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General Structure For A Report Media Essay

The general structure for a report that is the end product is, at first abstract. Then the introduction of the subject. Following with a literature review. Then de method and results. After that the discussion, which will lead to a conclusion. Then de references. At last the appendices. (Saunders, Thornhill, & Lewis, 2007) (Hunsaker P. , Management skills, 2006)

You add a table of contents, so you get structure on your report. It is easier for readers to navigate through the report and find what they want to read back or use for examples.

The differences between the abstract and the introduction is that, the abstract is a short summary of the report. It tells the readers what is in it, so they can easily decide whether they want to read it. The introduction is a summary which content the main issue of the report. It also contents your research questions and objectives.

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(Saunders, Thornhill, & Lewis, 2007) (Hunsaker P. , Management skills, 2006)

In my header you can find PBL task 1. In my footer you can find the page number.

(Hunsaker P. , Management skills, 2006) (Saunders, Thornhill, & Lewis, 2007)


What is a project?

A project is a combined set of information about a subject. It describes the processes which you need to follow and that will lead to the end product. A project. Temperarley goal.

(Branston & Stafford, media students book, 2010) (Grit, 2011)

2. What is efficiently?

It is a term that is used to describe in what matter minimum time and effort are used to make something. So you get the specific outcome of what you need. Maximum out of what you want and minimum of time. Making the best out of it.

(Grit, 2011) (Branston & Stafford, media students book, 2010)

3. What are the key aspects of a projectplan?






The goal





Making a project in faces

Cyclical, linear and parallel

(Roberts, 2009) (Grit, 2011)

4. How to communicate in a project?

Communicating by meetings. Writing down the minuts and send it by email. Another way to communicate. Setting the same goal and work in structure. Everybody on the same level. Progress of the project. Not meet to often, it can go down. Find the right balance. Giving feedback.

(Grit, 2011) (Hunsaker P. , management skills, 2006)

5. What is risk analysis?

This is a method that contents all the risks and on what level they can appear. And how they jeopardize the goal. You can search for solutions if you know what kind of risks can attend.

Three steps of risk analyses:

Searching for possible problems

How they can influence

You take pre causes

(Branston & Stafford, media students book, 2010) (Hunsaker P. , management skills, 2006)

Pbl task 3

1. What is the difference between a major and independent label?

A major label is part of a international media group. They usually own their own distribution channel, so if they decide they want a person to sign at their label, they can spend all the money they want on the artist. An independent label is not capable of doing this. They need a contribution of the artist to help promoting.

Artist who are signed at a major label get less royalties for their music then artist who are signed at independent labels.

Major labels don't use social media much to promote their artist. Independent labels on the other hand do most of the promoting through social media.

Another big difference it the contract. The independent artist can keep the rights of their music. Artist of major labels can not do that. 2 (Wright, 2011) (tank, 2012)

4 major labels:

- Sony Music Entertainment

- EMI group

- Warner Music Group

- Universal Music Group

(copynot, 2007) (Branston & Stafford, Media students book, 2010)

A few independent labels:

Armada music


DOX records

Excelsior recordings

Magnetron music


Neophyte records

Sally forth records



(algemeen, 2007) (Branston & Stafford, Media students book, 2010)

2. what are the responsibilities of a record company?

The responsibilities depend on the contract. For a standard recording contract the responsibilities are to provide you with everything the artist needs to make his album. They also need to promote you. For a development contract, they have to increase the development of the artist. Make him better and promote more. For a music publishing contract, the label needs to let you work with other artists and promote you. Also help to increase your creative body. 360 deal contract, the company has a lot of responsibilities, like providing the artist with funds for promotion and touring. (What are the responsibilities of a record company) major takes care of eveyting, indie doesn't do that.

(Lathrop & Pettigrew, 1999) (What are the responsibilities of a record company)

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Artist and repertoire management

Sales and distribution

Marketing and promotion

3. What steps are included in the process of releasing an album?

First is the recording. You will work on songs and record some of the songs you wrote or was written for you. They are approved by the label and you are going to choose a name for your album. First the marketing of the album. The development and management of marketing programs like a picture that fits the songs and title. Also the sales are important. This is for example how many cd's are going to which shop. Also the advertising of the album image that will be put on billboards. Then the promoting on radio and television. The cd will be send to a radio station, so they could play a few songs of the album. Then creative services like the production of marketing material. Publicty, exposure the product through print, electronic and media. Then the sales, the promotion of it. (Lathrop & Pettigrew, 1999) (Branston & Stafford, Media students book, 2010)

4. What are the different types of contracts?

You could have the standard recording & distribution contract. This involves the agreement that the artist makes a record which the label can promote and sell. The development deal contract, this contents that the label gets high royalties and they promise to make sure that the skills of the artist will be increased and the public profile will be better. The music publishing contract. The music production contract. 360 deal contract, this contents that the artist give the label a part of their income. The label provides the artist a financial support. But there are many more different types of contract. (What are the responsibilities of a record company) t. (Lathrop & Pettigrew, 1999)

The contracts are usually the same, but the level is different. So you could have the indie level or major level.

5. What is the role of the marketing department in the record company?

Marketing usually means selling but a better definition is everything that is having to do with transferring the product to the consumer in a way that meets the consumer it needs. You have the 4 p's of marketing. Product, like the album. The price, a good price that must have a balance of affordability to the consumer. The place, the product has to made available for the consumer. And the promotion, the steps that must increase the consumer to buy the product. The music industry has also its own marketing. The role of the marketing is to promote the product and set the right directions for the sales and the promotion team. It sets the first steps to the end of the promotion. (Lathrop & Pettigrew, 1999) (Passman, 2000) frontline

6. How does the money transfer work?

You have recording cost. Studio time costs, the costs that you need to pay for renting a studio. Cost of musicians, of the producer, for the engineer, this is the person who takes care of the technical aspects, cost for the tape and mastering.

Then you have the packaging cost. These are the cost that includes the designs and the package of producing. The manufacturing cost. The costs of the tape. The promotion cost , for example, making a newsletter, mailing cost, advertising and tour support.

Royalty cost. The cost the company gets if the artist earns some money. (Lathrop & Pettigrew, 1999) (Passman, 2000)

7. What are royalties?

Royalties are the incomes the artist gets when a consumer buys his album or a radio station plays their music. They get a part of the sale price. For example, as mentioned, when a radio station plays a song, television broadcasts the video clip or an other artist wants to use their lyrics. (, 2011) (Lathrop & Pettigrew, 1999)

Module assignment = linear


PBL task 4

1. Where do ideas come from?

Ideas for movies can come from many things. For example, you can make films about a book that already exist. Films about a game, tv serie, comic book. But you also can have an idea in your head that you think could be a great movie. An other example could be a movie about a person. Napoleon or heroes like Robin Hood. Or about a event that happened, like 9/11. Ideas come from everywhere. pre quell. were it starts, the beginning. like casino royal. (Branston & Stafford, The media students book, 2010) (Bordwell & Thompson, Film art, an introduction, 2008)

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2. How is a film financed?

the producer try's to convince the production companies or the distributors to give money to make the movie. or if the producer already works at a distribution company, than he or she can finance it already. the producer deals with the scriptwriting project, arranges the finances and the hiring of people who will work on the film. while shooting, the producer usually is the one who communicates with the writer and the distributor.

after the movie is shot, it is the job of the producer to arrange the paying back the money that was invested in the movie. Also the promotion and marketing. distribution guarantees.

(Bordwell & Thompson, Film art, an introduction, 2008) (Branston & Stafford, The media students book, 2010)

3. What includes the pre production?

This is the physical production. In this phase, the producer and director hire crew, cast roles and find locations for filming. They also set up an office. This is all done within the budget. Here also a schedule for daily base will be made. The clothes will be made and the decoration also. Here also the storyboard is made. This is serie of comic strips that sketches the shots for the film. After this the board will be made into 3D completely with figures, sounds and music. They help the director to do test options for moving the camera and timing everything. (Bordwell & Thompson, Film art, an introduction, 2008) (Branston & Stafford, The media students book, 2010)

What are the main functions of the people that are included in the pre production?

The director, he or she coordinates the staff to create the film. This person usually will be seen as the most responsible person for the final look and sound. They set up an office, hire crew, cast the roles and scout locations. Also, they will prepare a schedule. The director also makes sure that there are contributions.

The producer, sets up an office, hires crew, cast the roles and scout locations. Prepares also a schedule. The producer also needs to plan a shoot around the actors for difficult scenes. They come up with a schedule that is well timed for the cast, crew, the location and even the different seasons.

The writer, makes notes and may change the script a little.

Production designer, this person is in charge of making the film settings. They make the drawings and schemes for the set.

Art designer, this person oversees the making of the set.

The set decorator, this person modifies the set for specific shooting.

Set dresser, arranges the things that need to be done a set during shooting.

Costume designer, in charge of the wardrobe.

Graphic artist, this person may be asked to make a storyboard.

(Bordwell & Thompson, Film art, an introduction, 2008) (Branston & Stafford, The media students book, 2010)

4. What included the production?

The production is the entire process of making a film. Also known as shooting phase or principal photography. The film will be shot in different scenes that are usually not in the right order. This will be done later. The cast must do the scenes a few times so at the end the producer can see what the best shot is and the best angle. The camera's are set, sound is checked, actors rehearse their lines and fit clothes. Actors will be filmed against a green background if special effects are included in the film.

What are the main functions of the people that are included in the production?

Director, supervises the directors crew.

Script supervisor, this person is in charge of the continuity of the shots.

First assistant director, plans each day of the shooting schedule. Sets up each shot and makes sure the actors are ok.

Second assistant director, makes sure the camera crew and the electricians are ok.

Third assistant director, is the messenger for director and staff.

Dialogue coach, teaches the lines with actors and speaks the lines of off screen characters during shots.

Second unit director, films the stunts, location footage, action scenes and distance shots.

Cast, these are the actors who act of the movie. This also includes, minor players and stunt players.

Wrangler, these persons handle the animals on the set.

Photography unit, these persons make sure the photographic process, lighting and camera are ok.

Sound unit, responsible for the sound during shots.

Visual effects unit, they need to prepare the shots, miniatures, computer graphics and other technical shots.

Miscellaneous unit, these are makeup staff, costume staff, hairdresser and drivers who transport the crew.

Producers crew, these are line producer, production accountant, production secretary and production assistants. They handle everything during shots for the crew.

(Bordwell & Thompson, Film art, an introduction, 2008) (Branston & Stafford, The media students book, 2010)

5. What included the post production?

This is the last production phase. This phase doesn't right begin after the shooting is done. The members of this staff work behind the scenes when the cast is shooting. This is a very long process because here the hole movie is organized and placed in continuity. For this several editors are brought in. Shots are cut and the sound tracks are made. The spotting process begins. The answer print is made, the complete with picture and sound movie must be approved by the director and producer. After that the release prints are made for distribution.

What are the main functions of the people that are included in the post production?

Director, makes the end decisions on the prints.

Producer, helps the director and editor with making decisions.

Editor, this person catalogues the takes during shooting. They also work together with the director to make creative decisions about how footage can be best cut. Informs the director how the footage looks.

The editor also makes a rough cut of the shots. Then they build with the director a fine cut. Also this person enters notes about each scene into a database.

Assistant editor, synchronizes the images and sound.

Sound editor, makes the soundtracks.

Recording mixer, makes the single master track. ( (Bordwell & Thompson, Film art, an introduction, 2008) (Branston & Stafford, The media students book, 2010)

6. How does the distribution work?

distribution company's are usually the ones that form the core of the economic boost in the commercial industry. They buy the rights of the movie. They promote the movie and make sure that the movie will be circulated around the world. They make the trailer for theaters, make the soundtrack, make the stars available for interviews. They first arrange the release dates, make the prints of the film and launch the advertisement campaign. These cost can be spread out over many units, so these will not be high. The distributor makes an electronic press kit, with photo's, information and interviews, for journalists. They can could choose for platforming or wide release. platforming means that the film will be viewed in a few theaters in big city's. if this is a success, it will be available in more theaters. wide release means that the film can be viewed in a lot of theaters and big city's.

Major distribution companies:

- Paramount

- Sony

- Universal

- Warner Bros

- Fox

- Walt Disney

Independent home country companies:

- A film

- Cinemien

- Paradiso

(Bordwell & Thompson, Film art, an introduction, 2008) (Branston & Stafford, The media students book, 2010)

7. What are the ways of making money in the film industry?

You could make money if you are the distributor, you buy the rights and promote the film.

you can make money if you are a cast member. for the release the cast and distributors make the most money.

after the release also, but for example the theaters also make money if the consumer buys tickets. if the movie comes out on dvd they also make money.

(Bordwell & Thompson, Film art, an introduction, 2008) (Branston & Stafford, The media students book, 2010)

8. What is box office?

This is a term what says that a movie is doing good by selling a lot of tickets. if this rate is high, the movie is doing really good in theaters.

if this rate is low, the movie doesn't do good in theaters.

(Bordwell & Thompson, Film art, an introduction, 2008) (Branston & Stafford, The media students book, 2010)


1. What is an innovation

Innovation is the way that the needs of consumers meet the development of products or processes. Also putting old ways into new ways. There is technical innovation and non technical innovation.

Schumpeter's way of saying what innovation is, is that it is the commercial application of an idea, it's introduction into a market. '' It is something new with an added value'' (Wijnberg)

examples for innovation;

- succes

- new cars

- new airplanes

- new ways of dealing with criminals

- new method of learning

(Jacobs, 2007) (Branston & Stafford, media students book, 2006) (Hunsaker P. , management skills, 2010)

2. What is the difference between an innovation and invention?

An innovation is the idea behind the new products or processes. An innovation you formulate.

An invention is the way you make it become reality. The practical way for products or processes.

To go from invention to innovation, you need three steps.

step 1. The technical research and development to make in work technically. To find better ways to make it more effective in technical ways.

step 2. The learning phase about the user needs. This way you can increase commercial success because you meet the consumer in their needs.

step 3. What you need to make it happen. The technical questions and possible market things you need and that in a way to make it work.

(Jacobs, 2007) (Hunsaker P. , management skills, 2010) (Schulz, 2012)

3. What are the different types of innovations?

There are the technical innovations, for example, making of new cars or airplanes. New iPhones and MacBooks. There are also non technical innovations, for example, a new method to handle problem youth better, success, new fashion.

There also 3 basic innovations:

product innovation, this is the development of new products or processes. This is the most important innovation. Without this, there may not be a purpose. In this innovation, there are three different kind of product innovation.

- new material products

- new information products

- new services

- service innovation

process innovation, this is the change in the production of processes or products that will lead to more efficient production. This was for a long time an technical innovation.

transaction innovation, this is the way that the product of process gets attention of costumers and selling them. This are innovations in the marketing and sales world.

(Jacobs, 2007) (Hunsaker P. , management skills, 2010) (Schulz, 2012)

4. How does innovation become successful?

There are three things that influence the success. These are market selection, peer selection and expert selection.

Market selection; this is the phase were producers select the things consumers selected for them.

Peer selection; in this phase the opinion of other producers matter. They decide the outcome of the process.

Expert selection; in this phase the product will be determind on success or failure. This will happen by experts whom are not consumers or producers.

(Jacobs, 2007) (Hunsaker P. , management skills, 2010) (Schulz, 2012)

5. What does the media sector do for innovations?

The media sector for the fashion industry works with magazines, television and films. For example, they show in the magazines what is in. If stars wear clothes and fans or people who watch their shows see that, they want to buy that to. Also tv series and movies, people watch and like the clothes the star wear, they will buy it. Some advertisement stations earn money through exploitation of the clothes the stars wear on that commercial. Even quite some movie and music stars get expensive clothes from designers. They hope by doing this, they will wear it and that this will drag attention for their brand. So the media sector is influences the innovations of clothes.

(Jacobs, 2007) (Branston & Stafford, media students book, 2006) (Schulz, 2012)

6. Who is the market leader?

The market leader is the one who has the highest income in that market. I think that what I read in the article, the fashion industry is the market leader. In no other industry is is easier to see the continues level of innovation then in the fashion industry. Every season, new clothes are presented. The fashion industry had three bases things. Trickle down, they look at what is in and what role models do.Trickle up, the making of low level clothes, high level clothes. Trickle across, they look at the influence of people close to your or sources.

android, market leader. samsung is the market leader.

frontline marketing:

Marketing that is responsible for the first line products. deals with release from new things, short term.

strategic marketing:

This is the process, so that organizations can concentrate on it's few sources, so they can increase their sales. Longterm

(Hunsaker P. , management skills, 2010) (Jacobs, 2007)

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