A Comparative Analysis On The Internet Media Essay
The most progressive technology in the known history of this planet earth is 'Internet' and it is the 'network of networks' that consists of millions of smaller domestic, academic, business, and government networks and it appears as a powerful political instrument.
The cultural industry developed with a significant and unparalleled way after the massive uses and development of internet as a new communication technology. Successfully this sector became much more important in the way of world economy. As a political tool now nobody could ignore the role of internet within the political economy of the cultural industries within developed world as well as developing countries.
The share of immaterial exchange in economy is increasing and developing into a central of national economy.Â Culture as the most important part of this immaterial productionÂ is already becomes an industry to doing business in the contemporary word.
This essay describes and explains the relationship of internet as a vital tool in the field of cultural industries in contemporary world as a success or control in the progress.
Political Economy of Internet:
From 1969, the APRANET (Advanced Research Projects Agency Network) of US Department of Defence, the starting point of Internet gradually developed which is absolutely beyond the description.
"We could just make a chronological list of development but not the fast progress ever in human history as a technology. Radio took nearly 40 years to get audience 50 million, television took 15 years. But WWW took only 3 years to get 50 million users." [Naughton (1999) cited by Thussu (2006, p208)]
As per published information from international organisation UNDP (2001) it was mentioned that data transfer costing was $150,000 in 1970 which was just 12 cents in 1999.
International telecommunication Union-ITU database (2011) shows that the total numbers of internet user world wide are 360,985,492 on 2000 and increased from 2000 to 2010 as 1,966,514,816. Its growth rate is 444.8% and 28.7% of total population are using internet. The users were 825.1 million in Asia, 475.1 Million European, 266.2 Million in North America, Caribbean 204.7 million and 195.4 Million from rest of the world.
Internet emerged as the fastest growing technology in the whole media sector. Now with WAP technology internet access is possible from phone basically from mobile phones which a new trend for e-commerce and this trend mainly based on cultural industries.
According to UNESCO cultural industriesÂ combine the creation, production, distribution of goods & servicesÂ that areÂ culturalÂ in nature. Sometimes this is mentioned as creative industries. It is also usually protected byÂ intellectual propertyÂ rights.
Advertising; film, video and other audiovisual production; graphic design; educational and leisure software; live and recorded music; performing arts and entertainment; television, radio and internet broadcasting; visual arts and antiques; and writing and publishing and architecture; crafts; designer furniture; fashion clothing etc are always mentioned as the part or commodities of cultural industries.Â But to find a definition it somehow linked with creative industries also. The concept of "creative industries" is mostly interchangeable with "cultural industries". "Cultural industries" derive from traditional knowledge, heritage, and the artistic elements of creativity. But the "creative industries" emphasises on individual creativity, innovation, skill and talent in the exploitation of intellectual property.Â
Aaheson (2009) found one definition that comes fromÂ UNESCO:
"Cultural Industries are defined as those industries which produce tangible or intangible artistic and creative outputs, and which have a potential for wealth creation and income generation through the exploitation of cultural assets and production of knowledge-based goods and services (both traditional and contemporary).Â What cultural industries have in common is that they all use creativity, cultural knowledge, and intellectual property to produce products and services with social and cultural meaning" (Aageson 2009).
CulturalÂ industry is not really a value-based term. It merely refers to businesses involved in the production, distribution sale, and creation of works of creativity. While some businesses might determine certain goods make indispensible, other forms of theÂ culturalÂ industry are more highly selective.
Culture Industry as a term first used by the critical theorist Theodor W. Adorno (1975) and he mentioned that the term culture industry was perhaps used for the first time in the bookÂ 'Dialectic of Enlightenment', which Horkheimer and he published in Amsterdam in 1947. In their drafts they spoke of "mass culture". Also they replaced that expression with "culture industry" in order to exclude from the outset the interpretation agreeable to its advocates: that it was a matter of something like a culture that arose spontaneously from the masses themselves, the contemporary form of popular art.
Music, video, cinema or publishing are the product of cultural industries. Its also mentioned as intellectual property.
"These new business models and cultural works rely just as much on a fair and responsive intellectual property policy as do older business models. Network filtering would seek to bypass such subtlety, and in so doing dampen the experimentation and innovation that allow the cultural industries to constantly re-invent themselves and take advantage of change. EFF-Europe urges the rejection of such misguided and dangerous proposals in favour of a more nuanced approach, equitable to both established and newer members of the cultural and creative industries" (www.eff.org).
Progress of Cultural Industries:
There is a key role to play by a good marketing strategy in the cultural industries to gain the wider audience; the cultural firm reaches out to, represented by visitors, stakeholders and fund providers. The life cycle of cultural industries depends on marketing and particularly digital marketing.
Today, Internet becomes the most successful medium in the competition for resources persuade a change in marketing strategies.
"A theoretical consequence of this phenomenon of on-line distribution is the assimilation of cultural industries to the kind of economics that, for many years, has been highlighted in the culture of broadcasting flows.......................lower prices and more openness towards new competitors and new financial sources, as well as huge economies of scale that have always pushed the cultural industries towards concentration" (Bustamante 2004).
Control through Internet:
Thusu (2006) mentioned that USA has consistently pressured countries to implement the WTO's agreement on TRIPS ( Trade-related Aspect of Intellectual Property), which came into force in 1984.
Woollacott (2010) mentioned that the US governments reports on human rights highlighted the way the internet has changed the way governments seek to control their citizens. It's easy to understand that the control is not only to control of expression but also commodities as well.
Lucie Morillon of Reporters without Border described that economic interest is intertwined with the need to defend free circulation of information. He pointed out that in some countries some companies obtained better access to the Internet and to the new media which might sometimes with positive consequences for the rest of the population.
"As a barrier to trade, Web censorship should be included on the agenda of the World Trade Organization. Several of latter's members, including China and Vietnam, should to be required to open their Internet networks before being invited to join the global village of international commerce..." (Morillon 2010).
An important remarks by French President Nicolas Sarkozy, ''we run the risk of witnessing a genuine destruction of culture, the Internet must not become a high tech Far West, a lawless zone where outlaws can pillage works with abandon.'' He was delivering a speech on 23 November 2007 endorsing the deal three-way pact between Internet service providers, the government and owners of film and music.
From this standpoint, to argue about whether the key to market power is based in the content portfolio or in the 'stock' of clients is absurd, since we are really talking about two 'poles' of the same economy (Volle 1999).
Benefit or loss?
"Thus, it has been argued in Latin America that the industrial geography of the cultural industries is still defined by a classical concentration of Capital in the richest markets. Consequently, the new technologies are unable to realize the hopes of economic redemption for the poorest countries and, above all, for the poorest regions" (Narv'aez 2000).
In principle, copyright is owned by the physical person who created the work ("creator" or "author"). When several people actively participate in the creation, they become joint authors, which mean that any decision relating to the exploitation of the work requires their joint consent.
Copyright and neighbouring rights protection is essential for enhancing individual creativity, for the development of cultural industries and the promotion of cultural diversity. Rampant piracy and low level of enforcement of copyright laws destroy the incentives for the creation and distribution of local cultural products in all the countries of the world and reveal the need for concerted efforts to encourage creativity and to foster sustainable development.
The legacy of the free commercial television permeates how the cultural industries are being exploited in all kinds of digital networks.
"Groups and actors based in analogue culture and communications hold most of the copyright in content. These interests have repeatedly tried to make their users pay directly for their content. Since the dot.com crash this model has been presented as the only way to obtain profits in the short term. The classic case is that of pay-per-view television. The problem remains the limited willingness of the user to pay for the new networks. This might be due to the libertarian discourse that accompanied its birth or because of more concrete factors, such as expenditure already committed to equipment and networks" (Bustmante 2004).
US Department of Commerce signed an agreement with the Internet Corporation for Assigned Manes and Numbers (ICANN) for the purposes of the joint development of the mechanisms, methods and procedures necessary to the effect the transition of Internet domain name and addressing system (DNS) to the private sector. It means the system of control.
"Without attractive and rich content, the accumulation of clients is not very profitable and carries the risk of becoming a burden in the short run; without access to millions of subscribers or users, the content is submerged by the excess of what is offered by the digital networks. In any case, the multi-million dollar struggle for subscribers does not undermine the fact that the generation of content is 'the real nucleus of this economy" (Rodr'Ä±guez and Escobar 2000).
The present time of technological progress, nobody wants to bind themselves within the limitations. The cultural industries flourished in a heighest position due to the invention of Internet. Internet opened a huge e-commerce system in the cultural industries field. Most of the businesses now operated through internet. Even it is now beyond of control to stop online distribution of cultural goods or commodities. There is a big debate on the question of whether internet control the cultural industries. In one sence it's controlled but in another sence the cultural industries undoubtedly benefitted by internet. Even 50 years before cultural goods was only belonged to the wealthy people, now situation changed after a big control the commodities could reach even to the day labour and that was possible only due to internet. So progress of cultural industries is far more than control ever after the invention of internet.
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