What Is Prejudice And Intergroup Conflict Politics Essay
Prejudice is one of the social psychological phenomenon characteristic of the group, reflecting life in the complex psychological relationship and communication behavior of humans. Anywhere, in any interaction, at that we can also encounter prejudice. Prejudice is among individuals with other individuals, between groups with different groups of people, between people with different ethnic groups. Moreover, in social life, ethnic and religious issues are inherently self-contained complex. The relationships among ethnic groups, besides the cooperation, always have the conflict. Especially ethnic issues in the context of recent years, the world's conflicts, conflicts between ethnic, racial increasingly become destabilizing factor in many countries. The presence of prejudice will enhance un-friendly relationship between individuals and between the groups themselves, among the nations together. In modern day, there are many different views about intergroup conflict. The sociology, political science and ethnology often consider ethnic conflict as the real struggle between the peoples on the basis of a conflict of interest or ethnic differences, religious beliefs, etc. Many ethnic conflicts occur due to different perceptions or disagreements about the language, customs, culture, traditions, religion, policies and other characteristics mood. The climax of the development of prejudice and hatred may lead to conflicts between individuals, between groups, between ethnic, racial conflict and war could happen.For example: about the political situation in Thailand with demonstrations by the red protestors to overthrow the Thailand government or terrorist attacks shocked the world on 11 September, 2001. The series of attacks attacked on New York City and Washington DC. These attacks have redefined the concept of global politics for leaders of the Americans and required them to worry about security issues.
According to J.P Chaplin (1985), Prejudice is positive or negative is formed on the basis of emotion, a belief is not sympathetic to the subject is thinking or behavior similar to the other  , while according to Kramer (1949)  , Prejudice is a component of cognitive, emotional, behavioral. It is a manifestation of wisdom, it evoked feelings or emotions of people, is the performance of his thoughts about others with specific behaviors. Another opinion assumed that prejudice is the negative attitude of a group or a member of the group. It includes an assessment of the client in a hurry when they are exposed to. Prejudice may adversely affect the relationship between individuals and between groups. Thus, although there are many different views around this problem, but failure to the end the authors have looked upon the same basic in some places. Most of them want to emphasize the issue of a lack of awareness bases, lack of scientific basis of previous personal or another individual before an event, a certain phenomenon.
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THE TERROR ATTACK OF SEPTEMBER 11
The historical background
On Tuesday, September 11th, 2001, series of suicide terrorist attacks had been occurred in the U.S. and it coordinated with 911's event. A group of hijacker almost simultaneously hijacked four passenger aircrafts Boeing to be more effective in attacking the domestic flights within the U.S. The main group of hijackers flew two planes crashed into the Twin Towers of the World Trade Center in Manhattan, New York - each aircraft crashed into one of the highest tower. Within two hours, both towers collapsed. One other driver hijacked plane crashed Tuesday into the headquarters of the United States Department of Defense at the Pentagon in Arlington County, Virginia. Wednesday aircraft dropped a field in Somerset County, Pennsylvania, the Pittsburgh 129 km (80 miles) to the east, after passengers resisted. According to the official count records 2,986 deaths in the attacks, including the 19 hijackers.
National Commission on terrorist attacks in the United States said that all the terrors were related to Islamic organization Al-Qaeda. The report also said that Osama bin Laden was guilty of this attack, while Khalid Shaikh Mohammed, who planned the attack on September 11.
According to the United States, events 9 / 11 as part of plans to kill Americans everywhere in the world can put out by bin Laden  . Terrorism campaign has taken advantage of religious belief and religious orders originating from a (Fatwa) issued in 1998 by bin Laden, Aymn al-Zawahiri, Abu-Yasir Rifa'i Ahmad Taha, Shaykh Mir Hamzah, and Fazlur Rahman
Muslims have accused the United States: Resource exploitation Arabian Peninsula; United State has supported the dynasty mode and the exploitation of people in the Middle East region, i.e. the people oppressed; Placing military bases in the Arabian Peninsula, i.e. infringement of Muslim holy land, targets threaten neighboring Muslim countries; United State wants to create discord between the Muslim countries etc. In a video tape in 2004, Bin Laden said that these actions is to "restore freedom to our nation", to "punish the aggressor" and to undermine the U.S. economy. Bin Laden declared that the goal of a long holy war is "bleeding America to the country exhausted." Both the United States and Al-Qaeda are trying to present this conflict as a battle between good and evil. Committee's report 9 / 11 claims that the hostile attitude of Khalid Shaikh Mohammed, who was considered the "chief architect" of the attacks on September 11, comes from "the disagreement violent foreign policy of U.S. support for Israel. A similar engine was required to fly a plane hijackers crashed into the twin towers WTC: Mohamed Atta was described by Ralph Bodenstein - who has traveled, worked and talked with him - as "absolutely confident that the U.S. wants to protect Israel."
Africa Ethic conflicts:
Civilized world are in XXI century, but it is still not any day without gunfire. After the order of 2 poles are broken, the world held the collaborative process - struggling - get into each other and transform each other extremely complex to set up a new world order - the order in the direction of multi-pole. Meanwhile, the world was shaken further by a series of regional conflicts, internal opposition. From 1945, although there is no world war will occur, but more than 60 small wars with normal weapons and smart weapons - the weapons of high technology has found million people were killed. It seems that the cold war still equivocal somewhere would not be leaving this world.
The small wars have different shapes however; it can be divided into seven categories: regional war, insurrection, terrorist activity, ethnic conflict, and religious war between the conflicting economic interests between the nation-state sovereignty, the war because of political ambition and the civil war. The war has been dominated by different in everywhere. Most wars are started from the said ethnic issues or problems related to ethnicity. Many wars tended to be long lasting; lead to risk of new conflict is threatening millions of civilians.
In Africa, ethnic conflict is generally characterized as usually happens within a country of many ethnic groups or tribes. In many African countries, ethnic conflict is always a controversial topic. It is estimated that in Africa today there are nearly 1,000 people, different tribes  . Each nation has unique characteristics. There, the influence of the central government is only a part, but more important is dominated by power and prestige of the chiefs of the tribes. The workers of the tribes have disagreements with each other or disagree with the central government, if no measures to remove very easily cause the explosion. Moreover, colonial domination in the area previously had left a map of the boundaries between countries are not clear. Sometimes the same ethnic or tribal people, but once again divided into several different arrays. Thereby leading to situations where the State government in the hands of this tribe, people and other tribes did not respond. It is easy to be explosive into a conflict when the government of the bourgeoisie dominated in some countries was set up, but not enough prestige and power, lack of a proper national policy, should not be set and unite the whole nation.
First of all, it is the historical reasons. It is the accumulation of a long conflict decades ago, would be a profound hatred from the past to. The conflict itself has many forms, ethnic conflicts, religious, ideological and economic interests, and can also be conflicts arising from the roots of nationalism. Secondary, the trend of national independence is confirmed, the nation has asserted itself, just add to the world of globalization, as each nation will be strengthened stronger. Since then, the problems the nation is not done and is not approved satisfactory, easy to cause explosion. Thirdly, the role of the international community to put out the fire of conflict has also limited so many countries and organizations, many of the world's politicians, especially United Nations was active but efficiency is not high.
Besides that, almost all of the ethnic conflict which contains the benefit of both countries directly involved and both countries stand out. During the conflict, many outside elements want to get used of to get benefit for themselves. Someone's hide the imperialist forces of "good deeds" to do bad things. Finally, the imperialism in many cases has made the situation to become more seriously. To sell more weapons, but the name of the driver guns the modern world would never want a peaceful world. In addition, they mouth claims "peace", but actually inside again abetted, abetting, or find ways to destabilize the search for her firm.
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To solving ethnic problems, limitations and going to erase the hatred, ethnic conflict and ethnicity, crucial and urgent to properly apply Lenin's views on freedom determination of peoples. In particular historical circumstances of the world today, rights of ethnic groups are represented by the following:
Each nation must be right to life, survival. Right to life includes the international community must acknowledge the existence of every nation, tribe. In a multi-ethnic country, the State must recognize and protect the existence of ethnic communities, to avoid the small ethnic groups to be dissolved into a large community.
Every nation and tribe has equal rights. The world must recognize the equal rights of each country. In each country must also implement the equal rights of tribes, ethnic groups, does not allow a nation is the upper level, standing on the other ethnic groups
Each country has its own sovereignty and protects its legitimate sovereignty, not interfering in the internal affairs of other nations. Self-determination including the right to freely choose the regime decided to build their own social, self-management of their society, no one has the right violated.
All peoples have the right to integrate with the times, using the common achievements of human beings in science, engineering, technology, culture, art ...
Each country must strengthen the legal basis, the constitution and ensure the rights of all citizens in the country. Citizens regardless of ethnic origin in a country have equal rights in all aspects of economic activities, politics and society.
Every nation, every country should strengthen mobilization, education and sense of responsibility to the community, a sense of solidarity with other peoples on the basis of mutual respect, work together to build unity, peace, mutual love between peoples and the fight against these acts of division, hatred among ethnic groups
The bad prejudices and intergroup conflicts occur everywhere and they are becoming danger in the world. We believe that knowledge based on respect for diversity of culture and religion is the basis key for peace and harmony. The right to free speech, free press of the people shall be respected and guaranteed by law. However, the implementation of these rights must be accompanied by respect for human dignity, moral values, traditions and culture and not to incite hatred between peoples and religions.
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