The History Of The Child Obesity Physical Education Essay
The obesity is one of the most common problems seen in newer generation. Obesity is seen not only in the adults, but also seen in children. Due to obesity much correlate disease occurred. We should keep in mind that today's obese children, will convert into next generation's obese adults and many health problems are occurring by obesity. Due to obesity many severe diseases are occurs like diabetes, hypertension. There are many causes which created obesity.
I. First area of focus -Definitions of and Trends
Overweight and Obesity are measuring by the body mass index. For example According to guidelines in National Institutes of Health, an adult is considered underweight if his BMI is less than 18.5, overweight if his BMI is 25 or more, and obese if his BMI is 30 or more. Obesity in children is defined by their having a BMI above a given age and sex specific percentile cut-off (Dietz & Bellizzi, 1999). Before obesity is increased, sex and age percentile cuff off have been set for population survey in between 1960 to 1970's (Dietz & Bellizzi, 1999). The NHANES data are ideal for tracking BMI changes in the population because the survey is representative of the United States population. In addition, information is gathered both from questionnaires and from direct medical examination. For example, the individuals included in the medical examination module are weighed and measured by trained professionals (CDC, 2001). Thus obesity is measured by the BMI index in children as well as adults to diagnose the disease.
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Body Mass Index may not be same in different people who are living in different countries and also fatness and weight may differ in different atmospheric area (World Health Organization, "Obesity", 1998). Comparisons of obesity in children across different countries are very complicated. Children's obesity is typically measured by their BMI compared to age-and-sex specific growth charts, because children are growing and their body composition is continuously changing. The obesity definitions based on the same BMI cut off are help for useful comparisons, if sex- age growth pattern are different in Botswana than US (World Health Organization, "Obesity", 1998). Measuring obesity in children and making comparisons in obesity across very different types of people is difficult. Nonetheless, many studies of individual countries have noted increases in childhood obesity in recent years. For example, obesity rates have increased from 1.8 to 2.8 percent among pre-school children in Germany (Kalies, Lenz & Kries, 2009). In different atmospheric area people have different weight and height.
Role of parents is most important factor in increasing in obesity of the children. There were major drastic changes occurred over last ten to twenty years regarding for in number of children with both parents in labour force. These changes in the home environment may provide an explanation for the increase in food away from home and pre-prepared foods observed over this time period, as families value convenience more highly. That is, the changes in the food market outlined above may be driven by consumer demand changes that stem from the increase in households with no full-time homemaker. Note, though, that studies on the effect of maternal employment on the quality of children's diets tend to find no relationship (Johnson, Wright & Crouter, 1992). However, a more recent study that directly examines the effect of maternal employment on childhood obesity concludes that a 10 hour increase in average hours worked per week over a child's lifetime increases the probability that the child is obese by about 1 percentage point (Johnson, Wright & Crouter, 1992). Television is a potentially important contributor to childhood obesity where parental roles may be important. For instance, working parent's children have own freedom without any guidance, so they spend more time in watching television as well as playing indoor games in working hours day(Roberts, Foehr, Rideout & Brodie, 1999). Parents are directly and indirectly affected to the child obesity.
II. Second area of focus -Energy Balance
Children with habit of consuming more fast food are more likely to weigh above normal. When energy intake exceeds energy expenditure, weight gain will result. There also exist many endocrinological or neurological syndromes that can lead to overweight. It has been estimated by Zakus (1982) that less than five percent of childhood obesity cases can occur due to these endogenous factors Main sources energy is beverages including juice as well as soft drinks. Same as in case of fast food, according to studies generally drinking these beverages result in to higher energy intake. Additionally several studies have found a positive relationship between overweight and soft drink consumption (Ludwig, Peterson &Gortmaker, 2001). A positive relationship between sweet beverages like juice, soda and other fruit drinks and overweight have been found in pre-schoolers. Snacking does appear to be a contributor to childhood overweight (Ludwig, Peterson & Gortmaker, 2001). Higher consumption of fast food, soft drinks and snakes which are created obesity in children as well as adult.
Apart from physical activity, energy is also expended through the basal metabolic rate (BMR) and dietary thermogenesis. Several studies focus whether a low BMR is a reason for overweight in children. For example, studying both obese and non-obese adolescents BMR is not reduced in the already obese, and that lowered energy expenditure through BMR is thus not the cause of maintained obesity in adolescents (Bandini, Schoeller & Dietz, 1990). Children are playing indoor games like video games, watching movies. So that energy expenditure is less in children. Much stronger results have been found for the relationship between sedentary activities and overweight and obesity, especially television viewing. The study done by Dietz & Gortmaker (1985) on the role of television in childhood obesity concludes that "each additional hour of television increased the prevalence of obesity by 2 percent". Children are not doing physical activity like exercises and outdoor games. While it did find a relationship with computer use, reading and homework time, these sedentary activities were associated with higher levels of physical activity (Dietz & Gortmaker, 1985). Energy expended by physical activity as well as dietary thermogenesis, but children are playing indoor games instead of outdoor games because of that energy expenditure is less.
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III. Third area of focus Environmental changes
Changes in the food market are indirectly affecting the child obesity. There is a good evidence for increasing obesity which is mainly by soft drinks, role of the fast foods and also some kind of snakes (Putnam & Gerrior, 1997). One clear reason for gain weight is that increasing intake of food without utilization of the energy expenditure will cause to weight gain. Thus, it seems reasonable to investigate the timing of changes in the food market that might have contributed to the increase in childhood overweight and obesity (Putnam & Gerrior, 1997). Declines in the relative price of food have led to increased intake, and hence to increases in obesity by increase fat and carbohydrate deposition. For instance, if the prices of foods are decline, consumption of the food intake will lead to increase which create obesity. Philipson & lakdawalla (2002) calculate up to the 40% of adult have higher BMI since 1980 can be attributed to the increase demand for calories which occurred by lower prices. Due to increase selling fast food as well as soft drinks compared to past from market, decline the relative prize of the food have led to increase intake which increase obesity in children.
Changes in the Built Environments are responsible for the child obesity. Technological changes have resulted in daily living being less physically active can be directly or indirectly effect to children. Basic insight that technological changes have resulted in daily living being less physically active can be applied. Childhood obesity is indirectly depending upon the historical trends and differences between developed and developing countries. Technological changes have resulted in peoples living habits and become less physical active which directly applied to the children (Philipson, Posner, 2003).According to the pay scale of parents, growth of children also affects by accommodation and facilities. Higher accommodations have good facilities. So children do not do any activity, due to that they become obese (Philipson, Posner, 2003). Technological equipments are easily available than past, because of that changes in children's physical activity are seen Due to increasing vehicles in 21 the century, children do not go to school by walking and other activities. In 1977, 15.8 percent of trips by children age 5 to 15 were by foot or bicycle. By 1990 this had fallen to 14.1 and then fell further to 9.9 percent by 1995 (Corless, Ohland, 1999). Technological changes, living life style and working hours of parents are creating direct impact in child obesity.
In conclusion child obesity is occurred due to the environmental changes, role of parents also take a part in child obesity, type of food consumption, energy equilibrium. These factors are either directly or indirectly affect the child obesity. There were major drastic changes occurred over last ten to twenty years regarding for in number of children with both parents in labour force. Changes in the home environment may provide an explanation for the increase in food away from home and pre-prepared foods observed over this time period, as families get easily food from shop like fast food. Television is a potentially important contributor to childhood obesity. Children with habit of consuming more fast food are more likely to weigh above normal.
If children are eating higher concentration of fast food, it creates weight gain. Apart from physical activity, energy is also expended through the basal metabolic rate. Children are not doing physical activity like exercises and outdoor games. While it did find a relationship with computer use, reading and homework time, these sedentary activities were associated with higher levels of physical activity. Weight gain is occurred by increasing intake of food without utilization of the energy expenditure. Decreasing the prices of the food products is directly related to increase weight gain. Therefore, child obesity is one of the severe disease and health professions, parents and governments should take important steps to prevent child obesity. Parents should take responsibility regarding diet chart of their children.
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