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Communication Between People In Health And Social Care

You are attending your local G.P surgery for examinations as you have been unwell lately. The receptionist asks you loudly the reason for attending; other patients can hear you being asked. You explain to reception staff that you are slightly deaf. She asked you to use the computer screen in the waiting area to indicate that you have arrived. You explain to her that your English is limited and that you have no previous experience in using computers. You felt that the receptionist did not listen to you and that she was not sensitive to your concerns.

Explore communication between people in health and social care by:

Applying relevant theories of communication to health and social care contexts.

Review the application of a range of communication techniques for different purposes used in health and social care work.

Discuss the ways in which communication influences how individuals feel about themselves.

Describe ways of dealing with inappropriate interpersonal communication between individuals.

Analyze the use of techniques and strategies for supporting communication between people with specific communication needs.

Evaluate workplace strategies, policies and procedures for good practice in communication.

People communicate to have good abundance and it is a method to pass one information to another individual. Communication between people in health and social care plays a big role in caring the service provider or the patient.

To employ compatible basis of communication to health and social care in the said scenario, we must first look into the individuals that are involved in the scenario. The patient, is slightly deaf, knowledge deficit in using IT machines in the hospital such as computer, and inarticulate in speaking English. On the other hand, the receptionist is arrogant, assuming, domineering, presumptuous and disrespectful. We have four theories of communication and they are all into a cycle. First is Humanistic theory tells us about individualism. Every individual has its own unique personalities and attributes. In a health care setting, as a healthcare provider, we take our patients or service provider as an individual and we should respect them. The patient and the receptionist are the main individuals in the scenario. They have their own personality that is unique to the other one. Behaviorist theory informs us attitudes are achieved by way of conditioning through interaction with other individuals. In other words, when an individual interacts with another individual, one personality or behavior is presented or acquainted to another personality. The scene when the receptionist interacted with the patient portrays how behaviorist theory works in the communication. Cognitive theory is established on the ideas or principles of another individual and learns from them, thus the human thought processes understanding one’s personality. The humanistic theory explain to us that an individual’s personality is different to another personality of another individual and behaviorist theory is about interaction of individuals, the cognitive theory on the other hand, it expound us how individual start not only to interact but understand and accept another personality of an individual. The receptionist just ignored the patient when the she explained her side in the scenario. Ignoring another individual such as the patient in the scenario is also included in cognitive theory, though the receptionist did understand the side of the patient, the receptionist decided to ignore the patient’s side. Cognitive theory does not only understand one’s side of individual, but it’s also about accepting one’s personality or behavior to your thought. In short, the act of accepting and understanding one’s personality of an individual in an interaction is cognitive theory. Lastly is the psychoanalytical theory. It explains us the role of unconscious mind. A personality that an individual portrays in an interaction is not what you thought the real personality of that individual. Sometimes, we judge them on what we see or hear on the outer appearance. We can only see its appearance and process it to our thoughts in an interaction, but we do not know its real personality inside of it. In the scenario, the receptionist judged the patient’s personality when she asked the patient loudly the reason for attending and when she instructed the patient to use the computer screen to indicate that she arrived already.

Communication has ranges of techniques to communicate in health and social care work. In the scenario there are scenes that explain us how techniques of communication are used. When the receptionist asked the patient loudly, the technique of communication used in this scene is verbal communication which is asking question and non-verbal which is the pitch, speed, accent, and tone of the receptionist while asking the patient. Another scene is when the patient explains that she would like to discuss the reasons to the doctor and that you she is slightly deaf. The technique used here is verbal communication which is reflecting back to the question. The receptionist then told the patient to use the computer screen to indicate there that she arrived already, its verbal technique which is giving instructions. Lastly is when the patient felt that the receptionist did not listen to her, its body language technique that is portrayed by the receptionist.

Initiating communication to another individual is a stage where two individuals try to open a bridge of relationship. In addition, you don’t just open bridges to them but you are trying to influence them too. There are two communication influences; interpersonal communication is unmediated communication that opens mutual influence to each other. Usually this type of influence manages to open relationships and mutual understanding. In the scenario, only the patient initiate this kind of communication influence, when the patient is humbly explaining herself to the receptionist, the receptionist impersonally approach the patient by just giving instruction and ignored her after. Impersonal communication is an influence conversely to interpersonal, the individual only interacts to another individual superficially. In the scenario, the patient is trying to open an interpersonal communication to the receptionist, while the receptionist is impersonal communication. In social penetration model by Altman and Taylor, they said the more time we spend with others, the more likely we are to self-disclose more intimate thought and details of our life. As relationships develop, communication moves from relatively shallow, no intimate levels to deeper, more personal ones. When the receptionists approach the patient aggressively, the patient expresses her inabilities to the receptionist. Its intimate thoughts and details of her life are revealed like inadequate knowledge in using computers and influent in speaking English. On the other hand, Johari window explains us also the process of human interaction. It divides our personal awareness. The process of giving and receiving feedback is one of the most important concepts in training. Through the feedback process, we see ourselves as others see us. Through feedback, other people also learn how we see them. Feedbacks give information to a person or group either by verbal or nonverbal communication. The information you give tells others how their behavior affects you, how you feel, and what you perceive (feedback and self-disclosure). Feedback is also a reaction by others, usually in terms of their feelings and perceptions, telling you how your behavior affects them (receiving feedback). It has four sides namely, free, blind, hidden and the unknown. In free area includes, the patient’s information known to herself and to others such as the receptionist. Blind area means, information’s known only to other individuals excluding the patient. The hidden area is about information known only to the patient. And lastly, the unknown area which is the information is not known to any individuals even the patient.

In dealing inappropriate interpersonal communication between individuals, we must look back at the receptionist’s behaviors towards the patient. In order to avoid such communication, the receptionist must stay focused. In the scenario, the receptionist did not focus her attention to the deaf patient that in fact the deaf patient must have special attention with the receptionist. Another one is listening carefully; the receptionist did not listen to the patient’s inabilities and instead she ignored the patient.

Some individual need specific communication like deaf service user. These various types of communication supports and help communication efficiently between service users and service provider. SOLER technique helps to improve reception of message. It’s said that when you’re interacting with the service users you have to be directly and firmly to the patient. If the receptionist is directly and firmly to the patient’s concerns, she can provide the patient’s needs appropriately. Open position, lean, eye contact and relax are the other techniques in SOLER. There are also tips to communicate successfully to service users such as our patient in the scenario, since the patient sis slightly deaf, the receptionist should not shout and should speak slowly towards the patient. But in the scenario, the receptionist failed to apply this tip. In workplace, there are policies and strategies that are implemented for good communication, such as keeping confidentiality of the patient, disciplinary procedures, equal opportunities, flexible working and policy on performance management. In my opinion, in the scenario, it seems they lacked this strategies and policies. A good practice is achieved with good policies and strategies. Care and support providers have a legal responsibility to fulfill their duty of care. Within direct support services there are regulatory bodies that can act on any shortfalls identified in the services people receive. If they implement such tips, they will progress and service is efficiently provided to the service users.

1380 words

Question 2

Scenario:

You are attending your local G.P surgery for examinations as you have been unwell lately. The receptionist asks you loudly the reason for attending; other patients can hear you being asked. You explain to reception staff that you are slightly deaf. She asked you to use the computer screen in the waiting area to indicate that you have arrived. You explain to her that your English is limited and that you have no previous experience in using computers. You felt that the receptionist did not listen to you and that she was not sensitive to your concerns.

Describe physical, cultural and legal influences on communication in health and social care by:

Analyse how methods of communication are influenced by individual values culture and ability.

Describe legislation and charters governing the rights of individuals to communicate

Discuss the implications in health and social care contexts of legislation and codes of practice relating to records and communication of information about people.

Analyse the effectiveness of organizational systems policies in relation to good practice in communication.

Suggest and justify ways of improving communication systems in a health or care setting.

Values are the principles, standards, or quality which guides human actions in daily life. Values and cultures play a big role in health and social care. Without values, individuals will pursue behaviors of their own. Values are rules by which we make decisions about right or wrong. In health and social care there are policies that are being implemented to achieve three main points; equality and diversity; confidentiality; right and responsibilities; and professional ethics.

When individuals start to interact, the body language, facial expressions, and choice of words influence the whole context of the message. All these verbal and non-verbal cues are brought by the individual’s personality like social class, beliefs, values, education, and culture. In the scenario where the patient visits a General practitioner surgery and a female receptionist asks her loudly the reason of attending, it could be a sign of her personality. Maybe she grew up in a family that are always arguing and she brought it up. Also, clearly the patient’s ethnicity, culture, and education play a role in the scenario where she said she is not fluent in speaking in English. The patient as an individual from a different background, the way she communicate to the receptionist is greatly affected. In addition to that, in a scenario where the patient said she has no previous experience in using a computer and it is hard for the patient to make use of the information communication technology which is the use of computer screen to indicate her arrival. In this situation, every healthcare setting has set values, morals, and ethics that will guide the behavior of the employees. This enables the employees to practice according to what has been agreed upon by the management and the organization that supports to avoid them to stand to their personal stand in handling patients that will cause misunderstandings.

The legislation and charters governing the rights of individuals to communicate, is for those people who have difficulty communicating and receiving and understanding verbal and written communication. Its principles are in promoting anti-discriminatory practices, independence and safety, protecting people from abuse, individualized holistic care, and keeping confidentiality. Many people who have a communication disability do not get the resources, support and understanding they need to enable them to communicate. Because of this they are deprived of appropriate health and social services, opportunities for education and training, and employment. They are also vulnerable, at risk of abuse. Nor can they enjoy the social interaction, leisure pursuits, and the business of everyday life. In the scenario, the patient is clearly indeed need specific communication because she told the receptionist that she is slightly deaf. As a receptionist, I know that there are guidelines in communicating this kind of service users because it is present in every health care setting. The receptionist in the scenario should act the appropriate measures to communicate efficiently to the patient. We are promoting equality, diversity and rights of the patient. In addition, the receptionist did not open an interaction while the patient is trying to do conversations about her concerns and instead she gave directly an instruction to use the computer for indication that she arrived already. The receptionist is not fair to the patient according to the rights of the patient.

The implication of these legislation and codes of practices in health and social care contexts is to implement the necessary services needed to those individual who have adversity in interacting or communicating another individual. Each individual including those with communication impairment or disabilities are accredited and free to exercise their own rights. In the legislation and codes of practices the service users must be given information the way they can receive and respond, access to training and support to the patient and his/her family to minimize the impact of the disability and improve interaction skills, enough time to communicate, and access to services. These guidelines will help the flow of system smoothly and efficiently along with appropriate care and procedures, hospital records. In the scenario, if the receptionist practices the principles of the legislations and charters, the way she deals with the patient will be nice and easier. The receptionist must take consideration to the patient’s situation by listening and providing as to what necessary services that patient needs. Patient’s confidentiality is important in every cases, it’s a core value in every healthcare setting and it’s a patient’s right to keep it with the health care providers that are involved in caring to that patient.

Organizations are helping each other to evolve its policies, legislations, charters and systems to improve its effectiveness. They are setting goals to aim effective communication such as interpersonal communication, decision making, and establishing rapport not only to the service users but also to co-service providers. It focuses and promotes positive outcomes for good practices in work places, service provider trainings and development, advocacy, individualism, human rights and confidentiality. In a healthcare setting, the system must practice confidentiality, and patient’s rights regarding in information such as recording, storing, and relaying information. Only healthcare providers that are involved in caring the patient must share the information. In the scenario the receptionist used a loud voice to ask for the reasons of the patient’s visit in the General practitioner surgery. In that manner, the receptionist did not follow the health care system because other patients can hear the patient being asked and the patient answered the questions. Privacy and confidentiality of the patient is compromised.

Communication is defined as the sending and receiving of messages between people. It contributes a big part from rendering care to the service users to running a health care facility. One misunderstanding in communication may cause big problems and might even cost patient’s life. There are so many ways to improve communication in healthcare settings especially in our scenario specifically for the special communication needs. By the use of communication tools such as pictures giving instructions or an interpreter and simplified instruction guides. We must provide necessary basic tools or equipment to help them communicate. This tool will help not only us to understand them but likewise to those people who need this kind of communication; it will not only help those people with disabilities or impairments, but also the ones who have language barriers. The administration must set their own assessment too, to monitor the feedback in the whole communication network. In the scenario, it is advisable for the receptionist to have trainings and monthly progress reports by their administration in the access to communication resources so that receptionist will be equipped with the knowledge in assessing if her patient has special communication needs.

1105 words

Question 3

Scenario:

You are attending your local G.P surgery for examinations as you have been unwell lately. The receptionist asks you loudly the reason for attending; other patients can hear you being asked. You explain to reception staff that you are slightly deaf. She asked you to use the computer screen in the waiting area to indicate that you have arrived. You explain to her that your English is limited and that you have no previous experience in using computers. You felt that the receptionist did not listen to you and that she was not sensitive to your concerns.

Explore the use of information technology in communications in health and social care by:

Analyse how the use of IT in health and social care benefits service users.

Critically evaluate how the IT supports and enhances the activities of care workers and care organizations/ agencies.

Analyse health and safety legal considerations in the use of IT

The information Communication Technology allows us to improve the efficiency of the health care services. IT has the potential to improve the quality, and safety of health care. It improves positive patient’s experiences and facilities research and development relevant to health and social care.

There are so many benefits of IT for services; in fact IT in healthcare setting is made for the development of rendering care to the patients. For example, the patient management systems, it allows the health care providers to render care to the right patient with right treatment at the right time. Another example is the inventory management system, it allows the healthcare providers to store and check for medical supplies and to ensure that medicines is readily available for the patients. They also have the electronic health record, billing system, and highly sophisticated medical devices. The standard ICT software is word processing, spreadsheets, database, information retrieval, and emails. They benefit the service users through meeting individual needs, administration of treatments, efficiency of administrative processes, accuracy of records, communication, and maintaining independence. A specific example is the use of Electronic Health Records (EHR) which serves as a patient-tracking system providing real time access to patient data. Another example is the Clinical Decision Support System (CDSS) which provides healthcare providers real-time diagnostic and treatment recommendations. There is also interoperability which refers to electronic communication among organizations so that the data in one IT system can be incorporated into another. These are the stuffs in ICT that are being used today. In the scenario the receptionist asks the patient to use the computer screen to indicate that the patient has arrived. In that scenario, they are using innovative machines already. The said machine of ICT is Electronic Health Records and Electronic Care Communications, it provides access to information, and must keep being developed and/or modernized in all areas for additional benefits.

IT has the way for innovations of the quality and safety of health care. The ICT supports and enhances health and social care activities of care workers and care organizations and agencies. It is through financial, clinical, administrative, infrastructures, which the needs of manpower are met; and there is a demand regarding innovation in business administration which is efficiency and quality of service. It also helps in meeting requirements, accountability, and audit. In the scenario, the use of a computer screen as an indication of a patient’s arrival makes the work of the receptionist lighter and easier. If there was no such thing then like the traditional way of handling the services in a hospital, the receptionist will have to entertain every service user, with limited time, limited resources and limited manpower.

The health and safety legal considerations in the use of ICT are quite dangerous when not brought into awareness by the users. Safety measures are needed before implementing the use of ICT. In fact, there were several issues taken into consideration in the use of ICT. Ergonomics are usually raised problems. One solution to have bigger and has to be good design interiors of the working environment to reduce and avoid the accompanying health and safety problems and if not tolerated may turn into inability or worst of the user. Radiation in computer monitors are very dangerous if prolong usage. It may destroy the normal eyesight of the user. Another problem when using ICT is the posture while seating or standing. Again prolong posture while using the said machines may turn into serious injury in the back of the service user. Stiff necks are also common in the user. In order to avoid this, the monitor should be at eye level, fleet flat on the floor, knees and elbows with angles, no straining of neck, and must have a well-adjusted brightness of the screen and a screen protector or radiation protector screen. Another solution for the users is exercise before using the computer like neck rotation, back bending and rotation and hands shake. A very common problem met in ICT is called eye strain due to too much usage of computer and the eyes are exposed to radiation. There is also the Repetitive Strain Injury (RSI) like carpal tunnel syndrome in using the keyboards. Most of the time too much exposure and use of ICT give stress. For personal safety, it is deal to seek the experts who have taken health and safety courses in manual handling, and repairing especially that there are some hazardous substances present. In a scenario where I have no previous experience in using a computer, it would be best for the patient to call an assistance to demonstrate to me how to use it or better yet, the receptionist should provide assistance for the patient. ICT has many advantages and disadvantage so it depends on the users to control so that health won’t be at stake.

806 words

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