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Design And Implementation Of Front Crawl Swimmer Physical Education Essay

In the sport of swimming, one hundred metre freestylers have used the front crawl technique since the London Olympics in 1908. Front crawl is the most common stroke swum in the freestyle event. The front crawl is the fastest swimming technique used by swimmers in freestyle events. Modern swimming emphasizes performance level through training in water and resistance strength training. Effective resistance training programming for 100m sprint specialist requires an analysis of the physiological demands and biomechanical aspects that contribute to performance. Specific resistance programs are necessary to develop muscular functions such as strength, power, which are needed for short events and speed. This article focuses on analysis of the 100m front crawl and development of strength and power of 100m front crawl specialist. The goals of the resistance program are; development of strength, power and injury prevention of the 100m front crawl specialist.

1.0 Analysis

Before designing resistance training program for 100m front crawl specialist, the physiological demands and biomechanical factors that contribute to performance need to be analysed. The physiological demands are important when deciding upon the muscle function, strength qualities, training frequency, loads, intensity and variation of resistance training program. Biomechanical factors such as the ; contraction type, force, power, rate of force development, stroke rate, distance per stroke, leg kick quantity, angle of propulsion, body position and stability also need to be taken into consideration to facilitate strength and conditioning program framework. The following is the analysis of biomechanical factors and physiological demands which are critical to the design of specific strength program for swimming 100m crawl.

1.1 Biomechanical Factors

1.11 Stroke length, stroke rate

In freestyle races elite swimmers perform front crawl with optimal stroke length and six beat kick in competition (Pyne 2006). In short distance events, elite swimmers show high stroke length and use six beat kick throughout the whole race (Seifert, Boulesteix, Carter, Chollet 2005) (Persyn, Daly, Van Tilborgh, Verhetsel 1983).

The front crawl stroke swum at a specific swim velocity requires application of an effective swimming technique. Swim velocity is determined by stroke length, stroke rate, to a small degree kicking and significant physiological determinants. In front crawl the mathematical equation to calculate speed (in m.s-1) is stroke rate (in Hertz) multiplied by stroke length (in meters), as seen in this formula V = (SR×SL) (Craig & Pendergast 1979).

A swimmer’s ability to reach high speeds is determined by the ability to cover a long distance per stroke while stroking at maximum frequency. A high stroke length value is strongly linked with better swimming economy (Costill, Kovaleski, Porter, Kirwan, Fielding, King 1985), and in previous studies stroke length has been the best discriminative factor of swim velocity (Ludovic, Chollet, Chatard 2007). Ability to cover a long distance per stroke demonstrates a greater propulsive efficiency (Toussaint, Beek 1992) and of the swimmer to reduce drag (Sanders 2002).

Elite swimmers have long stroke lengths which highlights their level of skill and superior expertise (Chollet et al 1997) (Wakayoshi et.al.1993). They also tend to modify the stroke parameters (SR and SL) as their fatigue increases (Dekerle, Nesi, Lefevre, Depret, Sidney, Hout- Marchand 2005). If the coach has to determine the best combination between their Stroke length and stroke rate to swim at the highest velocity (Sidney et.al 2005), they must improve stroke length to reach such a level to begin with (Chollet, Pelayo, Delaplace, Tourny, Sidney 1997). Development of tricep brachii strength and power allows full completion of pull from midpoint to start of recovery and also enhances optimal force development and increase of stroke rate with greater force and length.

1.12 Leg Kick Quantity

In competitive sprint (50m) and middle (100m) distance events in swimming the most common kicking pattern used throughout the race is the six beat kick (Toussaint et.al 1992). The influence of the legs on the propulsion in front crawl varies from 4% (Hollander et.al 1988) to 10% (Deschodt, Arsac, Rouard 1999) when performing the six beat kick pattern. Therefore it would be assumed that the propulsion from two beat or four beat kick would be even lower. However, a recent study by Nakashima (2007) into six beat kicking front crawl swimming was analysed by the swimming human simulation model SWUM. In this study it was found that in the standard six beat front crawl, that the six beat kick contributed approximately 20 – 30 % of all thrust in front crawl and 20% propulsive efficiency in the simulation.

The kick plays an important role assisting both balance, stabilisation to the trunk and propulsion to the front crawl stroke. The kick improves the effectiveness of the upper body and overall efficiency in the crawl stroke by elevating the lower limbs and keeping the body stable, improved buoyancy and roll motion fluctuation (Takagi and Sanders 2002) (Toussaint, Van Den Berg, Beek. 2002). A swimmer with good posture control and balance in the water is characterised with a 6 beat kick (Hollander et.al 1988) (Costill 1992). The 6 beat kick enables the swimmer to maintain balance and stability and rhythm and contributes to propulsion (Richards 2006). An inconsistent or poorly coordinated kick can increase the risk of shorter stroke length and depth, as well as risk of shoulder injury (Richards 2006).

1.13 Stability, Control and Body Roll

In front crawl good posture control enables the swimmer to pull further and correctly, enabling longer stroke length. Poor balance in the water will lead to the swimmer moving the arms less efficiently in an attempt to gain stability (Toussaint et.al 2002).

Front crawl with optimal stroke length is more efficient and hence travel a greater distance with each pull. Characteristics which allow greater distance with each pull is the six beat kick and body roll. In stroke length dominated front crawl the swimmer tends to have has greater amount of body roll. This larger amount of body roll enhances the ability to reach in further in front for the entry phase of the stroke (Sanders, Ross and Psycharakis, Stelios 2008) (see Fig 1.0 tE entry phase).

Figure 1.0: Note. From "Swimming constraints and arm coordination." by L Seifert, D Chollet and A Rouard, 2007, Journal of Human Movement Science, 26, p.73.

  The greater reach in the entry phase increases the distance per stroke or stroke length.

A swimmer whilst performing the front crawl who is both balanced and stable in the water is able to rotate and roll (Watkins and Gordon 1988). Six beat kick allows the swimmer to be stable while rotating and rolling throughout all phases of the arm cycle (Chollet 2000). Rotation and rolling is important for stroke length since it allows greater use of larger muscle groups and further reach (Sanders & Psycharakis 2008). Large amount of roll is beneficial for front crawl performance when the swimmer keeps a fluent rhythm without dead spots or pauses in the six beat kick (Sanders et.al 2008). A constant six beat kick assists with maintaining stroking rhythm and hence stroke length (Chollet 2000). When the swimmer rotates while maintaining six beat kick for stability, they are able to reach further in the non propulsion phase (Seifert et.al 2007) (See Figure 1.0 tPL non propulsion phase). This increases the distance per stroke and consequently stroke length. So six beat kick indirectly enhances stroke length via maintaining stability and balancing allowing for greater rotation and roll for further reach in front crawl. Furthermore, sports medicine practitioners suggest that an increase in trunk roll reduces the risk of developing shoulder impingement (Ciullo and Stevens, 1989; McMaster, 1986; Neer andWelsh, 1977;

Penny andSm ith, 1980; and Richardson et al., 1980).

Regular focus on the six beat kick concept should also concentrate on developing fast kick. Fast six beat kick is necessary for corresponding increase in stroke rate while maintaining stroke length and consequently increased swimming speed. Developing power and hence speed in the legs helps develop the fast six beat kick while maintaining good technique.

1.4 Qualitative Biomechanical Analysis

Qualitative Biomechanical Analysis is important to determine the muscle group and joint actions used in the front crawl. The table 5 shows the muscle groups and their function at specific phases of the stroke. This information helps choose the best exercises which mirror the joints and muscles used in front crawl and will benefit the swimmer (See table 5). Furthermore the stabilizing muscles surrounding the joint involved in each specific phase of the stroke can be determined and exercises incorporated to prevent injury and muscle imbalances.

Table 5. Qualitative Biomechanical Analysis Main Phases of the Front Crawl

Phase of Arm Stroke

Muscle Groups

Function

Catch - when the hand enters the water

Upper trapezius, rhomboids

Upper trapezius elevates the scapula and the rhomboids retract the scapula

Rhomboids

Retract the scapula

Serratus Anterior

Prtotracts and rotates the scapula up

Just after the catch

Pectoralis Major

Adducts and extends humerus

Teres minor

Balances internal rotation

coracobrachialis

Flexion of the arm

biceps brachii

Flexion of the arm

Midpoint - Pull Through

Latiussimus dorsi

Pull Through

Subscapularis

Pull Through

coracobrachialis

Flexion of the arm

biceps brachii

Flexion of the arm

Pull Through

triceps

brachii

Extension of the elbow

Through Recovery

Deltoid

Arm recovery

Supraspinatus

Arm recovery

Phase of the Kick

Muscle Groups

Function

Upward beat of kick

Gluteal muscles, bicep femoris, semitendinous, semimembranous, and gracilis

Hip extension

Downward beat

Iliopsoas, rectus femoris

Flexion of the hip

quadriceps

Extension of the knee

1.2 Physiological Demands

Sports physiology focuses on how muscle and organs function to produce movement and performance. 100m freestyle events has approximate duration of 47 seconds at the elite level to just over 1 minute for the average competitive swimmer. The physiological basis of the 100m swimming event includes the following areas; energy metabolism, muscle fiber type and function, strength and power, muscular endurance, endocrine system, and energy systems.

1.21 Energy Systems

A high intensity effort with a duration of 52 seconds until 57 seconds that corresponds in times for 100 metres freestyle, the aerobic energy supplies 33-36% of the energy demand (Ring Mader, Mougios 1996)(Capelli, Pendergast, Termin.1998), while for swimmers swimming 100m in a time of 68 seconds, the use of aerobic energy reaches 46% (Capelli et al., 1998). Considerably increased use from aerobic metabolism (45%) was found by Troup (1990) in the 100 metres freestyle. Also, the relative contribution of the aerobic and the anaerobic energy system is almost equal for 1 min exercise bouts by (Ogita, Onodera, Tamaki, Toussaint, Hollander, Wakaoshi 2000). In swimmers which record roughly 61 seconds in the 100 metres freestyle the aerobic energy system supplies 54% of energy demand (Rodriquez and Mader, 2003). It is obvious that the higher duration of effort with freestyle swimming activates a demand from aerobic metabolism (Troup, 1990).

1.22 Muscle Fibre Type

Muscle fibre type percentages can vary from swimmer to swimmer, even when swimmers of similar race distances are compared. A number of studies involving fiber typing of swimmers have demonstrated a large variance in muscle type percentages varying from 35% to 70% for type I fibers, (Lavoie, Taylor, Montpetit 1981) (Gollnick, Armstrong, Sawbert 1972) (Costill, Fink, Hargreaves 1985). It has been shown that sprint swimmers possess a higher percentage of type II fibers (Costill 1978).

In a study by Prins (1981) provided data which separated endurance and sprint elite swimmers. The distance swimmers had 31% FT fibres, while the sprinters had 76% FT fibres . This profile closely agrees with the 60–65% of Type II fibres in the deltoids of sprint swimmers reported by Costill (1978). Type II b which are the fastest may be recruited in the 100m front crawl, because the race requires maximal and explosive forces at the start of the race and off the wall for the turn.

Type IIa are the most predomiant fibers in a 100m event specialist since the predominant energy system is anaerobic and requires considerably larger amount of force than longer distance races (Gerard, Caioozo 1986). A higher percentage of and larger type II fibers and energy providing processes influences blood plasma ammonia levels (Ring, Mader, Mougios 1999). Sprinters in swimming have a higher production of plasma ammonia after a sprint event compared to non sprinters who complete a sprint event, which is due to the deamination of adenosine mono phosphate and amino acids (Ring etal 1999)

1.3 Strength and Power Qualities of 100m Front Crawl

Modern swimming emphasizes performance level through not only training in water but muscle strength training (Costill et.al 1991). The changes of muscular function is obscure by training in water since stimuli from the water is not sufficient enough compared to dry land training. The muscular functions such as strength, power, and endurance are the important elements in determining swimmer's performance, and in particular, the power is highly related to records of short events and speed (Hawley et. al 1992: Jung et.al 1992; Sharp et.al 1982). Sharp et.al 1982 reported that muscle power and short distance records (25 yards) were highly correlated when 40 swimmers (22 women and 18 women) were tested on swim bench. For the upper limb muscular endurance, the wingate test revealed a high correlation between high peak power, mean power, and fatigue index, and speed of short distance event records (Hawley et.al 1992) This indicates a close relationship between muscle function and the swim records.

An event specific strength training can promotes performance by developing appropriate muscular function. In a study by Hsu .et.al (1997) reported that the inner and outer rotation exercises using isokinetic machines which influence in shoulder rotator cuff can promote speed and propulsions of the swimmers. And the improved power and endurance of knee and shoulder by swimming specific isokinetic training at 180 degrees / sec and 240 degrees per second were highly correlated to swim records in swimmers of the national team after 16 weeks of program (Jung et.al 1992). Ogita et.al (1993) reported a positive effects of usage of hand paddle during training on performance by elevating stroke efficiency. In addition, a 10 week training program using MAD system, which made resistance training in water possible, has improved the swim records (Toussaint & Vernoon 199). Collectively, previous studies both actual muscle training during swimming in water and swimming specific training on dry land have positive effects on swim records.

The maximal strength is the maximal power one can exert only once. In short distance swimming such as a 50m sprint, an explosive strength is considerd important (find ref)(Costill 1985)

1.4 Injuries

The incidence of shoulder impingment and overuse injuries are common in competitive swimmers (jones1999).. This is a result of the number of arm strokes and excessive distances swum each week (Borsa, P.A., Scibek, J.S., Jacobson, J.A., & Meister, K. 2005) (Jones, J.H. (1999) Due to volume of swimming muscle imbalance develop such as weak external rotators and abductors, tight internal rotators and adductors can be seen in swimmers with rounded shoulders (Souza 1994) (kibler 1988). The shoulder structures which must bear the loads do not have sufficient recovery and so chronic injuries develop. Apart from reducing the swimming volume, a preventative program involving resistance training is particularly effective for addressing this problem. A prevention program that includes core stabilization and muscular endurance strength training of the external rotator cuff as well as the muscles surrounding the scapular and the biceps will prevent internal and external muscle imbalances (Bak & Faunl 1997). Furthermore a well developed core allows for improved force outoput and transmission, along side the injury prevention improvements that rise.

2.0 Effect of Strength, Power, and Muscular Endurance Development

Strength and power development is an important component for success in 100m events (Costill, Sharp, Troup 1980) (Costill, Reifield, Kirwan, Thomas 1986).

Elite sprinter swim high volumes (40 - 80 km) each week to maintain stroke efficiency and develop the aerobic capacity, speed endurance needed to complete 100m with little deceleration towards the finish. High volume has been shown to; decrease maximal shortening speed of Type I fibers, also decrease maximal shortening speed of type II fibers of the deltoid muscle with unaltered sprint ability, and decreased size of type II fibers (Fitts, Costi, Gardetto l989). A strength power resistance training program increases or maintains Type II fiber size, increased peak force, faster Type I fiber contraction, improved swim bench power and swim performance (Trappe, Costill and Thomas (2000). Therefore a strength/power resistance program is important for a 100m front crawl swimmer to maintain and improve the maximal speed of fibres and fiber size. In regards to the practical implications for a coach increasing arm strength in swimmer is beneficial so they apply more force in the stroke over a longer period of time, creating a good impulse rather than needing to have a high stroke rate.

2.1 Strength Training

Improved strength enhances power production through adaptations of the fibres and power training leads to adaptations in the fibre subtypes and neuromuscular system. In a study by Cronin et al. (2000) it was found that greater maximal strength will lead to greater instantaneous power production. The same authors pointed out that in concentric actions the neuromuscular ability to produce the highest amount of power per time unit is more important than maximal strength. In a study by Stone et al. (2003) it was concluded that improved maximal strength was the primary component in improving power. Whereas power-type strength training with lighter loads and higher shortening velocities has been shown to increase the force output at higher velocities, as well as the power development (Hakkinen and Komi 1985) and also seem to facilitate the neuromuscular system (Sleivert, Bachus, Wenger 1995).

When the maximal strength is high, the power(force x speed) can be elevated. At the same time, the increased maximal strength can reserve the endurance capacity of the muscle contributing repeated muscular contraction at a constant submaximal work loads.

As mentioned previously, power depends on strength and speed. An improvement of maximal strength may influence on power. A strength training program requiing an explosive power during power transferring phase with less load stimulated neuromuscular system. The muscular functions relies on the development of neuromuscular system (sale 1986). When maximal strength is transferred to power, a muscle of fast response and explosive adaption for perofmance is needed. In particular, the use of medicine ball for elastic exercise plays a role for positive improvement of power.

In a recent study Girold, Maurin, Dugue, Chatard, Millet (2007), demonstrated that combining swimming and dry-land strength or swimming and resisted and assisted strength training (dynamic strength training) was more efficient than the swimming program alone in increasing sprint performance. The added benefits of resisted and assisted sprint training are increase stroke depth and rate. Whereas the added benefit of dry land strength training is the strength gain in concentric contraction of the elbow extensors which is a good predictor of sprint performance (Girold, Maurin, Dugue, Chatard, Millet 2007).

2.2 Power Training

Power, has been shown to correlate with swimming performance in 100m freestyle (Sharp, Troup, Costill 1982)(Toussant, Vervoorn 1990). High performance swimmers that participate in dry land training focusing on strength development only, do not increase 100m swimming performance (Tanaka, Costill, Thomas, Fink, Widrick 1993). However high resistance strength training combined with a high velocity dynamic training enhances peak power and stroke rate. Adaptation of faster stroke rate without decrease in stroke length is caused by adaptation changes in the nervous system (Delecluse et al 1995).

Power training leads to increased muscle fibre pennation angle (Aagaard, Simonsen, Andersen, Magnusson, Dyhre-Poulsen 2002). This is important since it allows for greater increase of type II muscle fiber cross sectional area and composition (Andersen & Agagaard 2000). Power training also induces a slow (type I) to fast (type II) shift in MHC isoforms. The benefit of the increase number of Type II MHC isoforms is faster contraction due to; large motor neurons, faster rate of release of calcium by the sarcoplasmic reticulum and the activity of myosin ATPase (Fitts & Widrick 1996). The combined effect these three specific changes is increased; contractile force, rate of force production and power.

Power training also leads to specific neural adaptations, such as the increased activation of motor units and rate of activation of the motor units (Hakkinen 1994). The benefit of the increased rate of activation or motor unit firing frequency is greater rate of force development (Behm 1995), and consequently mechanical power is maximised (Hakkinen 1994) (Harris, Stone, O’Bryant, Proulx, Johnson 2000). A combination of power and strength training has a greatest impact on improvement of the velocity and force time curve.

1.33 Muscular Endurance

Muscular endurance is a part of the swimming conditioning program and not the resistance training program. Methods such as kick sets and using large paddles and a band to restrict leg movement are used by coaches to imporve muscular endurance. However for injury prevention muscular endurance is an important aspect of resistance training. Development of muscular endurance is needed core strengthening and shoulder external rotators and abductors, because swimmers must support their body in the water and continually stroke for long periods of time while swimming training. Strengthening of the shoulders external rotators and abductors should focus on endurance training of the serratus anterior, lower trapezius, and subscapularis muscles.( Scovazzo ML, Browne A, Pink M 1991) The traditional rotator cuff elastic band exercises are particularly effective for strengthening the external rotators and supplement the previous exercises.

Injury prevention Training

Surgical tubing or thera-bands can be used either with the arm at 90 degrees flexion, neutral or 90 degrees of abduction; this improves power and control in the shoulders and also the antagonist muscles (Green, Buchbinder, Hetrick 2003). Strengthening and stretching should be combined as part of the prevention program as this is more beneficial than strength or stretching alone (Bang 2000). Reduced shoulder flexibility increases the risk of developing tendinopathy (Griep 1986). Training sessions should begin with a warm-up (15-30minutes) which includes stretching as a component. Over stretching can be avoided by performing passive or proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitated (PNF) stretches (Bang 2000).

Using the Bodyblade for front and lateral raises has been demonstrated to obtain the greatest percentage of muscle activation when the primary goal is scapular stabilization (Sutton, Covassin, Powell, Nassar 2006).

External rotations Rotations2 Pec stretch

A. B. C.

Figure 4. Injury Prevention. A) External Rotation. B) Reverse Rotation. C) Pectoral Stretch

Specificity in Resistance Training for Improved Performance

There is little doubt that increased strength and power of the swimmer’s muscles will translate into improved swimming times. Strength and power training both lead to physiological changes in; muscle fibres, performance, neural, metabolic, hormonal, serum lipids, skeletal and gene responses. The shorter the target event then the greater the benefit because strength and power become more limiting factors to the performance.

The design of a resistance program for 100m front crawl specialist must consider the following; goals of the program, number of reps and sets, rest periods, choice and order of exercise and linear or undulating periodisation. Table 2 summarise the training variables which strongly influence the training goals such as strength, power, control and stability.

Advanced Resistance Strength program framework

Table 2.0 Framework For Types of Training

Type

Reps

Sets

Lifting Speed /Tempo

Intensity

Rest

Maximal Strength

1-6

3-4

Moderate

85-100%

2-5 min

Maximal Power

2-4

3-4

Explosive, fast

Strength : 90-100%

Power:

30 - 70%

2-5 min

Hypertrophy

8-12

3-6

Slow to moderate

65-80%

30-90 seconds

Strength / power Endurance

10-20

3-6

Moderate

45-65%

15 - 60 seconds

Control/stability

5-20*

3-6

Slow to medium to fast*

45-65%

30 - 60 seconds

* Increase reps and speed as stability and control improves

The exercises chosen for the 100m front crawl specialist must develop the muscles groups and joint action used in front crawl. To determine the exercises that will assist front crawl performance, refer to Table 5 Qualitative biomechanical analysis.

Table 8. Resistance Training Program - Maximal Strength and Power Transition Phase

Session

1

2

3

4

Stage

Maximal Strength

Power

Muscular Strength

Power

Exercises

Dead lift

Squat Jumps *

Squats

Power Cleans *

Leg Extension

Leg Curls

Reverse hyper extensions

Single leg press

Side Raises

Straight arm Medicine Ball throw downs *

Dumbbell Press

Single Arm Lat pull downs

Chin-ups - with weight

Incline bench press

Single arm Straight arm pull downs

Reverse Flies

Dumbbell Bench Press

Dumbbell Upright Rows

Seated rows - single arm

Supine Medicine Ball chest pass *

Pullovers and Press

Close grip push ups on medicine ball*

Shoulder press

Sled work *

Rotator Cuff Routine (See Below)

Wrist curls

Rotator Cuff Routine (See Below)

One arm bicep curls

Abdominal Machine

Timed Chin ups

Weighted abdominals sit-ups

Single leg v sit-ups

Roman Chair - with static holds

Supplementary Routines

Control / Stability Routine

Swiss Stability Log roll in horizontal position

Diagonal Chops with cable machine

Rainbow abdominal twist with medicine ball

Swiss Ball bridge with medicine ball drop

Rotator Cuff Routine

Lying Side external dumbbell rotation or standing thera-band external rotation

Standing frontal thera-band or dumbbell rotations

Lying Frontal dumbbell rotator cuff

Body-blade

Internal/ external rotation, Front raise and lateral raise positions.

* Power: 30-70% Intensity

An example of a specific training program in Table 8. meets the needs of 100m front crawl specialist to develop, enhance strength and power and injury prevention. The resistance program has been designed to increase strength and power in the; lower body, deltoids, latimuss dorsi, tricep brachii and to stabilize pelvic trunk area. The program includes sessions 1 and 3 which focus on maximal strength and sessions 2 and 4 which focus on power. With this program three sessions are completed per week alternating between Maximal strength and power sessions as can be seen in Table 9. Two to three weekly sessions of maximal strength training is sufficient to improve maximal force in front crawl swimming (Aspenes, Kjendlie, Hoff, Helgerud 2009)

Table 9. Weekly Training Schedule of Sessions

Session

Session

Session

Week 1

1

2

3

Week 2

4

1

2

Week 3

3

4

1

Week 4

2

3

4

The program includes exercises which progress from large to small muscle group alternating upper and lower body where possible to allow for rest and recovery.

The program includes exercises which are effective for increasing muscle power rather than purely strength. These exercises can be performed in an explosive manner, and involve rapid development of force and/or high power output. The weightlifting exercises such as the power clean are appropriate and there are a range of dumbbell exercises which can be performed with high power. Furthermore to specifically train the upper body actions of front crawl, use of medicine balls can be thrown to enhance power development and rate of force development.

Leg strength and power is important for the start, leg kick quantity per stroke, stabilisation, stroke length and turning. Therefore cleans, various types of squats, cleans form the basis of the leg training.

The program also includes supplementary training routines. The supplementary routines develop rotator cuff and core strength. Development of muscular endurance core strength is important because swimmers must support their body in the water for long periods of time while training. Stability and control may be part of a separate strength training session or may be effectively accomplished without untoward injury risk just prior to or just after swimming (Scovazzo ML, Browne A, Pink 1991) Trunk strength is critical because all movements originate through the trunk and trunk rotation is necessary for efficiency of the stroke an injury prevention (Hendrick 2000)

Session 1 of the resistance training program is a maximum strength day combined with muscular endurance for the prevention rotator cuff injuries. Session 2 of resistance training includes focuses on power with ballistic movements, for example timed chin-ups. In session 2 medicine ball ballistic movements replicating the midpoint pull through are also used for the purpose improving the time component of power. Session 3 focuses on muscular strength and rotator cuff injury prevention. Session 4 focuses on power with the main purpose of training the force component of power. Control stability training is performed as part of the warm-up before each resistance training session building up to higher repetitions as stability and control improve with goal to improve ability to maintain proper posture, balance, and alignment in the water which also results in improving ability to maintain efficient technique throughout the entire 100m front crawl. Lower-abdominal strengthening is emphasized in the dry land conditioning program for swimmers. The goal of abdominal strengthening is to develop increased control of the pelvis by avoiding excessive anterior pelvic tilt and lumbar lordosis David Levine ; J. Randy Walker ;Larry J. Tillman  1997) .

Because top ranking Australian swimmer compete at least ten times a year non linear or undulating loading pattern has been used which addresses the regular schedule of competition. The UP program above involves variety and this provides a frequent change in neural stimulation. The frequent change in stimulation is thought to be highly beneficial for strength gains (Baechle & Earle 2000). The benefit of the undulating model is that it utilises 30-100% of 1RM which allows for sufficient recovery between similar sessions while preventing detraining. As can be seen in training table 11 and 12 the type of sessions and load and intensities vary from workout to workout with no same week the same.

Table 10 Undulating Cycling Intensity and load for Maximal Strength development

Cycle

Reps

Set

Lifting Speed

Intensity

Rest

1

6

3

Moderate

85%

2 min

2

2

4

Moderate

95%

4min

3

4

4

Moderate

90%

2 -3 min

Table 11 Undulating Cycling of Intensity and load for Power development

Cycle

Rep

Set

Lifting Speed

Intensity

Rest

1

3

3

Fast

90%

3 min

2

3

4

Explosive

90%

4 min

3

2

4

Fast

95%

2 - 3 min

Development of muscular endurance is also one of the goals of core strengthening, because swimmers must support their body in the water for long periods of time while training. Abdominal exercises to build core strength may be part of a separate strength training session or may be effectively accomplished without untoward injury risk just prior to or just after swimming (Scovazzo ML, Browne A, Pink 1991)

Conclusion

The program for 100m front crawl specialist needs to take into consideration the physiological requirement and biomechanical aspects of the stroke. Designing a successful resistance program for a 100m front crawl specialist should improve the following:

Improving stroke length and streamlining ability

improving joint range of motion and the length through which strength is produced

developing the strength and stability to get into the required positions

Being strong and stable to hold aquatic specific positions

By increasing leg, improving block clearance allowing better water entrance positions and improving turning ability.

higher force levels maintained at sub maximal efforts

Improved muscle balance and injury prevention

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