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Talibinization And The Security Threat For Pakistan Politics Essay

A fundamentalist Muslim movement whose militia took control of much of Afghanistan from early 1995 and in 1996 took Kabul and set up an Islamic state. The Taliban were overthrown by US-led forces and Afghan groups in 2001 following the events of September 11 [1] . In generic terms, the word ‘Taliban’ is derived from ‘Talib’ (a student) which means the one who seeks for knowledge. According to Pashto language, Taliban generally denotes the students who are studying in ‘deeni’ (religious) madrassas. The term Talibanization generally used to be perceived as a process being implemented at the religious centers in terms of imparting religious education to students (Taliban) [2] .

The modern kingdom of Afghanistan was founded in 1747. [3] It was Great Britain and

Russia who, in 1893, agreed, between themselves, that the river Oxus should be the northern frontier of Afghanistan. In 1893 the Durand Line was established by Sir Mortimer Durand to demarcate boundaries between Russia and British Empire. [4] The Talibans are considered as Islamic extremist students, who believe in rigid values of Islam and have firm belief on Quran and Sunnah. Taliban prefer the implementation of Shariat law in Islamic countries and make stress to lead life according to the teaching of Islam. During their rule ethnic and Islamic minorities were cleansed and development was all but ceased as the youth were turned out of secular education to memorize the Quran and female forced out of public life altogether. [5] 

Taliban’s tradition mentioned their creation as a reaction of the injustice that was practice during the mujahedeen era of Afghan politics. The high degree of social injustice with women was seen in Afghanistan. At some point it is assumed Pakistan’s Inter Services Intelligence (ISI) came to notice village’s Mullah and his rag-tag bunch of Islamic student/fighters (Taliban) began go land support [6] . The danger to the Taliban is that the Pashtun centrist may be acquiescent to cooperation in a new Afghanistan, and that the jihadist with a more global view may be marginalized into criminals and simple terrorists.

Talibinization refers to the political and social process following or imitating the political system, religious laws and life style of Taliban. The process of Talibanization in tribal areas was gradual and they were successful in establishing parallel justice and administrative systems. Taliban leaders’ statements suggested that their agenda was to enforce their system not only in FATA or NWFP but all over the country. The Taliban matured into a full-fledged insurgent movement within four to five years. [7] The short-term objective of the Taliban was to initiate a Taliban insurgency in Pakistan and a counterinsurgency in Afghanistan for the US-led occupation forces through ‘jihad’ and to enforce a new social, political and economic order based on their ideology or interpretation of Islam. Immediately after 9/11, the United Nation responds to the emerging situation and builds a consensus to fight against the religious militants. In 2001 Afghan War established against Taliban and Al Qaida. During this war the US was backed by large number of states and was given the right to take action under UN Charter, Chapter 7, Article 51 which recognizes the inherit right of individual or collective self defense if an arm attack occur. [8] 

Pakistan strategically linked with Afghanistan. Pakistan is bordered by Afghanistan in west and India in east. Since the late 1970s Afghanistan has suffered brutal civil war in addition to foreign interventions in the form of the 1979 Soviet invasion and the 2001 U.S. invasion. When we see Pakistan's security dilemma, it is necessary to analyze the Afghanistan complex situation, the resistance movement, afghan civil war, afghan refugee problem, Talibanization, and then evaluate the security situation. [9] 

Pakistan is a Muslim religion with weapon and has a long rival potential enemy with India since 1947. Pakistan is the front line state of American anti-terror war and important Muslim country Pakistan had many aspects to study. Strategically it had been noted that Afghanistan and Pakistan are two nations which have the most strategic impact on the current anti terror war. The notion of Talibinization not only combines the two nations together in real politics but also helps us understand the political and social development in the North Western border of Pakistan. The Pakistan sided tribal areas are natural home for Taliban. The could not only grab political power in Afghanistan and increase their own impact, but also have a large number of support from radical religious student and can be protected by tribal elders and the mosques while the government of US, Pakistan and Afghanistan could do nothing at all. Talibinization in tribal area of Pakistan can figure deeply down to the complicated ethnic and religious conflicts and the relationships between federal and local governments within border and shows the internal reasons why the anti terror wars have had little effect in Afghanistan. It would also offer a reference for the China-Pakistan relationship. The Talbinization is not limited to the tribal areas of the FATA. Since 2006, it spread deeper towards north of Pakistan. We have also seen the incident of Lal Masjid took place in Islamabad in July 2007 shows that Taliban is trying to enter the heart of the city. After 2007, the government has sent more than ten thousand soldiers to Swat Region; Pakistan Military has killed more than 130, while the local resident suffered no small loss. The Lal Masjid event shows the end of alliances between military and mullahs since the 1980s. Lal Masjid has played two roles in promoting national policies First one is to organize the mujahedeen to resist the soviet invasion in Afghanistan and launch attack against India. Second one is to support the Saudi funded Sunni Islamists against the Iranian backed Shiite groups in sectarian conflicts. In 2008 the impact of Islamic militant was spreading in most parts of Pakistan. Undoubtedly the Talibanization is not only the unique political and social phenomenon in FATA, but also a major issue for the whole Pakistan. [10] Pakistan is today facing four dangerous allegations and one of them is that we are being responsible for giving rise to terrorism in Afghanistan from our tribal areas. Moreover, a new generation of militant is comprised of battle-hardened jihadis with fewer allegiances to religious and tribal leaders and customs. One western press report called Pakistan’s Federally Administrated Tribal Areas (FATA) “the most ungoverned”, combustible region in the world,” and an unrelenting surge in Islamist-related violence in Pakistan has some observer fearing a total collapse of the Pakistani state [11] . The so-called Pakistani Taliban and “Pakistani-based” al-Qaeda has emerged in Pakistan since 2004. Initially, the Talibanization gathered in the North and South Waziristan area, and later spread to Bajur area in the northern part of FATA. Pakistani Taliban forces are also constantly growing and expanding in agencies such as Momand, Aurakzai and Kurram etc, which were relatively stable areas before. Suicide bombing within Pakistan has increased in 2008. CID Director Hayden said in March 2008 that the situation on the Pakistan-Afghanistan border “presents a clear and present danger to Afghanistan, to Pakistan, and to the West in general, and the United State in particular.” He agreed with other US top officials who believe that possible future terrorist attack on the US homeland likely would be originate from that region [12] . Moreover, frustration is developing in the region regarding the extended presence of foreign troops in Afghanistan. While we witness an increase in drone attacks inside the tribal areas and the social control of Taliban is expanding with the passing of each new day. Another main reason is that the democratic government, political parties and civil societies have yet to come out of the shock the Musharaf regime had imposed. At that time Pak Army is fighting in tribal areas against Taliban. Except navy all departments of armed forces are being utilized in this war. Pakistan faces double-edged media propaganda, internally as well as externally. The popular national press is very critical of Pakistan’s counterinsurgency collaboration with the US and the West. And the international press is doubtful about Islamabad’s operational efforts. The national and international media are oversimplifying the complex nature of the insurgency and its regional dimensions. This is fueling misperceptions among the international community about the issue and hurts Pakistan’s diplomatic efforts to find a comprehensive solution.

Statement of Problem:

The rise of Talibanization had created a great threat to the security of Pakistan.

Significance of Studies

The Issue of security causes a widening gape between the developed and developing countries. The importance of this study is that currently Pakistan is facing a great security threat from Taliban and after 9/11 it is a front line state against terrorism. Today the Taliban and al Qaeda insurgencies are equally active in Afghanistan and Pakistan. Severe threats are faced by Pakistan in the past era due to its border with Afghanistan. And Pakistan’s participation in 1989 during Soviet invasion in Afghanistan had spread Talibanization in Pakistan. This study tells that how the Talibanization concept had started and emerged in Pakistan in past eras due to the past blunders and how Pakistan had to face severe damage after 9/11. The United States claimed that FATA and some adjoining areas were serving as a safe haven for Al-Qaeda leadership and command and control of this leadership provide a source of reinforcement for the Taliban who crossed into Afghanistan to attack the American-led coalition forces, including ISAF and NATO. Al Qaida had got firm grip over Pakistan territory and created a danger situation in the region. Pakistan’s security threat and perception can easily be understood by this study. This study enables one to understand the pattern of Talibanization in Pakistan clearly and focuses on the security related domestic threats and problems confronted by Pakistan. So the research study will identify the security problem in Pakistan caused by talibanization.

Hypothesis:

Talibanization is adversely affecting the security of Pakistan.

Dependent Variable: Talibanization

Independent Variable: Security of Pakistan

Literature Review:

Talibanization in the tribal area of Pakistan taken from Journal of Middle Eastern and Islamic Studies (in Asia) Vol 1.4 No1, 2010 by Wang Lian, Institute of IR, Peking University. It tells that how corrupt government and political structure had led to spread of talibanization in Pakistan. It tells that talibanization is an extremist, armed violence and mass participation which will seriously affect the political stability in Pakistan and is a great challenge.

Aryana Institute for Regional Research & Advocacy AIRRA. Emerging scenario of talibanization in the region: is there to be a spring offensive? AIRRA Special Edition/Analytical Report by Khadim Hussain and Mohammad Arif. In the article the author tells about how talibanization emerges in the region and what consequences in the region are. It urges all the state holders to cooperate in elimination of terrorism.

An overview of Domestic Threats. Constraints to Pakistan’s Security written by Mubeen Adnan tell about the domestic security challenges and threats which Pakistan is facing. The paper generally focuses on the security related domestic threats and problems confronted by Pakistan. Tracing the domestic dynamics of the threats/constraints confronted, the paper examines the consequential repercussions for the security of Pakistan. To eliminate these threats Pakistan needs development in political social as well as in economical fields.

CRS Report for Congress: Islamist Militancy in the Pakistan-Afghanistan Border Region and U.S. Policy November 21, 2008 by K. Alan Kronstadt (Specialist in South Asian Affairs Foreign Affairs, Defense, and Trade Division) and Kenneth Katzman (Specialist in Middle Eastern Affairs Foreign Affairs Defense, and Trade Division). In this article security threat for Pakistan from Afghanistan is discussed as well as US policy any some measures are also discussed. It also discusses the militant activities increasing in western Pakistan.

A Break from The Past: Trends in Pakistan’s Security Policy After 9/11, Shabana Fayyaz; SASSU Research Paper No. 2, August 2005.in this article writer discusses the reason that why Pakistan ally itself with America after 9/11 and what were the policy changes of Pakistan, major disputes which effects the security of Pakistan as well. It also discusses some aspects of Pakistan’s foreign policy changing trends during 9/11 and the role of leadership as well. How leader changes their vision for policy making is also presented in this journal.

Relevance of Study:

This study tells about the rise of Taliban which causes security threat for Pakistan. In this research proposal it is critically examined that due to sharing same border with Afghanistan and entering of Taliban in tribal areas of Pakistan, the Pakistan’s western borders were active in fomenting trouble inside Pakistani territory. The Taliban have reacted by resorting to suicide bombings that have rendered military personnel, defense installations and public places unsafe. The investigations into various incidents of the suicide bombing have revealed that, along with FATA and NWFP, the southern Punjab has become the breeding ground of suicide bombers. The process of Talibanization is likely to get strengthened if the random use of force by the Pakistani troops continues. The killing of innocent people, including women and children, is fast estranging the Pashtoon population from the state. While foreign troops are fighting revolts in this area, people are able to cross the border into Afghanistan from tribal areas of Pakistan. There are a lot of Kashmiri-based resistance organizations that have links with the Taliban in Afghanistan. These organizations include Lashkar e-Taiba and Jaish-e-Muhammad, and these have been added to the U.S State Department list of terrorist groups. NATO and U.S officials have increased their pressure on Pakistan to do more in the war against al-Qaeda and the Taliban. Missile strikes in Pakistan launched by armed, unmanned American Predator Aircraft have been a notorious method in remote region of Pakistan. Such drone attacks Violate Pakistani airspace on a daily bases. War on Terror was imposed on Pakistan. Therefore without regional cooperation and constant military means the task of expelling the Taliban from power in Afghanistan could not have been achieved.

Methodology:

Primary sources mean that it is original article or book created by an individual or sometimes a group of people. In simple terms primary sources come firsthand from the source or person. In my research I have not used the primary source because of lack of resources. Secondary sources are sources that are written about primary sources. Secondary sources analyze, interpret, and discuss information about the primary source. Secondary Sources include journal articles, books, encyclopedias, dictionaries, reviews, newspaper articles, specific essays, etc. I have used secondary source, and have taken much of my research data and ideas from news papers articles, reviews and journals articles.

Division of Chapters:

Chapter 1: Talibanization, a concept and its emergence

In first chapter the meaning of the term Taliban its general perception and how they emerge in the region are discussed briefly. It focuses on the main issues which created social injustice between common people and the intervention of different states in internal matters of Afghanistan, which give a way to Rise of Taliban in the region. It is also discussed here what were the mission of Taliban and how they imposed law and order in the region during their rule.

Chapter 2: Talibanization in Pakistan

In chapter 2 it is briefly described that how Pakistan is strategically linked with Afghanistan and how this link create destability in Pakistan. The coalition between Pakistan and United State After major event of 9/11 in War against terrorism and at the result of this coalition emergence of Talibanization in the tribal areas of Pakistan is also the main theme of this chapter.

Chapter 3: Talibanization in Pakistan created Security threat for Pakistan

In this chapter internal and external security threats that Pakistan is facing today due to talibanization is discussed. It also focuses on that Talibanization has spread more and more into the tribal area of Pakistan and is mainly represented as an extremist, armed violence and mass participation, which will seriously affect the political stability and security in Pakistan

Chapter 4: Conclusion

The main security threat which Pakistan faced from emergence of Taliban to onward is the main frame of this chapter.

Conclusion

To sum up, it is obvious that talibanization in Afghanistan and in tribal areas of Pakistan appears to be enduring and threaten the territorial integrity of the Pakistani state. From the time of Taliban emergence in Pakistan to onward they began to warm up their muscle in areas which affects Pakistan internally as well. Suicide bombing in major cities of Pakistan, attacks on security and intelligence officers, Swat operation, and incident of Lal Masjid are the major events that affect the Pakistan’s national integrity. At the same time, the violation of Pakistani airspace by the US drones in search of militant hideouts and missile attacks on suspected targets became more frequent. The military action in the Pashtoon areas has reduced our once proud national army to the position of Para-military operating against its own people and that suits others more than Pakistan’s own State Interest. It is not only a risk for Pakistan’s strategic interests but many regional and global powers also want to secure their interests in this area. In the whole country there is security high alert against any act of terrorism. When will this war end this is unpredictable now.

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