RESEARCH ON MEDICAL STUDENTS AT TWO COLLEGES
Methodology session includes the research approach, research design, setting of the study, population, sampling techniques, criteria of sample selection, sample size, method of sampling, description of the tool, scoring procedure, validity and reliability of the tool, data collection procedure, plan for data analysis, pilot study, and protection of human rights.
In this study experimental approach was adopted.
The research design selected for the present study was quasi experimental design with one group pretest post test design.
O1 X O2
O1 - Knowledge and attitude score before manipulation.
X - Manipulation of independent variable by planned teaching
O2 - Knowledge and attitude score after manipulation.
SETTING OF THE STUDY
In this study C.S.I Jeyaraj Annapackiam college of nursing and C.S.I School of nursing was selected to be the setting. C.S.I Jeyaraj Annapackiam College of nursing is situated at pasumalai, Madurai. It is 3 kilometer away from the heart of the city. It runs PhD, M.Sc Nursing and B.Sc Nursing programme with annual intake of 50 students. The college has a total of 187 students. Among them 47 students are studying final year B.Sc nursing and C.S.I school of nursing is situated at kelavasal.It is 4 kilometers away from
C.S.I Jeyaraj Annapackiam college of nursing. The school of nursing has a total of 105 students. Among them 45 students are studying final year General Nursing and Midwifery.
The target population for the study was all the nursing students at Madurai. The accessible populations in this study were final year B.Sc Nursing and General nursing and midwifery. B.Sc Nursing students at C.S.I Jeyaraj Annapackiam College of nursing pasumalai and General nursing and midwifery students at C.S.I School of nursing in Madurai.
.The sample size in this study was 90 nursing students.
CRITERIA FOR SAMPLE SELECTION
Final year nursing students who were
studying in B.Sc Nursing and General nursing and midwifery.
willing to participate.
from both genders.
Final year nursing students who were
absent during the time of study.
sick during the tie of study
vaccinated with HPV vaccination.
METHOD OF SAMPLING
In this study purposive sampling technique was used to select the subjects. The participants were selected 45 nursing students from college of nursing and 45 nursing students from School of nursing.
DESCRIPTION OF THE TOOL
The instrument was developed by the investigator with the help of various resources and review of literatures. The questionnaires was prepared to asses the knowledge and attitude among nursing students on HPV vaccination. The tool consist of three parts
Part I - Demographic variables
Part II - Assessment of knowledge by using self administered
Part III - Assessment of attitude by using five point likert
The questionnaire analysis was done based on the content of the planned teaching program on HPV vaccination. The knowledge on HPV vaccination was assessed by using a self administered questionnaire. The questionnaire included all the aspects of HPV vaccination. It consists of 35 questions on knowledge. The questions were of multiple choices. Each of the question had 3 responses with one correct answer on HPV vaccination. The attitude was assessed by 15 statements related to HPV vaccination.
Assessment of knowledge by using self administered questionnaire. Each question had three responses with one correct response. A score of one was given for each correct responses and score of zero for wrong response.Thus the maximum score for question on knowledge was 35. The knowledge score was interpreted as follows
> 75% - Adequate knowledge
51-74% - moderately adequate knowledge
< 50% - inadequate knowledge
Included statement on attitude related HPV vaccination among nursing students. There were totally 15 statements among which 10 were positive statements and 5 were negative statements with 5 point likert scale such as “strongly agree”, “agree”, “uncertain”, “disagree”, “strongly disagree”. The score positive statement strongly disagree means “1” score, disagree means “2” score, uncertain means “ 3” score, agree means “4” score, strongly agree means “5” score. The reverse score was given to negative statements. . The maximum score is 75.
Attitude score was interpreted as follows
> 80% - Positive attitude
61-79% - Neutral attitude
< 60% - Negative attitude
DEVELOPMENT OF PLANNED TEACHING PROGRAM
The researcher prepared the planned teaching program after an expansive literature review. The content of planned teaching program on HPV vaccination , it includes introduction to cervical cancer and HPV infection , types of HPV virus, HPV viruses and associated diseases, symptoms of HPV infection, investigations, preventive measures for HPV infections, introduction to HPV vaccination, types of HPV vaccination, timing and dosage of HPV vaccination, route of administration of HPV vaccination, Age limit for HPV vaccination, mode of action of HPV vaccination, common side effects of HPV vaccination, serious side effects of HPV vaccination, precautions of HPV vaccination,draw backs of HPV vaccination, storage availability and cost effect of HPV vaccination. Audio visual aids like LCD, flash cards, charts, video clippings, pictures were used for explaining the content of HPV vaccination. The time taken for planned teaching program was one hour.
VALIDITY AND RELIABILITY OF THE TOOL
The tool used was validated by six nursing experts and one gynecologist. The questions were evaluated for its appropriateness, adequacy, relevance, completeness and comprehensiveness. Expert’s suggestions were invited and appropriate modifications were made accordingly and tool was finalized after establishing the validity.
The reliability of the tool was elicited by using test retest method .The tool was administered to ten samples among which five students from college of nursing and five from school of nursing. The interval between the pretest and post test was 5 days. The reliability of the tool was 0.9. The tool was found to be highly reliable.
VALIDITY OF THE PLANNED TEACHING
The structured teaching program was assessed by experts for the appropriateness, organization of content and language.
DATA COLLECTION PROCEDURE
Data was collected for a period of six weeks except on sunday. Data collection was done on separate days in the school of nursing and college of nursing. The purpose of the study was explained to the concerned authorities of selected institutions to get permission.
The principal of selected institutions and the class coordinators of the respected classes were approached by the investigator. The purpose of the study was explained to the nursing students and their consent to participate in this study was obtained. The self administered questionnaire was given to the nursing students in their class rooms. The pretest questionnaire was given to the nursing students and asked them to put the option in the right sided box given in each question. Next day after the pre test the planned teaching program was given by using LCD, flash cards, charts, video clippings. Seven days after the planned teaching program post test was given with same questionnaire. The questionnaire used in the pretest was used for post test. All the subjects were very cooperative and investigator expressed her gratitude for their cooperation.
Data collection schedule
S.no Name of the place Number of pretest intervention posttest
Annapackiam 45 8.7.10 9.7.10 16.7.10
College of nursing
of nursing 45 11.7.10 12.7.10 19.7.10
Time spent to asses the pretest level of knowledge and attitude was 30 minutes.
Time spent for planned teaching programme was one hour.
Time spent to asses the post test level of knowledge and attitude was 30 minutes.
PLAN FOR DATA ANALYSIS
The data was analyzed by using descriptive and inferentialstatistics.
Pilot study was conducted to find out the feasibility and practicability of the study. It was conducted among five students from school of nursing and five students from college of nursing. The students were selected from Madha College of nursing at Mana Madurai and Senbagam School of nursing at Madurai. Manner in which the final study was done. Structured interview questionnaire was used for data collection in the pre test to asses the knowledge by self administered questionnaire and attitude by five point likert scale. Next day after the pretest planned teaching program on HPV vaccination was given to the nursing students by using LCD, flash cards, charts, video clippings, pictures. Seven days after planned teaching program was given, post test was administered among nursing students of the pilot study group. The time taken to complete the tool was formed to be satisfactory in term of simplicity and clarity. Based on the time of the data collection, arbitrary decision was taken to keep the sample size to 90. No changes were made in the tool after pilot study as the tool was found reliable.
PROTECTION OF HUMAN RIGHTS
Research proposal was approved by the dissertation committee prior to the pilot study and the main study. Permission was sought from the principal C.S.I Jeyaraj Annapackiam College of nursing. A formal consent was obtained from the nursing students before the data collection.
CONCEPTUAL FRAME WORK
The conceptual frame work for the study was derived from Ludwing Von Bertalanffy (1968), General system theory.
It is as a model for viewing people as interacting with the environment. According to this theory a system consist of a set of an interacting component with in a boundary that first the type and rate of exchange in this environment. All living system is open in that there is continual exchange of matter, energy and information. Open system have varying degree of interaction with environment from which the system receive input and gives output in the from of matter, energy and information.
Input refers to matter, energy and information received from the environment; input refers to the learner or target group with their characteristics, level of competencies, learning needs and interest. In this study input refers to demographic variables of the nursing students , assessment of knowledge and attitude level by using self administered questionnaires and likert scale, Plan for planned teaching programme on HPV vaccination.
Through refers to matter, energy and information that is modified are transformed with in the system. In this study through put refers to the active phase that the intervention has been taken place are administration of planned teaching programme regarding HPV Vaccination among nursing students.
Output refers to, energy and information that are released from the system in to the environment. In this study output refers that, the level of knowledge gained by nursing students, which was classified as adequate, moderately adequate and inadequate and attitude was classified as positive, neutral and negative. The researcher was expected the nursing students to gain adequate knowledge and positive attitude regarding HPV Vaccination.
Feedback is the emphasis to strengthen the input, throughput and output. It shows that whether adequate knowledge and positive attitude or inadequate knowledge and negative attitude are obtained. In this study it is emphasis to strengthen the knowledge from inadequate to adequate and changing the attitude from negative to positive. For researcher convenience not included under the study.
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