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Analysis Of Issue Structure And Template Philosophy Essay

Structure is the most important part of your essay. Your essay must be written in a standard format with the standard logical transitions. The E-rater will scan your essay to identify if it has a standard structure.

· Introduction/Conclusion- These elements will provide the structure for your essay and keep you on track.

· Number of Paragraphs. To satisfy the E-rater, your essay should be 4 to 5 paragraphs: an introduction, a conclusion, and three "body" paragraphs. Each paragraph should have 2 to 5 sentences (total essay about 300-400 words).

Note: You should skip a line between paragraphs since the TAB key does not function in the essay section.

Essay Template

The template is just a guideline. You do not have to adhere to it. Often you will have to make

changes to suit your argument.

· The numbers of sentences indicated for each paragraph is a guideline that varies depending on

how much content you have.

· The transitional phrases we use in the Template are intentionally simplistic. This is not a

simple approach where you can "fill-in-the-blanks." Flesh out the template somewhat and use it as a

guideline to write a disciplined and focused essay.

Template

1) Introductory Paragraph (2-4 sentences)

Make sure to keep your introductory paragraph concise, strong and effective.

What the introductory paragraph should accomplish:

· Explain the issue (briefly).

· Show that you understand the full complexities of the issue (for example, by recognizing

competing interests or various factors).

· State your position on the issue (without the details yet).

Sample template for introductory paragraph (2 sentences):

a) Whether ________________________ depends on _____________________.

b) (insert your opinion), __________________________.

2) First Body Paragraph (3-5 sentences)

Begin to develop your position with your most important reason. Use one or two examples to back up

your main point:

a) The chief reason for my view is ___________________________________.

b) For example, ____________________________________.

c) Moreover, ______________________________.

d) Finally, ________________________.

3) Second Body Paragraph

Expand your position with a "secondary" reason. Support your rationale further with at least one

example.

· State your second reason (one only).

· Provide rationale and/or evidence to support it.

Here's a sample template for the second body paragraph that accomplishes these objectives:

a) Another reason for my view is_____________________________.

b) Specifically,________________.

c) The result is,__________________.

4) Optional Third Body Paragraph

In this paragraph (optional) you acknowledge a competing viewpoint or counter-argument (and

rationale and/or examples that support it), and then provide rebuttals to further support your

position. In this paragraph you walk a tightrope, you must acknowledge the counter-argument, but

yet deny it immediately in the next sentence and use that denial to strengthen your own argument.

· Acknowledge a different viewpoint or a counter-argument.

· Provide rationale and/or examples that support it.

· Provide a rebuttal.

Here's a sample template for the third body paragraph that accomplishes the objectives indicated

above:

a) Some might argue,_____________________________.

b) Yet,____________________

c) Others might cite, __________________.

d) However,_____________________.

5) Conclusion Paragraph

In this paragraph you write a summary of your position in 1 to 3 sentences:

· State the thrust of your position.

· Restate the main points from the body of your essay.

The concluding paragraph is not the place for new information or reasons. It is not a place to draw

new conclusions.

a) In sum, I concur that ________________________.

b) However,_________________; on the whole______________.

待续。。。

作文 5.5 应用之模板(二)

作者:cutecut 发表于:2001-12-02 23:22:49

点击:56次 回复:0篇 鼓掌:1次 棒喝:0次

承接上贴的“立论”文模板,下边是“驳论”文模板。注意,模板可以按照自己的写作习惯和优势劣势进行调整

。我当初在考试的时候就做了些调整,这样写起来顺手,自信也就更足了。记得写Analysis of issue的时候,至

少举两个例子,或编或吹不足为怪,当然不能吹得过于离谱而露出马脚啦,呵呵 :)

Part II: Analysis of Argument: Structure and Template

TEMPLATE

As with the Issue essay, there is no single "correct," way to organize an Argument essay. In our

view, however, your essay should include separate "introduction" and "conclusion" paragraphs, as

well as at least two "body" paragraphs in which you develop your critique of the stated argument.

The following template spells out this structure in more detail, and each of the sample Analysis of

Argument essays in this book follow this basic pattern.

You do not have to adhere strictly to this format in order to write an effective Argument essay.

You may find that some other form works better for you, especially for the body of your essay.

Also, the numbers of sentences indicated for each paragraph here are merely suggestions or

guidelines, not hard-and-fast rules.

(Note: The transitional phrases used here are purposely simplistic; do not simply "parrot" them

word-for-word in your essay or adopt a mechanistic fill-in the blank approach. If you do, your

essay might appear stilted or contrived.)

Introductory Paragraph (2-4 sentences)

Try to accomplish three goals in your introductory paragraph:

· Briefly restate the argument.

· Briefly trace the argument's line of reasoning.

· Indicate the extent to which the argument is logically convincing.

· If possible, sum up your arguments in one sentence (or two brief sentences).

Here's a sample template for the first paragraph that accomplishes these goals:

The author concludes that____________, because ________. The author's line of reasoning is that

______________. This argument is unconvincing for several reasons; it is____________ and it uses

_____________.

First Body Paragraph (3-5 sentences)

In the first body paragraph your goal is to critique one of the following:

· The reasoning of the argument

· One of the premises of the argument

· One of the assumptions of the argument

Here's a sample template for this paragraph that accomplishes this goal:

First of all, ____________________________ is based upon the questionable assumption

________________________________. That _______________,

however, _________________. Moreover, ________________________.

Second Body Paragraph (3-4 sentences)

The purpose of the second paragraph is to address one of the following:

· The reasoning of the argument

· One of the premises of the argument

· One of the assumptions of the argument

Here's a sample template for this paragraph that accomplishes this goal:

Secondly, the author assumes that_________________________.

However, __________________________. It seems equally reasonable to assume that

____________________.

Third (and optional Fourth) Body Paragraph

In this paragraph your goal is to critique one of the following:

· The reasoning of the argument

· One of the premises of the argument

· One of the assumptions of the argument

Here's a sample template for this paragraph that accomplishes this goal:

Finally, _______________________________________. The author fails to consider

__________________________________. For example, __________________. Because the author's argument

_________________.

Final Paragraph (2-3 sentences)

In the final paragraph your goals are to:

· Summarize your critique of the argument

· State the main point of your essay

The final paragraph is not the placer to introduce new arguments or issues. Sample template:

In sum, I agree that______________________. However, ____________________; on balance,

_____________________.

issue:

开头段:

第一句话(两厢比较型中则是第一组话):

A.单一观点型(看场合不同选择一个)

1.As is well-known and has often been described, ...

2.It is traditionally a common practice for...

B.两厢比较型

There is much debate over the issue that... Some people believe that... Others, however, maintain that...

第二句话:

A.单一观点(简称单)

1.支持:In my point of view, I agree with the speaker and there are many instances supporting my view.

2.反对:In my point of view, I do not agree with the opinion stated above for some obvious reasons.

B.两厢比较(简称两)

In my point of view, whether one has advantages over the other depends on the specific circumstances.

第二段:

In the first place, the reason why I have such a view is that...

A particular example for this is ...

Under this circumstance, it is obvious that...

第三段:

In the second place, much evidence has shown that ...

Just imagine what would be like if...

Hence, another equally important aspect is that...

第四段:

Finally, to understand the truth of ..., it is also necessary to see...

For example, ...

总结段:

Consequently, due to the above-mentioned reasons, it is not difficult to draw the conclusion that...

argument

开头段:

In this argument, the arguer concludes/recommends that...

To support this conclusion, the arguer points out/provides evidence that...

In addition, he reasons/asserts/infers that...

Furthermore, he also indicates that...

But in my point of view, this argument suffers from three(2,4,5都可以啦) critical flaws.

第二段:

In the first place, the arguer rests on the unreasonable / gratuitous/ unconvincing assumption that...

However, the author provides no evidence to support this argument.

It is likely that.... yet the reason is still insufficient.

...

第三段:

In the second place,

1.the arguer fails to establish the causal relationship between ... and ...

2.the arguer commits a fallacy of causal oversimplification.

3.the arguer cites the fact/assumes that... This fact(assumption), however, does not seem convincing/reasonable on its face.

(按需要选用3句中的一句)

...

第四段:

Last but not least(字典上是这样说的,但是我考试时写了the last but not the least,不知道是对还是错),

1.the arguer fails to take into account other facts that contribute to...

2.he statistic evidence on which the argument relies is too vague to be believable.

...

总结段:

To sum up, the conclusion lacks credibility because the evidence cited in the analysis does not lend strong support to what the arguer claims. To make the argument more convincing, the arguer would have to provide more information that...

The arguer should also demonstrate that...to make this argument logically acceptable

孙远的作文补充句型

●The argument

开头段的思路:

第一句指出原论证的结构或主张

第二句指出原论证的论据

第三句指出原论证的重要假设

最后指出原论证犯有逻辑错误

正文:

一段一个方面,注意句型

结尾:

结论,对如何加强提出建议。

开头段模式:

1. In this argument, the arguer recommend (conclude) that…

2. This recommendation is based on the result (evidence; fact) of the survey that…

3. In addition, the arguer assumes this…

4. A careful examination would review how groundless the argument (conclusion) is…

对于文中涉及数字的黄金句型:

1. The survey on which the argument relies lacks credibility and therefore does not lend strong support to what the arguer assumes.

2. The statistical evidence on which the argument depends is so vague (unrepresentative) that it does not validate the auger’s assumption (claim).

对于正文有用的句型:

1. The argument rests on the unfounded(unconvincing, unreasonable, gratuitous, groundless, unwarranted) assumption that…

2. The arguer fails to take Into account other possible factors that might (lend to, result in)…

3. The arguer ignores other relevant factors concerning +名词结构

4. The arguer fails to convince us that (sb of)…

5. The evidence provided in this argument is not sufficient to validate the assumption that…

黄金句型

1. The arguer fails to provide solid (any, sufficient, concrete) evidence to prove that …/to support the assumption that…/to validate the assumption that …/quarantine the conclusion that…

2. Another point worth concerning is that the arguer fails to take into account…

3. The reasoning that …is open to doubt /unreliable/problematic.

4. Another assumption in short of legitimacy is the causal of relationship between A&B./…is that /the claim that…

5. The fact that …says little (nothing) about…

对于正文的分析以及结尾模式:

1. 采取推测法,推测有可能的例证,反例,推测作者论证可导致的其他结论。

It is likely (possible) that…

It is impossible that…

One possibility is that…another possibility is that…the third possibility is that…

May, might, perhaps

2. 假设

If… even If; granted that …we can not ensure that… ,unless….

结尾的三句话框架:

指出原论者没有论证自己的结论,分别指出可以从正文所分析的方面加强原论证。

三个结尾的范例:

1. In this conclusion, the arguer fails to validate the claim that… To solidify the argument .the arguer should supply more evidence to Indicate (demonstrate) that…In addition, the arguer would have to rule out the above-mentioned possibilities that might undermine the auger’s conclusion.

2. To sum up, the conclusion lacks of credibility because the evidence cited in the analysis does not lend strong support to what the auger claims. to make the argument more convincing ,the arguer would have to provide more Information concerning …

3. As It stands, the argument Is not well reasoned .to make It logically acceptable ,the arguer should provide more concrete evidence to demonstrate that …what’s more ,the arguer must supply more 具体化 Information to strong the conclusion.

如果时间紧急,只有一两分钟的结尾套路:

1. To conclusion, the argument Is not persuasive as It stands, before we accept the claim, the arguer must provide more substantial facts to prove that…

2. In summary, the conclusion reached In this argument Is Invalid and misleading, to make the argument more convincing, the arguer would have to prove that…moreover, I would suspend my judgement about the credibility of the recommendation until the arguer can provide more concrete and reliable evidence.

●Issue

开头的句型:

1. There Is much controversy over the Issue of…Some people claim that …while others believe that…in the last analysis I argue that…

2. The Issue of … Is a very controversial one (arouses much controversy among people with different perspectives and background). Although many people believe that …I argue that…(I debt whether the argument bears close examination).

3. Now it is widely believe that …as opposed to the commonly held view, I argue that…

4. The speaker asserts that …while I agree that…I insist that…

5. There Is much concern over the Issue of … the arguer advocate that …we do not (绿皮书65页)

6. According to the title statement…although it is commonly held that …It is unlikely be true that…

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