Latest In A Series Of Technology Breakthrough Media Essay
The internet is a latest in a series of technology breakthroughs in interpersonal communication. It combines innovative feature of its predecessors, such as bridging great distances and reaching a mass audience (John & Katelyn 2004). Exploring Virtual Worlds, technology has shifted the text-based interactions into 3D worlds, which attempt comprehensive experiences of being.
Due to the flexibility of accessing internet, the number using of using the internet also increased. As the increasing of internet users, hence the social networking has become a cultural phenomenon. In twenty-first century, the new development in web technology are creating more friendly, social and fun environments for the retrieving and sharing of information (Sadeh, 2007). The new development is the application and the online games. This kind of application would attract the using of internet increased. When the increasing of using increase rapidly, it will turn become spillover.
The previous argument stated that internet itself is not interesting, but the applications have the power to let the people become addictive, which the interactive applications like chatting, dating or online gaming (Young, 1998). The level of the addiction is not similar on every single people due to the time or hours they spend on the net. The level of online game addiction is determined by examining the diagnostic criteria or symptoms (Chou, 2005; Widyanto & Griffiths, 2006). Lu and Wang (2008) stated that there are a greater number of symptoms when the level of addiction is higher, in an additional that the symptom is not related to each other.
The role of internet addiction in online game loyalty, the attractiveness of internet could lead the excessive use. The excessive use is happened on everyone no matter the people in what age. The past research described the phenomenon of excessive use as Internet addiction, or Internet dependence (Griffiths, 2000; Soule, 2003; Widyanto & Griffiths, 2006). This phenomenon is a psychological dependence. Christine Rosen, a fellow at the Ethics and Public Policy Center, said that the most interactions in online groups do not take place face-to-face (Michael, 2006).
Adolescents are more vulnerable to Internet addiction than adults, and the social performance, psychology, and lifestyle habits of Internet addicts can be affected by this addiction (Kim & Chun, 2005). Internet addiction has been linked to a variety problem such as little sleep, failure to eat for long periods and limited physical activity; it also disrupts the studies (Cao & Lu, 2006). Numerous cross-sectional studies have shown that Internet addiction has an adverse effect on several lifestyle-related factors in adolescents; it can result in irregular dietary habits, extended periods of time spent on the Internet (Kim & Chun, 2005), physical inactivity, and short duration of sleep (Lam, Peng, Mai & Jing, 2009). Yoo (2004) considered hyperactivity and attention deficit disorder symptoms as risk factors associated with Internet addiction (Cao &Lu, 2006).
The syndrome of intense preoccupation is described by Chou (2001); Treuer, Fabian and Ferudi (2001) with using the Internet which are excessive amounts of time spent online, compulsive use of the Internet, difficulty in managing the time spent on the Internet, feeling that the world outside of the Internet is boring, becoming irritated if disturbed while online, decreased social interaction with “real” people, and increased loneliness and depression (Nalwa &Anand, 2003; Whang, Lee & Chang, 2003). Donoven (2004) said that substance use has been found to negatively affect adolescent’s health.
Beard and Wolf (2001) asserted five statements for Internet addiction, preoccupation with being online, increasing time spent online, unsuccessful attempts to stop, irritability when cutting back use, and staying online longer than intended (Yellowlees & Marks, 2007). Internet addiction among adolescents has been recognized as an important issue in various countries because of high prevalence of depression, aggressive behavior, psychiatric symptoms, and interpersonal problems associated with this addiction (Ko, Yen, Liu, Huang & Yen, 2009; Seo, Kang & Yom, 2009).
While, the main reason people use the internet is to communicate with other people over email and the principal reason why people send email messages to others is to maintain interpersonal relationships (Hampton & Wellman, 2001; Howard, 2001; McKenna & Bargh, 2000; Stafford, 1999). Matei and Ball-Rokeach (2001), the technology also increase the regular contact between family, friends, and business associates, especially those who lived too far away to be visited easily in person, and this had the overall effect of strengthening local ties (Bargh & McKenna, (2003). Nevertheless, concerns continued to be raised that the technology would harm the family, hurt relationships, and isolate people (Fischer, 1992). Kimberly (1998) reported that the problems occurred caused by excessive Internet use were academic, relationship, physical.
2.3 Spillover effect
Spillover is defined as overflow or meaning the quantity is flow over than the capacity which supposes to have. The spillover effect of virtual reality also means the effect after excessive use of internet by online users. Thus, the internet is fast becoming a natural, background part of everyday life (Bargh & McKenna, 2003). Carter (2007), demonstrated that spillover effect occur at a measurable level. Erdem and Sun (2002) said that spillover effect may occur because of the signaling behavior. Carter (2007) also discussed spillover effect has focused on the process of spreading activation.
In short spillover is an excessive quantity. The excessive using of the internet has led to many changes in human life such as the way to maintain the relationship and the internet become the medium to communicate with the people. At the same time, the spillover effect has distracted the people attention from doing something. Next, the attitude toward their study and academic also changed and its getting serious, the academic problem also occurred caused by the spillover of the internet. Furthermore, the spillover has make the students getting tired and sleepy which the symptom of fatigue. The excessive use may be come from the overindulged of the individual which paying more time to the online game and their lifestyle has changed due to the time is paying more to online rather than outdoor activity. Behavior also has the significant changes due to the spillover of virtual reality. People nowadays also try to get their attention from the virtual life friends by posting something trough the internet.
2.3.1 Maintain the friendship
Jones (2002) reported that Internet had been beneficial to their relationship with classmates, compared with it had a negative impact on those relationships (Bargh & McKenna, 2003). Networking emphasizes relationship initiation, often between strangers (Boyd & Ellison, 2007). Howard (2001) concluded from their large random-sample survey the Internet allows people to stay in touch with family and friends and, in many cases, extend their social networks. Although the internet is often used to contact existing relationships, it also has the potential to create new relationships (Boase & Wellman, 2004). Much of the hype surrounding the internet has been about the possibility of people becoming immersed in relationships with people who they have never seen or touched in real life (Boase & Wellman, 2004). Katz and Rice (2002), Katz and Aspden (1997) stated that two large-scale national surveys done in 1995 and 2000 indicate that internet users have met someone new online. Boyd (2008) argues that Facebook enable U.S youth to socialize with their friends even when they are unable to gather in unmediated situations.
Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs which developed and remain for understanding the human motivation, management training, and personal development (Maslow, 1940-50). Human basic needs are inborn. Maslow original five-stage Hierarchy of Needs model proved how the five needs are necessary for people in order to have the motivation. As the Maslow stated, we must satisfy each need in turn, starting with the first, which deals with the most obvious needs for survival itself.
The Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs shown, the third level is the belongingness level which consist relationships, work group, family, affection, etc. The belongingness level is reflecting an individual’s concern to feel loved and befriended; for example, through the establishment of friendships or group membership (Smeda, 1977).
Figure 2.3.1 Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs (five-stage model)
Source: alan chapman 2001 – 4, based on Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs
Scott (1988) said the phrase ‘social network’, with its connotations of textiles, webs, and grids, conjures up a strange but surprisingly powerful image of social reality. Individuals are, as it were, tied to one another by invisible bonds which are knitted together into a criss-cross mesh of connections, much as fishing net or a length of cloth is made from intertwined fabrics (Scott, 1988).
The internet users wanted to know more friends thru the internet since they wanted to fulfill their belongingness needs. The basic function of Facebook is used to meet new people or to maintain or strengthen those offline connection friends. The Benefits of Facebook “Friends:” Social Capital and College Students’ Use of Online Social Network Site”, shown that 94% of undergraduate students were Facebook members, these 94% of Facebook members reported that they spending between 10 and 30 minutes on average using Facebook each day and report having 150 and 200 friends listed on their profile. Social networking sites (SNS) have become an almost overnight phenomenon and are attracting young people by the millions, primarily to talk with friends or to make new friends.
Facebook encourages user to use their real names also known as their legal names instead of the alias screen name (Ali, 2009). Alias screen name is not the user real name. Facebook the social networking site encourages the user use their own real name because Facebook want to increase the relevancy of searches (Ali, 2009). The real name helped the users of Facebook can find their colleagues, college friend, university friends, secondary school friends, and even their primary school friends just by key in the name of the person.
Karel (2006), Facebook has already changed so many lives, so many relationships; it has become integral part of college life. Dye (2007) pointed out that this new medium has created a new generation of individuals whose identities are defined by their connections and the content they produce online. People use SNS to acquire information about people in whom they are interested. This includes romantic interests, old friends, new roommates, classmates, and people in their community who they would like to know better (Mark, Dong & Kenneth, 2009). A minority of internet users actually use the internet to communicate with people that they do not already know from their everyday lives and when the relationships form online, those relationships often become incorporated into offline life (Boase & Wellman, 2004). Thus, the previous studies have shown that Facebook has conducted the way to maintain the relationship with each other.
Distraction is a condition shifting attention away from stimuli that is critical for a related event toward stimuli that are not related to the event or the activity that takes the attention from the task (Regan, Lee & Young, 2008). Folk and Gibson (2001) defined the distraction happen when an irrelevant event summons or attracts attention away from demands of a current task.
Distraction also divided into positive distraction and negative distraction. Positive distraction is a means of mitigating stress (Shepley, 2006). People in a positive mood tend to be better at absorbing information and are more creative. The positive distraction can create a more open minded approach. Luka said that, if one person gives his mind positive distraction, he will be able to release negative emotions. Negative distraction happened when it interfaces with attention to another task (Evanston, 2004).
The internet provides a wealth of educational resources for students and can be beneficial towards increasing academic performance; however, non-educational sites may do just the opposite (Roschelle, Pea, Hoadley, Grodon & Means, 2000). Starkman (2007) has demonstrated that motivations for using the Internet are primarily caused by desires for relaxation, fun, encouragement, and status.
Karina (2008) said that students are spending a large percentage of their time connected to the internet both in and out of the physical classroom. According to Michael (2007) students surf the net in the class because it’s just too tempting to surf. In the physical world, students can select learning environments with minimal distractions (Karina, 2008). However, when the students work online, they can’t always control the presence of distracting element/events (Karina, 2008). Karina (2008), working online means having to continuously resist opportunities to engage in the activities such as: messaging services such as MSN, YM, AIM, etc, email, social networks such as Facebook, meetup, evite, linked in, etc, personal pages such as aol, google, yahoo, msn, etc, news, weather, advertising, entertainment, games. Karina (2008) said that the internet is continuously demanding attention; users spend a considerable amount of time filtering irrelevant content.
The internet, WWW, cell phones, iPhones, and iPods are only part of a vast array of potential distractions to today’s college students, who spend less time studying than their predecessors (Nonis & Hudson, 2006). Students who sit in the large lecture hall were intrigued by tapping of laptop keys as students appeared to be taking copious notes (Micheal, 2007). Micheal (2007) said that students use an online chat room to post comments on his lecture, another students spend lecture hour to play games, instant messaging and view photos thru the Web.
Students tend to keep their site open while doing homework, and among those who “put off” doing their homework to spend time on the social networking site (Kubay, Lavin & Barrows, 2001). The internet can be a source of education but specific sites or tools on the Internet may have little to no educational value and may distract and take time away from homework. Due to the excessive use of the internet, students had the difficulty of completing their homework assignment and finishing their study for exams (Kimberly, 1996). According to Kimberly (1996), the regular gamer feel detachment and feel that other task can wait and that can do them later, which results in time being wasted and usually not doing the homework or household given. She also found that Facebook and Youtube can be distracting from more important tasks, like homework and face-to-face interactions. From the previous studies, it is believe that Facebook is attracted the attention from doing one task.
2.3.3 Academic problems
The academic status of individual student in the University is indicated by the GPA and CPA (Mohd. Noor & Mukti, 2005). They also stated that GPA and CPA both of parameters are numerial figures that have maximum scores of 4.0.Tuckman (1975) posited that, performance is used to label the observable manifestation of knowledge, skills, concepts, and understanding and ideas (Paul, 2005).
In 2005, more than 21million adolescent routinely used the Internet (Lenhart, 2005). The media influences on poor academic performance stated the limited research on the influence of various technologies on grades, and a few studies have found some evidence the specific technology influences academic performance (Morgan, 1993; Fetler, 1984; Hancox, Milne & Poulton, 2005). Kelsey (2007), many teens’ reports spending vast amounts of time on their SNS, which resulting in lower academic performance grades. Recent reports indicated that some online users were becoming addicted to the Internet in much same way that became addicted to drugs, alcohol, or gambling, which resulted in academic failure (Brady, 1996; Murphey, 1996) and reduced work performance (Robert Half International, 1996).
Individuals who spent longer periods of time on Facebook reported lower GPA scores in contrast to those who spent less time on this website. Those who reported having their account log on while doing homework tended to also have lower grades. As Kubay, Lavin & Barrows (2001) suggest, adolescents who spend a significant amount of time “non-educational” online sites or social networking sites instead of engaged in homework tend to get lower educational performance.
Starkman (2007) has demonstrated that motivations for using the Internet are primarily caused by desires for “relaxation, fun, encouragement, and status”. Kimberly (1996) said students unable to control their Internet use which eventually resulted in poor grades, academic probation, and even expulsion from the university. D r. Jonathan Kandell at the University of Maryland at College P ark’s Counseling Center went so far as to initiate an Internet addiction support group when he noticed academic impairment and poor integration in extracurricular activities due to excessive Internet use on campus (Murphey, 1996). Students had difficulty completing homework assignment, studying for exams due to such Internet misuse, often times, they were unable to control their Internet use which eventually resulted in poor grades, academic probation, and even expulsion from the university (Kimberly, 1996). In conclusion for the previous studies, the academic performance of the individual will drop due to the spillover effect.
2.3.4 Attitude toward study and academic
An attitude is a disposition to respond favorably or unfavorably to an object, person, institution, or event (Ajzen, 2005). A common definition of attitude is a general and relatively enduring evaluation of some person including oneself, group, object, or issue (Petty & Cacioppo, 1986). Bain (1928) defined attitude as the relatively stable overt behavior of a person which affects his status. Generally, attitude refers to person’s most global or overall assessment of the attitude object (Petty & Cacioppo, 1986). Kraut (1998), Nie and Erbring (2000) concluded that Internet use led to negative outcomes for the individual user, such as increases in depression and loneliness, and neglect of existing close relationships.
An individual’s favorable or unfavorable attitude toward an object, institution, or event can be inferred from verbal or nonverbal responses toward the object, institution, or event in question (Icek, 2005). Research suggests that belief, emotions, and behaviors all can contribute separately to people’s attitudes (Abelson, Kinder, Peter & Fiske, 1982; Breckler, Stangor, Sullivan & Ford, 1991).
Morahan-Martin and Schumacker’s study (2000) also investigated respondents’ attitudes toward the Internet. Facebook, one of the social networking sites, in particular, has become hugely popular among college students since its inception in 2004 (Cliff, Nicole & Charles, 2006). Online social networking sites may have other interpersonal functions as well. One of the most used and stable models in personality research is the five-factor model which consisted of five dimensional traits: neuroticism, extraversion, openness to experience, agreeableness and conscientiousness (Johann, Christina and Manfred, 2009).
Report of Facebook usage in relation personality and academic performance stated the study which supported the idea that those who use Facebook more often demonstrated lower academic performance and scored higher on neuroticism and extroversion (Kramer & Winter, 2008). According to McCrae (1992), a detailed analysis and description of the model and the characteristics of the different traits can be found in. Individuals scoring high on neuroticism were likely to use the Internet to avoid loneliness (Butt & Phillips, 2008). Wolfradt and Doll (2001) found that there is high interest of using internet for communication for those with high levels on neuroticism. Amichai, Wainpel and Fox (2002) describe that introverted individuals are more likely to use computer mediated communication means for their communication needs.
Recently, Internet addiction, especially among adolescents, has been recognized as an important social issue in various countries because of the high prevalence of depression, aggressive behavior, psychiatric symptoms, and interpersonal problems associated with this addiction (Ko, Yen, Liu & Huang, 2009). Yang and colleagues (2005) investigated personality characteristics of Korean senior high school students with Internet addiction. The result revealed that the students with Internet addiction were easily affected by feeling, emotionally less stable, imaginative, absorbed in thought, self-sufficient, experimenting and preferred their own decisions.
According to Wan and Chiou (2010) adolescent players’ attitude change toward online gaming and their subjective estimations of online gaming addiction. Wan and Chiou (2010) also said that the Internet users engaged in attitude-discrepant behavior, their attitudes toward online gaming shifted more dramatically to negative side in the context of a low level of threat rather than a high level of threat. For instance, it is believed that the addictions of the students toward the internet will serious affect their study and performance.
Fatigue is in general the tiredness and sleepiness that result from insufficient sleep, extended number of waking hours and circadian rhythms (Cebola & Kilner, 2009). Rogers, Spencer & Stone (1999) define mental fatigue as a syndrome whose symptoms include subjective tiredness and a slowing of normal cognitive function. Mental fatigue is sleepiness or wakefulness is low. Akerstedt (2000) advances that fatigue is used as a synonym for drowsiness, sleepiness and tiredness, and others different definitions. Fatigue can be a normal and important response to physical exertion, emotional stress, boredom, or lack of sleep (David, 2009). However, David said that it can be a non specific sign of a more serious psychological or physical disorder. Physical fatigue is the inability to continue functioning at the level of one’s normal abilities (Gandevia, 1992; Hegberg, 1981; Hawley, 1997).
Anderson (2001), Nalwa and Anand (2003) demonstrated that those individuals who spend too much time online tend to lose sleep (Yellowlees &Marks, 2005). Griffiths (1996) said that the addiction model which similar with the addiction to drugs, alcohol, or gambling have been applied to technological overuse (Kimberly, 1996). Students had difficulty getting enough sleep to be alert for class the next morning due to such internet misuse (Kimberly, 1996). The users were likely to use the Internet from twenty to eighty hours per week, with single sessions that could last up to fifteen hours, sleep patterns are typically disrupted due to late night log-ins (Kimberly, 1996). Some extreme users even take pills to make them stay awake to online. Kimberly (1996), such sleep depravation caused excessive fatigue often making academic or occupational functioning impaired and decreased one’s immune system near to disease.
Several studies have demonstrated that those individuals who spend too much online tend to lose sleep (Anderson, 2001; Nalwa & Anand, 2003). High-risk Internet users reported more irregular sleep patterns and more episodes of sleep disturbance than no risk Internet users. This is consistent with a previous study of Korean adolescents that showed that Internet addiction was associated with insomnia, apnea, and nightmare (Choi, Son, Park, Han, Kim, Lee & Gwak, 2009). They even stayed up past normal bedtime hours and reported being on-line until two, three, or four in the morning with the reality of having to wake for work or school at six a.m. Teachers may notice that fewer and fewer students are willing to take early morning classes, and some of those who do register for morning classes regularly come in late (Chou, Condron & Belland, 2005). By the previous studies, fatigue is one of the phenomenon which the spillover of the Facebook. People would rather stay awake till late or never sleep which led to fatigue just wanted to online.
Internet addiction is characterized by excessive or poorly controlled preoccupations, urges or behaviours regarding computer use and internet access that lead to impairment or distress (Shaw & Black, 2008). Overindulge is involve oneself in an activity in excessive way (The American Heritage Dictionary, 2009). Bredehoft (1998) defined overindulgence is doing or having so much of something that is does active harm, or at least prevents a person of achieving his or her full potential.
If the user has to leave for work at 7:30 am, have him or her log in at 6:30, leaving exactly one hour before its time to quit. The danger in this is the patient may ignore such natural alarms. Some college students remain connected to the Internet as long as they are awake (Chou, Condron & Belland, 2005).
Lampe, Ellison and Steinfield (2007) demonstrated the Internet users have confessed that Facebook is part of their everyday activity and has become part of their daily routine. The theme of online gaming and integration into day-to-day lives revealed how gamers fitted their online gaming into their lives, furthermore, gamers said they played in their free time after work, school, college, or university (Hussaing & Griffiths, 2009).
According to Kimberly (1996), the Internet users have leave for work at 7a.m. and work 8a.m.-5 p.m. I come home, help the kid with homework (I have teenegers), make sure the chores are done, have dinner, and then we log on after that. Kimberly (1996) also found that the gamers try to arrange their time to meet up to game, the gamers would meeting up with their real life friends and go their house and playing in the same room.
Kimberly (1996) also reported that the gamers do not really know each other in real life; they originally lived thousands of miles apart, they know each other through the game, then they felt they had the time for it, so they continued even if it required them to play around five to eight hours each day. Based on the literature review, the online games have brought the spillover effect of the Facebook makes the students stay awake and addict to the game.
2.3.7 Unhealthy lifestyle
Alfred (1929) said that lifestyle is a term to describe the way a person lives. According to McGinnis and Foege (1993), lifestyle generally means a pattern of individual practices and personal behavioral choices that are related to elevated or reduced health risk.
Adolescents are more vulnerable to Internet addiction than adults, and the social performance, psychology, and lifestyle habits of Internet addicts can be affected by this addiction (Ha, Kim, Bae, Kim, Sim, Lyoo & Cho, 2007). Some studies have reported that the change in lifestyle related factors caused by heavy Internet use could have an adverse impact on the growth and development of Internet addicts (Lam, Peng, Mai & Jing, 2009; Kim &Chun, 2005).
People may be driven towards addictive use of the Internet due to a lack of real life social support (VandeCreek, Jackson & Sarasota, 1999). Young (1997) found that on-line social support greatly contributed to addictive behaviors among those who lived lonely lifestyles such as homemakers, singles, the disabled, or the retired. Individuals spent long periods of time home alone turning to interactive on-line applications such as chat rooms as a substitute for the lack of real life social support.
Cohen and colleagues proposed that social support affects health and mortality through a number of mechanisms that include improve health behaviors since people who have social support take care of themselves better than who are socially isolated (Barrera, Glasgow, McKay, Boles & Feil, 2002).
Kim, Park, Kim, Jung, Lim & Kim(2010) demonstrated that high-risk Internet users eat smaller meals, have less of an appetite, skip meals, and snack more than their potential-risk and normal-risk Internet user counterparts. Kim and Chun (2005) reported there is a high frequency of meal skipping in Internet addicts. Results from two cross-sectional studies on Korean high school students (Choi, Son, Park, Han, Kim, Lee & Gwak, 2009) and Taiwanese high school students (Lam, Peng, Mai & Jing, 2009) found a strong association between Internet addiction and high use of alcohol and tobacco.
Whang and Chang (2004) explored the lifestyles of online gamers and compared their real-world lifestyles with their values and attitudes in the virtual world. Based on Kimberly’s (1996) explanation, casual gamer have neglected hygiene, eating, sleep work, and school because of Internet. For instance, the excessive use also the spillover effect has brought the issue which the people nowadays facing more sickness.
2.3.8 Antisocial behavior
Antisocial defined as shunning contact with others (The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, 2010) and behavior refers to the means by which living things respond to their environments in biology way (Science of Everyday Things, 2010). Behavior can be either inborn or learned. Owing to the media characteristics of the Internet, its use has been associated with other risky behavior such as substance use (Halpern & Pope, 2001; Rich & Bar, 2001).
Young (1996) suggested that this type of catastrophic thinking may contribute to addictive Internet use in providing a psychological escape mechanism to avoid real or perceived problems. A person is vulnerable to addiction when that person feels a lack of satisfaction in one’s life, an absence of intimacy or strong connections to others people, a lack of self-confidence or compelling interests, or a loss of hope (Peele, 1991). In a similar manner, individuals who are dissatisfied or upset by a particular area or multiple areas of their lives have an increased likelihood of developing Internet addiction because they don’t understand another way of coping (Young, 1997). VandeCreek and Jackson (1999), they tend to use the Internet to dull the pain, avoid the real problem and keep things in status quo, however, once they off-line, the real problem didn’t seem solve at all. Furthermore, they used the Internet as a security blanket to avoid an unhappy situation such as academic instability.
Ray (2007) explored the multifunctional uses of SNS for simultaneously fulfilling entertainment, information, surveillance, diversion and social utility needs. Internet use led to negative outcomes for the individual user, such as increases in depression and loneliness, and neglect of existing close relationships (Kraut, 1998; Nie & Erbring, 2000). Nie and Erbring (2000) reported that the more hours the average users spent on the Internet, the more (not less) time he or she also spent face-to-face with family and friends. Meaning to say, they will less go out to socialize with the friends. Boase and Wellman (2004) said that as time spent online does not detract from time spent with family and friends presumably the time spent online is taking away from time that could be spent on other activities. Random national survey by Katz (2001) showed that the more time Internet users spent on-line; the more likely they were to belong to off-line religious, leisure, and community organizations, compared to nonusers.
The online experience and its spillover into real life has been postmodern view that the Internet only temporarily shields but ultimately heightens the despair and emptiness of existence (James and Roald, 2002). Nie (2000) claims that the Internet is causing “aloneness and anomie” and the time users spend on Internet comes out of the time spent in social activities within the household and outside the household with friends and family. Kraut (1998), too much use of the Internet, a supposedly social technology will make people isolated. Kraut (1998) also stated that individuals who spend too much time online tend to decrease social communication (Yellowlees & Marks, 2005). Katz (2001) showed that the more time Internet users spent on-line; the more likely they were to belong off-line leisure compare to nonusers.
According to Kimberly (1996), excessive gamers have lost their real life friends because they couldn’t find the time to be with the real life friends. Furthermore, from Kimberly (1996), excessive gamers said whenever someone asks them to do something on weekends, they always think they are raiding and shouldn’t go out.
2.3.9 Attention from the virtual life friend
Attention is the taking possession of the mind, in clear and vivid form, of one out of what seem several simultaneously possible objects or train of thought (Cowan, 1998). Shiffrin’s (1988) definition was more inclusive, attention has been used to refer to all aspects of human cognition that the subject can control. Based on Broadbent’s (1985) model, it was found that attention sometimes is attracted to an unattended channel in which the subject’s own name is spoken (Moray, 1959), and that attention sometimes shifts involuntarily to the channel that is supposed to be unattended when the semantically coherent message is shift to that channel (Gray & Wedderburn, 1960; Treisman, 1960).
According to Matsuba (2006), certain people are more likely to use the Internet for mood management such as entertainment and information seeking and social compensation such as gaining recognition and relationship maintenance. Most people attempt to add as many friends as possible to their profile in order to appear more popular (Mark, Dong & Kenneth, 2009).
SNS allow members to attain others’ attention quickly and efficiently with one single bulletin. Mark, Dong and Kenneth (2009), the use of bulletin postings appears to be a very efficient way for an individual to get a quick response from others when he or she desires attention. They use SNS to inform their friends about events in their life in a single message. Through Facebook, friends through their actions are saying “I care about you”, “I am interested in what is happening in your life” (Philip, 2007).
Fernandez (2009) explained that the wall is the central communication tools available in Facebook, and this central place is the place to add new pictures, web links and other content. The wall, which are then publicly displayed and the default starting point for users looking at someone else’s page (Fernandez, 2009).
Users of SNS agreed that obtaining comments from other members is a potent means of increasing one’s popularity on the site. They noted that people like getting comments to build up images of them. Some users also will post bulletins asking other members to comment on their picture in order to appear more popular. Participants in each group acknowledged that comments on pictures and wall postings make a person feel more popular. Moreover, a large number of comments tend to make a person appear more popular to others because they are receiving attention. Consequently, some SNS users compete with other members for attention. Many users experience addictive behavior in constantly checking for responses to their presentation of self and/or their concerns expressed on daily blogs (Mark, Dong & Kenneth, 2009). As conclusion, the people have used the spillover of the virtual reality as one of the place where they get friend’s attention.
2.3.10 Communication medium
Morris and Ogan (1996) considered the internet as a mass medium since people estimated to be communicating on the internet. Communication is defined as the elementary packet of information send from one actor through a specified channel to another actor, using a single communication tools (Carley & Prietula, 1994). Communication also called interaction process, the way group members communicate with each other (Dillenbourg, 2002). Communication also defined as the transmission of information between intelligent systems, language is the means by which information is encoded for purposes of communication (Albus, 1991). Each communication is transmitted via a tool selected (Carley & Prietula, 1994).
Albus (1991) also explained that language has three basic components which are vocabulary, syntax and semantics. Vocabulary is the set of words in the language. Words may be represented by symbols. Syntax is the set of rules for generating strings of symbols that form sentences. Semantic is the encoding of information into meaningful patterns, or messages. Albus (1991) said that communication requires that information be encoded, transmitted, received, decoded and understood. Communication divided into verbal and nonverbal form. Oral communication refers to stylized writing and speech like journalism (Carey, 1989). Oral communication can either be face-to-face communication or a conversation or on the chat via internet. Another type of verbal communication is written communication, it can be either email, or message. The effectiveness of written communication depends on the style of writing, vocabulary used, grammar, clarity, and precision of language (Manohar, 2010).
The users of SNS normally having the informal communication, which having instances of free unrestrained communication with each other. Sites also vary in the extent to which they incorporate new information and communication tools (Boyd & Ellison, 2007). Charles, brian & Mark (2007) said Facebook also serves as a keeping-in-touch communication tool. The users have a similar wavelength; they do not have any rigid rules and guidelines. Informal conversations do not have the boundaries of times, place or even subjects since the person who sending already well know the receiver.
These young adults constantly text-message and call others in order to find out current information or to know “what’s going on.” SNS are a useful and convenient tool for staying connected with the events of a friend’s life with ease. Compared to calling a person and having a conversation, members of SNS can visit a member’s profile or send them a quick message to find out what they want to know. Moreover, SNS users can update their profile to convey impressions of themselves and occurrences in their lives to a large audience without contacting each member of that audience on an individual basis.
In California, home computer as essentially another telephone to chat and exchange “instant messages” with their school friends (Gross, 2002).The vast majority of participants stated they use SNS because they are an efficient way to communicate with friends. Even if want to spread news quickly about an event or something; you can do it very easily on SNS site. Many significant events are either shared or learned via SNS (Mark, Dong & Kenneth, 2009).
Gardner and Eng (2005) state that the majority of college students born after 1982 demand instant access to information. Because SNS are so accessible and open, many young people today use these sites to acquire information on someone they are interested in. One reason for this may be because going to a person’s profile is quicker and more efficient than actually talking to the person face-to-face or finding out information about that person from others. By default, Facebook makes “The Wall” the first part of the page that a new user sees (Fernandez, 2009). Thus, Fernandez (2009) said that the wall is the central communication tools available in Facebook. As a conclusion, the spillover of the Facebook has brought the convenient of communicating with each other by using the feature such as chatroom and commenting each other status.
In short, the spillover effect is happened on every single individual who online. Based on the literature review by the previous study, the spillover is getting serious and led to changes in the individual. The spillover might be in a positive and might be in negative. It is just depends how the users spend the time on Internet. Besides, there will be three level of addiction which has the different level of spillover effect. The framework of the research will be developed at Chapter 3.
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