C. Henderson, 2009).In the survey of rural tourism theme group , the Italians are found out to have an interest in breakfast foodways and the Finnish food,the Englishmen are interested in breakfast foodways and possibilities to have meals in the foodway,the Frenchmen are interested in good meal points as a part of foodway ;the Germans are interested in the meal points in rural area in which food offering is prepared of local raw materials;the Danish are interested in the vineyards as a part of the business trips and the Japanese are interested in study trips under the food culture theme. (Kainuu,2006; Tikkanen ,2007).(Food and Wine Trails, 2007; Joan C. Henderson, 2009) stated that there are also companies which are specializing in small group tours to areas of the world famous for their food and wine or those which are less well known.


Food tourism based on self-actualizing needs

(Halloway 1998; Tikkanen ,2007) categorized business as the purpose of a visit in meetings and conferences.Food trade fair tourism is said to include the international and domestic food trade fairs.There are a few domestic food trade fairs annually.For example , the Food Trade Fair in Kauhajoki attracted about 13,000 visitiors during three days.(Ruokamessut,2006; Tikkanen ,2007).Food experts, such as cooks , restaurant managers,food wholesale buyers are business tourists who seek new kinds of culinary ideas and new food products when they travel around the world.~ For those who are on self-catering vacations may also buy ingredients and cook meals by themselves as well as patronize commercial establishments.(WTO, 2003;Joan C. Henderson, 2009) (WTO, 2003;Joan C. Henderson, 2009)stated that other tourists that have a more casual attitude yet they must also decide upon what and where to eat when away from home.He also mentioned about dining out and trying national and local cuisines are an agreeable pastimes on holiday and a diversion for some business travel , meetings ,incentives , conferences as well as exhibitions travelers.Special produce and especially if closely linked to the destination,is a popular souvenir and useful gift.Consumption patterns are said to may change on the traveller's return as a result of exposure to previously unknown foodstuffs and methods of preparation.


Figure 3. Sectors of food tourism in Finland classified by the hierarchy of needs(Tikkanen, 2007)


In short , the empirical findings state that when classifying food tourism by sectors, Maslow's hierarchy of needs and motivations can then be used as the basis in the classification.Physiological needs are said to be the main motivation for food tourism as they are related to food itself.Safety needs are basically in the form of food safety and hygiene knowledge are the main motives when participating in the food safety conferences.Social needs includes the social interaction with other people relates to vineyard tourism and food event tourism where food acts as the element in the tourism service product.Esteem needs are said to be fulfilled in culinary food tourism namely foodways and provincial by visitor's experiences when they become familiar with the new tastes in the new cultures' culinary offerings.The last one , self-actualizing needs are realized in the form of trade fairs and conferences that increase the visitor's knowledge as well as competences related to food . (Tikkanen, 2007). (Joan C. Henderson, 2009) said that food festivals are often arranged that it involves several enterprises and a series of events, celebrating local fare.


In his findings , he mentioned that past studies on the role of food in tourism viewed food as an attraction ,as a product component , as an experience , as a cultural phenomenon as well as as a link between tourism and food production.In his findings , he found out that role of food plays in tourism may also be based on the needs of the tourist and hence constitutes the main motivation for tourism.(Tikkanen, 2007).