Fundamentals Of Psychology And Consciousness Philosophy Essay
General psychology - is the science of generation, development and operation of the multidimensional world of psychic phenomena that provides regulation of behavior of humans and animals in the life evolution on our planet.
General Psychology – is psychology section that summarizes the theoretical and experimental psychological research, integrating psychological knowledge, studying the most common psychological laws, theoretical principles and methods of psychology, its basic concepts and categorical system in their current state and historical development. The results of research in the field of general psychology are fundamental to all branches of psychological science. General psychology is important for the other sciences: philosophy, sociology, psychology, computer science, linguistics, pedagogy, art and law. The theoretical part of training in general psychology includes in-depth study of specific thematic areas, modern trends of domestic and foreign psychological studies, methodological foundations and problems of psychology. The practical part of training includes the development of modern methods of research, teaching and practice, as stated in Psychology.
Consciousness – is the large section of psychology, and it refers to the process of understanding the personality in the diversity of its individual features, the awareness of its nature and place in numerous public relations. Consciousness - this is the attitude of the person to the parties that informed his inner world.
Analyzing of the materials of the essay topics, I became very interested in the concept of self-consciousness. Self-consciousness - is a special form of consciousness, which as well as consciousness, is the reflective nature. Object identity is the personality itself, its thoughts, feelings, needs, and its entire inner world.
According to Consciousness - Our third eye, consciousness arises in a period, when the child begins to distinguish themselves as subjects of their actions, and to further this development comes from the evaluation of their actions to self-esteem. Initially I allocated physical, and then - a spiritual. Transition of adolescent self-consciousness acquires new properties and quality.
In the future, identity as a particular kind of consciousness performs in the mental life of the individual function of self-regulation, knowledge and attitude. In the development of consciousness, it is of great importance to relate the real personality that “I am so perfect” and “I do”, which every individual possesses. The discrepancy between real and ideal self is the source of the various internal contradictions of personality.
The central concept of self psychology is the concept of "self-concept" introduced by W. Thomas, F. Znanetsky. Self-concept is defined as all representations of a person about himself, the conjugate with their assessment. This - is the sum of human ideas about what he thinks of himself and what he appreciates, as looks at his present and future. In the self-concept there are three major structural elements: cognitive, emotional, and behavioral, as described in Consciousness and self-consciousness.
A person thinks, feels, and acts. By doing so, he can realize himself thinking and feeling. For example, he may be angry, to know what being angry is, and being glad that he can be angry. Thus, a person may act as a subject, the conscious and governing of his actions (I-controls), and simultaneously be as the active object recognition (I-executive).
Executive I is the content of ideas about the self, corresponds to the cognitive component of the installation. This belief about oneself that can be justified or unjustified, true or false, but the very subject seems warranted. Verbal formula by which a person represents himself, identifies reflects of habitual, persistent behavioral trends revealed by the selectivity of our perception. This attribute, role, status, psychological characteristics, their life goals, motives, abilities, and a description of the property.
Controlling I mostly relate to the emotional component of the installation: making process, development of an emotional relationship to the content of the image "I". Emotional-appraisal component of self-concept is called self-esteem. In fact - it's an emotional response of acceptance or rejection of the certain qualities and characteristics: a person can about them to enjoy, be proud of, and be upset or be indifferent.
The behavioral aspect of self-concept is a reaction which can be expressed in behavior. With regard to the self-concept, this component reflects the specific actions, reactions, which may be caused by way-I and self-esteem. The totality of these elements in their unity and is a self-concept (I concept). “I concept” has three modalities. This is an ideal I (associated with representations of the individual about what should be the ideal man), I am a mirror (the installation associated with individual perceptions of how others see it) and I'm real (the settings associated with individual perceptions about what are the actual ability, role, status, motivation). These modalities may be imbalanced in the content that creates inner conflict that could become a force impelling a person to self or causing psychological formation, as described in Consciousness and self-consciousness.
Each modality has at least four aspects: the physical self; social self; mental self, emotional self. I concept performs important functions in human life:
1. Self-concept contributes to the internal consistency of personality. If the self-concept of human is contradictory, it contains conflicting views, experiences a feeling of discomfort due to the cognitive dissonance. His actions in such cases are directed either to the change of the self-concept, or to distort reality for the sake of eliminating discomfort. Coherent self-concept allows the individual to feel confident, be in close contact with reality. Self-concept develops throughout a person's life, but with the most intensively this process occurs in early adolescence, when intelligence operations have already been formed, and the basic attitudes have not yet been structured.
2. Self-concept determines the behavior. If human behavior is contrary to his self-concept, it will cause cognitive dissonance. Therefore, a person, who has established self-concept, conducts in such way that it did not contradict his image of himself. "Smart" strives to behave as it should be smart, "the poor" - in accordance with certain standards of conduct, do it "poor" way, "lagging behind" - will be truancy, being distracted in class, etc.
3. Self-concept determines the interpretation of the life experience of the individual. Among humans, there is a strong tendency to interpret their own individual experience based on the representations of themselves. Self-concept serves as a sort of "prism" through which is refracted the perceived reality. For example: a man who thinks he is "unable" to explain his success by chance, a "capable" - expression of his talent, "unattractive" regards attention to itself as an attempt to make fun of, and "attractive" as an attempt to get acquainted. A person with positive self-concept sees a smile to your address as an expression of good feelings, but with a negative - as a joke.
4. Self-concept is a source of expectations. It affects the prognosis of human on what should happen to him. In accordance with the self-concept man is counting on the success or failure: "I, as usual, failed" or "I will succeed." It allows him to anticipate his reaction: "I was scared," "I burst into tears, "I took it calmly". “I concept” of forcing a man a forecast on the attitudes and behaviors of people addresses: "I have no one to love," "Above me are laughing," I appreciate greatly", as stated in States of Consciousness.
Often, such a forecast becomes a prophecy: people expected him to be criticized, he behaves uncertain (or provocative), and does hereby say the criticism. In this case, self-concept not only allows you to foresee the consequences, and how much a person provokes them. Self-concept affects virtually all aspects of human life, and this makes it necessary to study the laws of its development, operation, and also - developing ways of correction. In this case, there is a special interest of the self-concept emotional aspect - self-esteem. In accordance with the famous psychologists’ positive attitude toward yourself, there is the basis for success in life, the realization of their abilities in their professional activities, happiness in family life. Therefore, the task of pedagogical, psychological and psychiatric help is always associated with higher self-esteem, self-acceptance.
It should be noted that self-esteem can be treated as "overstated" or "understated" only in cases where there is an objective standard of evaluation success or human qualities: for example, in pedagogical practice.
Psychological Assessment, unlike teaching, is subjective: one person grows to 6 ft. and will be happy, but another may be disappointed. There is no reason to assume that the first - is inflated by self-esteem, and the second - understated. Self-attitude, being by nature subjective evaluation, does not suggest the possibility of establishing its relevance. If a person takes your lifestyle for granted, respects yourself for power and takes itself, despite its shortcomings, it is more stable in the face of problems and ability to overcome difficulties.
Using the concept of "high self-esteem" in the practice of social work is highly undesirable because it can push the specialist to the intention of reducing the client that does not help him, but on the contrary - prevents.
Social comparison: a man constantly feels the need to evaluate his abilities by comparing them with people from the immediate environment or with other persons. The comparison suggests the presence of some competition, which in some cases can be justified, but often - has no foundation. Tendency to perceive other people's rivals in situations that do not require it, with people who are not real rivals are called neurotic rivalry. People with the settings on the neurotic rivalry often direct their actions against other people; tend to avoid contact and competition, are seeking protection and peace of mind in service of others. Negative emotional background is in the implementation of trends related to the implementation of opponent’s relations. An important task in providing psychological care is developing systems to cooperate with others and ability to positive evaluate them in spite of the differences from the other.
Bharati Sarkar. 2008. Consciousness - Our third eye. Web. 22 November 2010.
Kriegel Uriah. 2004. Consciousness and self-consciousness. Web. 22 November 2010.
Jorge Waxemberg. 2006. States of Consciousness. Web. 22 November 2010.
Lester M. Sdorow and Cheryl A. Rickabaugh. 2005. Psychology. Atomic Dog Pub Inc. Print.
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