Description Of Demographic Variables Nursing Essay
The primary purpose of the present study was to evaluate the effectiveness of video assisted teaching programme on knowledge and skill of the auto drivers on basic life support and to find out the association between the pretest level of knowledge and skill regarding Basic Life Support among the Auto Drivers with their selected demographic variables.
Description of demographic variables
The distribution of the auto drivers according to their demographic variables are, among 60 auto drivers 32(53.33%) are aged between 21-30 years. Regarding religion, majority of the auto drivers 57(95%) are Hindus and most of the auto drivers 59(93%) have got married. More than half of the auto drivers 37(61.67%) have no previous knowledge about basic life support and 23(38.33%) auto drivers have previous knowledge on basic life support, in which 14(60.9%) of them have gained information through television.
Assessment of the level of knowledge and skill regarding Basic Life support among auto drivers.
During the pretest of the auto drivers, 32(53.33%) of them had inadequate knowledge regarding basic life support, 26(43.33%) of them had moderately adequate knowledge and 2 (3.33%) of them had adequate knowledge. Regarding skill one of auto drivers (1.67%) had good skill, 20(33.33%) of them had average skill and 39(65%) of them had poor skill.
The present study was supported by Adelborg K (2011), who done a cross sectional study on the benefits and shortcomings of mandatory first aid and basic life support courses for learner drivers. The results showed that out of 12 questions, the average number of correct answers increased from 5.6 to 8.7 after the course (p < 0.001) and after the completion of the course, 95% or more of the participants knew how to prioritize treatment of several casualties, knew how to relieve a foreign body airway obstruction, and knew the recommended compression-ventilation ratio during CPR (p < 0.001 for all) but 64% of participants knew how to diagnose cardiac arrest and 23% of them were aware of when to activate the emergency medical services. Participants significantly increased their self-confidence in handling patients after the course (p < 0.001). It concludes that a mandatory course for learner drivers significantly improves participant's knowledge and their self-assessed skills in first aid and basic life support.
Effectiveness of Video Assisted Teaching Programme regarding Basic Life Support among auto drivers.
In the pretest, mean knowledge and skill score was13.21±3.44 and10.56±2.67. The posttest mean knowledge and skill score was 20.90±2.37 and18.45±1.73.This shows that there was a significant difference between the pretest and the posttest. The calculated 't'value for knowledge and skill were 36.25 and 42.20 which were greater than the tabulated't' value 4.05, which was significant at P≤0.05 level. Hence hypothesis H1 was retained. This reveals that the video assisted teaching programme was effective.
The present study finding was supported by Bjørshol CA et.al (2009), who conducted a randomized study on the effectiveness of personal resuscitation manikin with 24 minutes video instruction among the employees of Stavanger University Hospital, Germany. In total, 5118 employees took part in the BLS training programme. The results showed that the number of correct chest compressions increased significantly from 704(5-102) to 121 (75-150) in the pre- vs. post-training periods, respectively, P<0.01, but the number of correct MTM ventilations did not change. Self-reported BLS skills increased from 3.1 (+/-1.0) pre-training to 3.8 (+/-0.8) post-training, P=0.031. It is concluded that a personal resuscitation manikin with video instruction is a simple and less time-consuming method than instructor-led courses in preparing hospital employees in the basic handling of cardiac arrest.
The present study was supported by Bobrow (2011),who conducted a prospective study on the effectiveness of ultra-brief and brief educational videos for training lay persons responders in hands only cardio pulmonary resuscitation. Totally 336 adults without recent CPR training were randomized into 4 groups: (1) control (no training) (n=51); (2) 60-second video training (n=95); (3) 5-minute video training (n=99); and (4) 8-minute video training, including manikin practice (n=91). All subjects were tested for their ability to perform CPR during an adult OHCA scenario using a CPR-sensing manikin and Laerdal PC Skill Reporting software. Half of the trained subjects were randomly assigned to test immediately and the other half after 2-months.The results showed that twelve (23.5%) controls did not even attempt CPR, which was true of only 2 subjects (0.7%; P=0.01) from any of the experimental groups. All experimental groups had significantly higher average compression rates (closer to the recommended 100/min) than the control group (P<0.001), and all experimental groups had significantly greater average compression depth (>38 mm) than the control group (P<0.0001). It is concluded that lay persons exposed to very short hands only CPR video are moderately to attempt CPR and show superior CPR skills than untrained Lay persons.
Relationship between the pretest and the posttest level of knowledge and skill regarding basic life support among auto drivers.
In the pretest mean score of knowledge and skill is 13.21±3.44 and 10.56±2.67 respectively, 'r' value is 0.46. The posttest mean score of knowledge and skill is 20.90±2.37and 18.45±1.73 respectively, 'r' value is 0.74.This reveals that there is positive correlation between the pretest and the posttest level of knowledge and skill regarding basic life support among auto drivers. Hence the formulated hypothesis H2 is retained at P<0.05 level.
The present study was contradictory to the findings of Anil Kumar Prashar(2008) ,who conducted a quasi-experimental study on the effectiveness of planned teaching programme on knowledge and practice of basic life support among the students in Mangalore. The data analysis revealed that the mean posttest knowledge score (74.92%) was found to be significantly higher than the pretest knowledge score 27.03 %( t value 31.019, P<0.05) similarly that the mean posttest practice score (69.50%) was found to be significantly higher than the pretest practice score 18.11 %( t value 30.929, P<0.05). The coefficient correlation between the pretest and posttest knowledge and practice was r = -0.203 and r = -0.021 at 0.05 level of significance which is indicating the low negative correlation.
Association between the level of knowledge and skill regarding basic life support among auto drivers with their selected demographic variables.
There was no association found between the level of knowledge and skill with selected demographic variables such as age, marital status, religion and previous knowledge at P <0.05 level. Hence hypothesis H3 was not retained.
The present study was supported by Safquat A. et.al, (2010), who conducted a quasi-experimental study on basic life support skill: assessment and education of spouse and first degree relatives of patients with coronary artery disease in Karachi. The results showed that among 300 participants, the mean age of participants was 31.08±10.53 years.220 (73.34%) participants were male. On the average for all 31 questions 37.09% of participants had correct responses before the training and after the training BLS (P<0.001). There was statistically significant improvement across all age groups, gender and educational levels (P<0.001). It is concluded that there was significant improvement in relative's knowledge of BLS after training. Different age groups, both gender and all educational groups showed equal learning abilities.
This chapter deals with the discussion of the study with reference to objectives and supportive studies. All three objectives have been attained and hypothesis H1 and hypothesis H2 are retained and hypothesis H3 was not retained.
CHAPTER - VI
SUMMARY, CONCLUSION, IMPLICATIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
This chapter consists of four sections. In the first two sections, the summary and conclusion are presented. In the last two sections, the recommendations for further research and implications for nursing practice are presented.
The purpose of the study was to evaluate the effectiveness of Video Assisted Teaching Programme on knowledge and skill regarding Basic Life Support among the auto drivers before and after the teaching programme. The study was pre-experimental design. The main study was conducted at the New Bus Stand in Salem.
The total of 60 auto drivers who met the inclusion criteria were selected from the auto stand by non-probability convenience sampling technique. The structured knowledge questionnaire and observational checklist were administered to find out the pretest knowledge and skill of the auto drivers on Basic Life Support. The Video Assisted Teaching Programme was given on the same day for a period of one hour followed by the demonstration of basic life support procedure by using manikin. The posttest was conducted on the 8th day after the teaching programme by administering the same structured knowledge questionnaire and observational checklist. The collected data were analyzed by using descriptive and inferential statistics. Inferential statistics such as Paired't' test was used to analyze the effectiveness between pre and posttest and Chi-square test was used to find the association with the selected demographic variables.
Major Findings of the Study
Among 60 auto drivers 32(53.33%) of them were aged between 21-30 years.
Regarding religion majority of the auto drivers 57(95%) were Hindus
Among the 60 auto drivers most of the auto drivers 59(93%) were married.
Among 60 auto drivers, 52(86.67%) of them had secondary education.
More than half of the auto drivers 37(61.67%) had no previous knowledge about basic life support
23(38.33%) auto drivers had previous knowledge on basic life support, in which 14(60.9%) of them gained information through television.
In the pretest 32(53.33%) auto drivers had inadequate knowledge, 26(43.33%) auto drivers had moderately adequate knowledge and 2 (3.33%) of them had adequate knowledge.
In the pretest one 1(1.67%) auto driver had good skill, 20(33.33%) auto drivers had average skill and 39(65%) of them had poor skill.
In the post test among the auto drivers 52(86.67%) auto drivers had adequate knowledge and 8(13.33%) of them had moderately adequate knowledge
In the post test among 60 auto drivers 50(83.33%) of them had adequate skill and10 (16.67%) auto drivers had moderately adequate skill
In the pretest, regarding knowledge the mean score was 13.21±3.44 and the mean percentage was 52.6%.
In the pretest, regarding skill the mean score was 10.56±2.67 and the mean percentage was 42.24%.
In the posttest, regarding knowledge the mean score is 20.9±2.37 and the mean percentage was 83.6%.
In the posttest, the mean score was 18.45±1.73 and the mean percentage for the posttest was 73.8%.
The't' value for knowledge and skill is 36.25 and 42.20 respectively, which was significant at p<0.05 level. Hence the hypothesis H1 was retained.
In the pretest mean score of knowledge and skill was 13.21±3.44 and 10.56±2.67 respectively. 'r' value was 0.46. The posttest mean score of knowledge and skill was 20.90±2.37and 18.45±1.73 respectively. 'r' value was 0.74.Hence the formulated hypothesis H2 was retained at P<0.05 level.
There was no association between the level of knowledge among the auto drivers with their demographic variables such as age, religion, marital status, educational qualification and previous knowledge regarding basic life support at p<0.05 level. Hence the research hypothesis H3 was rejected.
There was no association between the level of skill among the auto drivers with their demographic variables such as age, religion, marital status, educational qualification and previous knowledge regarding basic life support at p<0.05 level. Hence the research hypothesis H3 was rejected.
The study was done to determine the effectiveness of video assisted teaching programme on knowledge and skill regarding basic life support among auto drivers in the selected area of Salem city, Tamilnadu. The result of this study shows that there was a significant improvement in the level of knowledge and skill regarding Basic Life Support among auto drivers. There was no significant association between the level of knowledge and skill with their selected demographic variable.
The findings of this study have implications in various areas of nursing. The findings of the study show that the need for consulting regular training programme for the nurses on basic life support.
The auto drivers can be given specialized training in improving the skills of basic life support to act immediately to save patients life.
The study finding signifies the importance of formulating and implementing structured video assisted teaching programme by the nursing personnel.
A booklet can be formed on sequence of basic life support to reinforce the auto drivers.
A compact disc can be created on sequence of basic life support and distributed among the nurses to reinforce their knowledge regarding basic life support.
The nurse educator should encourage auto drivers to actively participate in awareness programmes regarding Basic Life Support.
In-service education programmes, workshops and continuing education programmes are to be conducted update the knowledge of the nursing personnel regarding the basic life support.
The nurse educator should encourage the nursing researchers to use different method of teachings such as simulations, interactive video films while conducting the researches on basic life support education.
BLS competency should be included in the orientation programme for new graduates.
BLS should be included in the general education so that students can attain competency on BLS.
The nurse researchers can take this study as a base line to build upon future studies.
This study brings about the fact that more studies need to be done at different settings such as schools and colleges or in industries.
The generalization of study result can be made by replication of the study.
Disseminate the findings through conferences, seminars, publication in journals and worldwide web.
Findings of this study can be utilized for conducting further observational study among the non-medical and non-paramedical peoples.
The findings of the study can help to expand the scientific body of professional knowledge upon which further research can be conducted. It will in turn strengthen nursing research pertaining to clinical nursing.
The nurse administrator can plan and organize education programmes and workshops regarding basic life support for the non-medical personnel such as school and college students, industrial workers.
Necessary administrative support should be provided to conduct workshops and in-service programmes for nursing personnels regarding basic life support.
The nurse administrator should provide adequate resources to train the non-paramedical personnels regarding the basic life support.
The nurse administrator should appoint separate CPR team to guide the non-paramedical persons regarding CPR.
Necessary administrative actions should be made that BLS competency must be mandatory for the learner drivers.
A similar study need to be conducted in other auto associations in order to draw generalization.
A comparative study may be done between the auto drivers and the taxi drivers.
A similar kind of study can be conducted for police personnel.
A similar study can be done for the industrial workers.
A comparative study can be to done to evaluate the effectiveness of two different kind method of teaching such as simulation versus interactive video films on BLS for laypersons.
Similar studies can be conducted on a larger sample with the different demographic profile on a long term basis.
A similar study can be replicated by using two rescuer methods on adult and pediatric basic life support.
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