LITERATURE REVIEW ON RESEARCH INTO OVERACTIVE BLADDER IN CHILDREN
An extensive review of literature relevant to the research was done to gain insight and collect maximum information for laying the foundation for the study. The related literature for this study presented under the following heading, prevalence of overactive bladder and its contributing factors.
A randomly selected cross sectional study was done in Korea to evaluate the prevalence and associated factors of overactive bladder among children between 5-13 years. 19,240 children were selected in the study. Multivariate analysis was adopted to analyze the data. This study showed that the overall rates of daytime dysfunctional voiding symptoms, abnormal bowel habits and of both were 46.4%, 31.3% and 18.4% respectively. Constipation, history of urinary tract infection, nocturnal enuresis, delayed bladder control, and the use of poor toilet facilities, had an effect on overactive bladder (Chung, J.M., 2009).
Epidemiological study was conducted in Spain to assess the prevalence of urinary incontinence and hyperactive bladder among children attending primary school, age ranged between 6-11years. Data were collected by conducting personal interviews. Chi square test was adopted to analyse the data. This study showed that prevalence of overactive bladder in children between 6- 11 years is around 8 % (Martinez, Agullo, E., 2009).
Descriptive survey study was conducted in United Kingdom to assess the constipation causing incontinence in childhood by using self administered questionnaire , 7.5 years old children were selected in the study. This study showed that 6.8% children had frequent daytime fecal incontinence and of severe incontinence at least daily of. 8% and finding describes that the constipation and incontinence in childhood are the two sides of the same coin (Graham Clayden, Anne Wright., 2009).
Survey study was done in Sidney to estimated the spectrum and risk factors for daytime urinary incontinence in school age children. Parent of 2856, 7.3 years school children were completed the questionnaire. This study showed that overall 16.9% reported any daytime urinary incontinence with 64% of cases being very mild, 14.8% mild, 11.6% moderate, 9.6% severe. 95% children had nocturnal enuresis, 36% of moderate to severe daytime incontinence can be attributed to encopresis, nocturnal enuresis, social concerns, female gender or urinary tract infection . Among these, urinary tract infection was a risk factors for boys and daytime urinary incontinence in children are more common (Suresh Kumar., 2009).
A case control study was conducted to assess the overactive bladder symptoms of childhood persisted in to adulthood. 173 cases and 98 controls were selected in the study. Childhood symptoms and current urogenital symptoms in parents were assessed by a 19- item questionnaire and urogenital inventory. Categoral and interval statistical analysis were adopted. This study showed that more mothers of children with overactive bladder were reported having had similar symptoms in childhood than mothers of children without lower urinary tract symptoms (Labrie, J, De Long, T.P, 2010).
Survey study was conducted in Japan to evaluate the pathogenic difference between overactive bladder and mono symptomatic nocturnal enuresis. 88 patient age ranged between 6 - 12years were selected in the study. Questionnaires and bladder diary were used to collect the information regarding urinary symptoms. This study showed that constipation, a history of urinary tract infection, mechanical obstruction and vesicourethral reflux were strongly associated with overactive bladder. Child with overactive bladder had a different clinical background, therapeutic response and pathogenic abnormalities. Overactive bladder children should be strictly differentiated from mono symptomatic enuresis (Kajiwara, M., 2008).
Cross sectional telephone survey conducted to assess the elements of overactive bladder adults from five countries in USA. 1434 participants aged between 18-40 years were classified as having overactive bladder. In this study, population with overactive bladder was defined urgency or urgency urinary incontinence according to ICS standards. Study revealed that the most predominant manifestation of overactive bladder was a combination of urgency with one or more other overactive bladder symptoms. Lower urinary tract symptoms were also highly prevalent within the overactive bladder population (Irwin, D .E., 2008).
Retrospective study was done in US to determine the clinical, demographic, urodynamics and prognostic characteristic related vesicourethral reflux among patients with idiopathic lower urinary tract dysfunction. 348 children between the year 1995 and 2005 were selected at university hospital. Among the 340 remaining patients 1 years and older vesicourethral reflux was documented in 55 (46%) and 32% had bilateral reflux. Increased pressure seems to be the primary factor for inducing reflux in idiopathic lower urinary tract dysfunction. Initial bladder capacity predicts the resolution of reflux (Avanoglu, A., 2008).
A school based epidemiological study was conducted in Mumbai to establish the prevalence of voiding dysfunction and to determine the contributing factors in these children. The parents of 1473 children aged between 6-10years completed a self-administered semi – structured questionnaire. The overall prevalence of voiding dysfunction was 7.61%. Voiding Dysfunction was more common in boys. A positive family history of voiding dysfunction was identified in 28.57% children and 14.29% of the children had daytime wetting as well. Significant birth history, lower socioeconomic statuses were present largely in the enuretic group (Mercilina Sen., 2007).
A cohort study was conducted in USA to assess the relationship between childhood urinary symptoms in middle aged women. Randomly selected from age and race strata 2109 women aged between 40-60years old were completed a self reported questionnaire . Chi square test was p<0.01, p<0.001 was adopted in the study. This study showed that women who reported childhood daytime frequency, frequent nocturia, daytime incontinence, nocturnal enuresis and urinary tract infection were associated with adult hyperactive bladder childhood urinary symptoms predict adult overactive bladder (Fitzgerald, M.P, 2006).
A survey study was done in japan to investigate the prevalence and characteristics of nocturnal enuresis and overactive bladder. 6917 school children age range between 7-12years were randomly selected in the survey and data was obtained by using questionnaire technique. The study findings showed that overall nocturnal enuresis and overactive bladder were detected in 5.9% and 17.8% of primary school children, respectively . Increased day time frequency , a history of cystitis and infrequent bowel habits were significantly related to overactive bladder. Children with a history of cystitis had a higher rate of overactive bladder than children without it (Kajiwara, M, 2006).
A questionnaire survey study was conducted in Japan to assess the prevalence of overactiove bladder and nocturnal enuresis in early adolescent. 624 middle school students aged between 13- 15 years were selected for the study. This study showed that overall prevalence of overactive bladder was 15.3%, 1% boys and 3% of girls , respectively. The prevalence of overactive bladder decreased with age from 17% of 13 years to 11.8% of 15years old children. 3% of three boys and three girls had nocturnal enuresis. Early adolescent group children had risk to get overactive bladder and nocturnal enuresis. Prevelence of overactive bladder are more in girls than boys (Mutaguchi, K., 2006).
A survey study was done in Brazil to assess the prevalence of overactive bladder and associated factors. 848 subjects between 15 – 55years were completed a self applicative questionnaire. Chi square test with p<0.001 were adopted to interpret the data. This study revealed that overall prevalence of overactive bladder was 18.9% women were significantly more affected than men. Overactive bladder is an important health condition with serious impact on quality of life (Telken, C., 2006).
A cohort study was done to determine the prevalence of enuresis among 13971 children aged 7.5 years old, revealed that 1260(15.5%) children had the habits of wet the bed. A higher prevalence was reported in boys than girls and 266 children had both daytime wetting and bed wetting, with 189(2.3%) having both daytime soiling and bed wetting. Daytime urgency increased with severity of bedwetting and occurred in 28.9% of children with voiding dysfunction (Kate Northstone., 2005).
Epidemiological study was conducted to determine the prevalence of overactive bladder symptoms in Japan. A self-administered questionnaires was mailed to 1096 Japanese adults aged more than 40 years. They covered four areas such as demographic characteristic characteristics, lower urinary tract symptoms, health related quality of life and hospital attendance. Prevalence rate for overactive bladder with or without urgency incontinence were 6.4% and 6.0%, respectively. This results indicated that the prevalence of overactive bladder was high and increased with age but the rate of hospital attendance was low and suggested that public awareness of overactive bladder should be needed for taking optimum management (Yamaguchi, O., 2005).
Survey study was conducted in Spain to assess the prevalence of the urinary symptoms leading overactive bladder. 1669 telephone interviews were conducted to adults aged more than 40 years. Milsom paper stratified sampling technique was used. This study showed that 52.1% of patients with urinary symptoms reported overactive bladder. Urinary urgency, symptoms which defines the pathology is more prevalent in Spanish women than men(Castro, D., 2005).
An epidemiological study was done in Singapore to assess the prevalence of overactive bladder among 2369 male population, age ranged between 18-70years, they completed the self administered questionnaire. Study findings revealed that the prevalence of overactive bladder was 29.9% and more common in older adults (Moorthy, P., 2004).
Nested case control study was done in non institutionalized US population to estimate the prevalence and burden of overactive bladder. Participants were a sample of 5204 children less than 18 years of age and the group conducted telephonic interview method. This study showed that the overall prevalence of overactive bladder was similar between boys 16.0% and girls 16.9%, but sex specific prevalence differed by severity of symptoms. Overactive bladder with or without incontinence has a clinically significant impact on quality of life, quality of sleep and mental health, in both men and women (Berlin., 2004).
Questionnaire survey study was conducted in Belgium to determine the prevalence of daytime with or without night time wetting and voiding habits among school children between 10-14years. Statistical analysis was done by suin Chi square method. Among 528 children, 62(1%) had nocturnal enuresis , day time wetting with or without night time wetting by 343(8%) and fecal soiling by 123(3%). In this study they found that significant prevalence of wetting was more in girls (Bakker, E., 2002).
Cross sectional epidemiological questionnaire survey of 7-8 years old was conducted in Denmark to identify the prevalence of delayed bladder control among children. Chi square test was adopted in the study. This study showed that 29% children were found to have symptoms of delayed bladder control and they suggested that bladder dysfunction as a predisposing factor for infections (Grzybowska., 1997).
A survey study was conducted in Sweden to assess the prevalence of urinary incontinence in 7 years old children. Data obtained by using Self administered questionnaire. This study showed that diurnal incontinence was more common in girls 6.7% than in boys, 3.8% wetting every week was reported in 3.1% of girls and in 2.1% of boys. Many of the children with diurnal incontinence had other symptoms. Urgency was reported in 4.7% of girls and in 1.3% of boys (Pamela, E., 1990)
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