The History Of Child Obesity Physical Education Essay
The increase in childhood obesity worldwide has garnered much recent attention, from Healthcare professionals, health policy experts, childrens advocates, and parents. There is much concern that today's overweight and obese children, will turn into tomorrow's overweight and obese adults, with all the health problems and health care costs associated with obesity. Due to obesity many severe diseases are occurs like diabetes, hypertension.
I. First area of focus -Definitions of and Trends
Overweight and Obesity are measuring by the body mass index. For example According to guidelines in National Institutes of Health, an adult is considered underweight if his BMI is less than 18.5, overweight if his BMI is 25 or more, and obese if his BMI is 30 or more. Obesity in children is defined by their having a BMI above a given age and sex specific percentile cut-off (Dietz & Bellizzi, 1999). These age and sex specific percentile cut-offs have been set for a base population surveyed in the early 1970's, before obesity began to increase (Dietz & Bellizzi, 1999). The NHANES data are ideal for tracking BMI changes in the population because the survey is representative of the United States population. In addition, information is gathered both from questionnaires and from direct medical examination. For example, the individuals included in the medical examination module are weighed and measured by trained professionals (CDC, 2001). Thus obesity is measured by the BMI index in children as well as adults to diagnose the disease.
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BMI may not be comparable across different countries as the relationship between true fatness and height and weight may differ for people in different environments. For example, some groups may simply have denser body composition than others (World Health Organization, "Obesity", 1998). Comparisons of obesity in children across different countries are very complicated. Children's obesity is typically measured by their BMI compared to age-and-sex specific growth charts, because children are growing and their body composition is continuously changing. If age-sex specific growth patterns are different in Botswana than they are in the United States, then obesity definitions based on the same BMI cut-offs are unlikely to yield useful comparisons (World Health Organization, "Obesity", 1998). Measuring obesity in children and making comparisons in obesity across very different types of people is difficult. Nonetheless, many studies of individual countries have noted increases in childhood obesity in recent years. For example, obesity rates have increased from 1.8 to 2.8 percent among pre-school children in Germany (Kalies, Lenz & Kries, 2009). In different atmospheric area people have different weight and height.
Role of parents is most important factor in increasing in obesity of the children. It is clear that a major change over the past thirty years is in the number of children with both parents in the labour force. These changes in the home environment may provide an explanation for the increase in food away from home and pre-prepared foods observed over this time period, as families value convenience more highly. That is, the changes in the food market outlined above may be driven by consumer demand changes that stem from the increase in households with no full-time homemaker. Note, though, that studies on the effect of maternal employment on the quality of children's diets tend to find no relationship (Johnson, Wright & Crouter, 1992). However, a more recent study that directly examines the effect of maternal employment on childhood obesity concludes that a 10 hour increase in average hours worked per week over a child's lifetime increases the probability that the child is obese by about 1 percentage point (Johnson, Wright & Crouter, 1992). Television is a potentially important contributor to childhood obesity where parental roles may be important. For example, school-age children of working parents may now increasingly spend their afternoon hours unsupervised, which may increase their screen time. More generally, it is parents who make decisions about the number and placement of televisions in a home (Roberts, Foehr, Rideout & Brodie, 1999). Parents are directly and indirectly affected to the child obesity.
II. Second area of focus -Energy Balance
Children consuming more fast food will be more likely to be overweight. When energy intake exceeds energy expenditure, weight gain will result. There do also exist endocrinological or neurological syndromes that can lead to overweight. While these are often tested for, especially in cases of childhood obesity, it has been estimated that less than five percent of obesity cases result from these "endogenous" factors (Zakus, 1982). Source of energy is sweet beverages, mainly soft drinks but also including juice. As was the case with fast food, studies generally first establish that drinking these beverages results in higher overall energy intake. Additionally, several studies have found a positive relationship between overweight and soft drink consumption (Ludwig, Peterson &Gortmaker, 2001). Pre-schoolers have found a positive relationship between all sweet beverages including soda, juice and other fruit drinks and overweight. Snacking does appear to be a contributor to childhood overweight (Ludwig, Peterson & Gortmaker, 2001). Higher consumption of fast food, soft drinks and snakes which are created obesity in children as well as adult.
Energy is expended not only by physical activity, but also through dietary thermogenesis and the basal metabolic rate (BMR). Several studies examine whether a low BMR is responsible for overweight in children. For example, studying both obese and non-obese adolescents BMR is not reduced in the already obese, and that lowered energy expenditure through BMR is thus not the cause of maintained obesity in adolescents (Bandini, Schoeller & Dietz, 1990). Children are playing indoor games like video games, watching movies. So that energy expenditure is less in children. Much stronger results have been found for the relationship between sedentary activities and overweight and obesity, especially television viewing. The canonical study on the role of television in childhood obesity, finding that each additional hour of television increased the prevalence of obesity by 2 percent (Dietz & Gortmaker, 1985). Children are not doing physical activity like exercises and outdoor games. Interestingly, while it did find a relationship with computer use, reading and homework time, these sedentary activities were associated with higher levels of physical activity (Dietz & Gortmaker, 1985). Energy expended by physical activity as well as dietary thermogenesis, but children are playing indoor games instead of outdoor games beacause of that energy expenditure is less.
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III. Third area of focus Environmental changes
Changes in the food market are indirectly affecting the child obesity. There is a strongest evidence for role of soft drinks, followed by slightly mixed results on the role of fast food, with their being very little evidence for a specific effect of snack foods (Putnam & Gerrior, 1997).
One clear smoking gun food in terms of energy intake, it is clear that more food, without a concomitant increase in energy expenditure will result in weight gain. Thus, it seems reasonable to investigate the timing of changes in the food market that might have contributed to the increase in childhood overweight and obesity (Putnam & Gerrior, 1997). Declines in the relative price of food have led to increased intake, and hence to increases in obesity by increase fat and carbohydrate deposition. For example, argue that declines in the relative price of food have lead to increased intake, and hence to increases in obesity. They calculate that up to 40 percent of the adult increase in BMI since 1980 can be attributed to the increased demand for calories that results from lower prices (Philipson, Lakdawalla, 2002). Due to increase selling fast food as well as soft drinks compared to past from market, decline the relative prize of the food have led to increase intake which increase obesity in children.
Changes in the Built Environments are responsible for the child obesity. Technological changes have resulted in daily living being less physically active can be directly or indirectly effect to children. While attractive as a theory of historical trends and of differences between developing and developed countries, it provides little insight into the increase in childhood overweight and obesity over the past 30 years. Nonetheless, the basic insight that technological changes have resulted in daily living being less physically active can be applied to children (Philipson, Posner, 2003). According to the pay scale of parents, growth of children also affects by accommodation and facilities. Higher accommodations have good facilities. So children do not do any activity, due to that they become obese (Philipson, Posner, 2003). Technological equipments are easily available than past, because of that changes in children's physical activity are seen. Part of the increase in vehicle miles is the result of children no longer being able to walk or bike to school or other activities. In 1977, 15.8 percent of trips by children age 5 to 15 were by foot or bicycle. By 1990 this had fallen to 14.1 and then fell further to 9.9 percent by 1995 (Corless, Ohland, 1999).
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