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Variables That Drive Choice Of Consumer Marketing Essay

Started from 1970's, a handsome amount of study has done on behaviour of consumer for its environment. The choice driving variables of a consumer are divided into five groups; values, needs & motivation, belief knowledge, demographics and attitudes. Additionally numerous dominating variables can affect intention of consumer for spending more on a product. In this course work the student will discuss how marketers use these variables to get influence on the choice of consumer in decision making model.

Often, we turned the cultural influence, but they are important. With general store owner American will not bargaining. This however, is much more common in the world. Physical factors also affect our behaviour. We are more likely to buy more soft drinks when we are thirsty, for example, found that food is more effective than radio in the late afternoon, when people are hungry for your products and advertising. Person's self image - the effect that he or she will buy mobile manager is a project upward radiant image of success also tend to buy a car will not happen. Social factors also influence what consumers buy - Users often praise others whom they seek to emulate, and you can buy the brands. Social environment, both the mainstream culture (for example, the U.S. rice for breakfast, which many Asian countries have priority to it (cereal or ham, eggs and fighting) and sub (for example, rap music are often appeals can add own population than the population mainstream) want to party. Therefore, the shoe makers want their products are worn by, praised players. Finally, consumer behaviour is influenced by learning, try a burger to understand that appetite is satisfied with the delicious, and next time you're hungry, and consider another hamburger

Consumer Choice and Decision Making: Problem Recognition. 

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Model of consumer decision-making includes several stages. First detected a problem, you see something like this should be No. Perhaps, for example, your car starts quickly and is more difficult. The second step is to solve the problem of information that they seek an alternate route? You buy a new car, buy a used car, fix your car to bus, taxi, or ride a skateboard to work can. Options include the third stage has been set. Skateboard is inexpensive, but long distance and for the appropriate patient rainy days - can be. Finally, we have the purchase step, and sometimes the purchase of the Post - Forum (for example, to store your products that you can not want it back). In fact, people can go behind the middle stages. For example, the person has been known alternative options identified during the assessment can begin again. 

Involved consumers based on product type do not tend to be dramatically different. Users typically add very expensive products (e.g., home, car) or in any other way (e.g, word processing or medicine) on the consumer will be more important in life. 

it is very important to purchase this product to encourage consumers to consider. Achieve this, we mean the end - the use of the series, which we use products that eventually led to the desired end results can be considered a logical development. For example, users see that a car is a great engine, fast speed is important, it is important to understand the performance can be a sense of power, end-users to better self-esteem. The gun, which one hacker, hacker family that users who receive state protection will kill not harm allows users with a goal of the pills could be him. Focus on driving engine appears less successful person will do well.

Information search and decision making. 

Users engaged in search of information internaland are external. Internal search his or her memory by including options identified users. Registration for Products less, important marketing awareness program "the brain" is achieved. For example, a fast food restaurant some people search yellow pages, use the same memory will be considered before the restaurant should be able to bring. For high involvement products than consumers tend to use an external search. Before buying a car, consumer opinion, for example, ask friends, read Consumer Reports review, may consult various websites, and many agencies. Therefore, companies that have products primarily through selected external search, brochures websites, or coverage needs by example as the information available to investment are needed. 


Compensation decision good and bad features of consumer products the "trade" are included. For example, use low-priced car good gas but can be slow. If the price is very cheap and gas efficient, better speed users with a vehicle that costs more than the selected gas can be used. Sometimes, non-compensatory decision strategy will include. For example, ordered that all soft drinks containing artificial sweeteners can deny. Here, taste and low calories, as well as other features "not negotiable" feature can not overcome. 

Find a buyer for the amount of effort to put such a large number of market factors, such as (many are competitors, and how are big differences between brands expected?), Features of products (about how crucial this product depends on? How clear how complicated the product is low quality)?Consumer characteristics (how the consumer interest is usually to analyze the product features and make the best deal)? Terms and features (as already discussed). 

A number of factors, including consumer choice. In some cases, users will be encouraged more. For example, more careful when buying the same thing myself a present multiple selection can. Some users also best price comparison shop for motivated, while others are more in terms of. Effects on personality judgments. Than others is something different, more stimulating and new shops are willing to try to encourage. Feeling the impact of decisions.Some people, for example, any brand name to differentiate between foods can taste many can not. Selected treatment occurs when a person of interest for information only in time. For example, when looking for a new car, consumers are on the horizon when his car to pay more attention to ads can be. Some use the information risk are nearby. Therefore, many money back guarantee offer on the market. Consumer behavior through education, like those found in restaurants and crowded that avoids changing the brand that best meet their tastes will be solved. Hold the consumer values (for example, some people than others who do not want to go through the hassle of recycling are committed) are different. Under the Housing consider segmentation problems

Family Decision Making:

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Individual members of families that most decisions in the end to focus on shared family resources to serve in various capacities. Some people collect information / owners, the relevance of the products of searching for information about. These people often because of the power that good information and selected the option chosen can pass is great. Affecting finally decide between the alternatives is not, but ask for their specific products or embarrassing situations if their demands are not met due to the unknown could wish.Decision maker (s) to determine the problems can: 

• If you buy; 

• What to buy products (passenger car or pickup?); 

• Which brand to buy; 

Where to buy it •; and 

When buying •. 

Note however, that decision maker role is separate from that of the buyer.Market perspective, it presents some problems with a targeted buyer can purchase points (POP) marketing efforts that decision makers can not be objective. Also note the difference between the buyer and the decisions that can make a little blurry: 

• the decision maker for products specified by the buyer, but who can brand; 

Buyer • Prepare an alternative if desired brand is not in stock can; 

• Consumer directed (by mistake or on purpose) can ignore. 

It could be that most family disputes are subject to great decisions is noted.The fact that the family some very wealthy families of the strong tension between the resource requirements to avoid them. Conflicting pressures, especially with children in the family is expected and / or when only one wife works outside the home. Note that many decisions inherently values lower, there is often no way to "objectively" to arbitrate disputes to come. My wife feels that her own children to save for the future, that is important, the cost of other expenses can now (on the computer equipment in private schools) help children to prepare for the future. Who's right? There is no clear answer here.Situation even more complex when multiple parties, such as children or other relatives included. 

Some family members of different strategies to get their support can. Member of the bargaining and to return something. For example, the wife told her husband of course expensive gourmet cooking to a new truck, if he can buy.Alternatively, a child on his promise every day if he or she can be a hippopotamus. The argument is one other strategy (s) disputed by any rational view of trying to get. Note that even when this is done with true intentions, its potential illustrated above prices is limited by legitimate differences. Also remember that people of authority by an infinite barrier (such as negative support is a matter we shall see below) talks about the other side "takes the" can only try. Various manipulative strategy can also be used. Impression management, where one by one to look good (for example, trying to discuss a new TV help children see educational TV when it's true I want to see most sports programming or says that all "good family will contribute to the Church") for. Authority decision "right" is to add emphasis (like a mother "man of the house", of children, or who makes the most money). Expressed in an emotional sense (for example, a man cries if his wife did not buy him a new rap album will be) is complicated.

The Means-End Chain. In many cases consumers do not buy products, because of the qualities in themselves, but benefit in the end these properties will provide satisfaction because of the values which in turn eventually becomes. For example, particular consumer's interest in chemistry of plastic flowers, but the reason might be the type of 

The important thing in a series meant to end a theme, a unique feature of the product to begin with, and the logical consequences (which become progressively more abstract) to a series of progress with the end value be satisfied. Thus, each series and with the price tag starts with the end. This series of significant effect means that the end is usually more effective ads to focus on a high-level elements. For example, the example above, a flower, perhaps a more important flower to flower only to be shot individually to improve.

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Approach. Consumer behaviour consumer a whole about the spirit are and some "thing" to marketing brands, and usually, a product category, or a retail store model intention to treat. Consider these factors as they are interrelated and together affect the very forces together represent how consumers will react to the object. 

Beliefs. The first component is beliefs. And consumer goods to hold both positive beliefs (eg, coffee tastes good), as well as negative can trust (for example, coffee and papers spread easily). In addition, some assumptions neutral (black coffee), may be different in some scenes person or situation (for example, may be excited by hot coffee can - in the cold morning is good, but heat The warm evening, but not like when someone wants to sleep.) We also note that the belief that consumers need to hold accurate (for example, that pork contains little fat), and closer examination on some assumptions, contradictory. 

Influence. Consumers also hold certain emotions toward brands or other objects. Some of these feelings and beliefs based on the cases (for example, a person feels nauseated when it contains high amounts of fat because of the thinking of a hamburger), but there are also emotions that is relatively independent of beliefs may be. For example, extreme environment that is morally wrong to cut trees to believe, but the holiday of Christmas trees can have a positive impact in the direction he or she unconsciously associates celebrated the birth experience that he or was when he was a child with these trees. 

Intended behavior. Intended behavior with respect to what the consumer object (for example, to buy or not buy the brand) has to do with planning. As with affect, and sometimes trust (or affect) is a logical consequence, but may sometimes reflect other circumstances - the fact that consumers do not really like the restaurant, despite the example , he or she or his friends to his shop because there. 

Changing attitudes is generally very difficult, particularly when consumers suspect that a self-service market, bringing about the change (for example, for consumers to purchase more of the trademark or switch to) the "agenda "is.The following are some possible ways: 

Change affects. To change an attitude, which included getting to consumers or to change your beliefs may not attempt to influence May. A classical conditioning approach to strategy uses the product to "pair" to try to inspire love. For example, we have a car with a beautiful woman "couple." Instead, we as advertising that people can try to get and we hope that the "volume" to the appeal will buy the product. For example, an infantry soldier Pillsbury really a lot of information to the consumer does not confirm the vehicle, but rather, a warm "fuzzy" attempts to create the image. However to those who believe that the battery will last for a long period tried announcement Energizer Bunny, the main focus is on the likeable bunny. Finally, through the influence of performance products that you know best, only, for there are better, and that he loves, and more advertising for a product seen in shops, and more generally as , then the consumers will not place any values are typical for this product. 

Behavior Change. People believe that their behavior is rational and, therefore, our products using only choice, and continue there until someone was able to switch them to the possibilities. The way people use coupons to temporary price discounts and to switch to the brand to get, but when consumers deal, which the agreement (ie low price) to justify the purchase of building can purchase the product, and then move on to other brands can later deal. The best way for people to switch brands at least we have the best shelf space temporarily so that the product is more convenient to get to get.Consumers to buy less as a justification for using it are likely to be available and continue to buy the product when the product is conveniently located less can. 

Change beliefs. Despite the obvious attempt to change beliefs to try to change the situation, especially when consumers are holding their adverse or wrong, and it is often difficult to achieve because consumers are opposed. Several ways exist to change the trust: 

Change the current beliefs held. It's usually very hard to believe that people hold, especially those that are strongly held, even if it is wrong to try to change.For example, a long time that profits were less commonly been thought, and advertising in a realistic and detailed to provide evidence to support the oil industry announced this fact. Consumers were suspicious and rejected this information, however. 

Change the importance of beliefs. Chinese manufacturers, although I will undoubtedly underestimate the importance of dental health, it is not possible to make assumptions usually less important - consumers are likely to cause, why, you do not bother to bring in the first place? For example, vitamins, supplements a manufacturer, has announced that it replace the iron lost during menstruation is very important for women - but, it is possible we believe that the strong side. Most consumers already agree with this, but a strong faith can do. 

Add beliefs. In addition to reducing consumer beliefs so long as they do not conflict with existing beliefs are likely to resist. Thus adding the meat industry beliefs beef (1) convenient and (2) can be used for a number of creative recipes. Vitamin makers to believe that stress is vitamin deficiency, which seems reasonable enough for most people try to add causes. 

Change model. Usually difficult and risky for one to change ideals, and only a few companies in trying to work. For example, the more self-expression to the ideal away from traditional beauty trying to change the hard candy may be unique. 

Sided versus a two-sided appeal. Research has shown that consumers often the case when ads are more positive response that either (1) something negative about the brand recognition of sponsors (for example, Volvo's clumsy, but very safe) or (2) competition admits something positive about the brand (for example, rival supermarkets to lower prices a bit, but offers less service and selection.) Appeals may be two-sided, why sponsor brand ultimately is better for the debate should have overcome the above example, we "but" Part II should be on. 

View. Our concept is an approximation of reality. Stimuli to the brain that we are exposed to attempts to make sense. It works well, for example, when we have a friend in the height of his or her right to three hundred meters to "see", but sometimes our perception "off", for example, some container, ice creamthe shapes are more and more sounds are rectangular with the same size. 

Subliminal stimuli. Then in 1960 it was reported that the evening is specified, moviegoers with a different frame of words used in the theater and "Coca-Cola drink" "eat popcorn" film imbedded. These frames went by so fast that peopleintentionally did not notice them, but it was reported that the current tire, Coke and popcorn at night, with sales of more days off were more than. The conference led to the prohibition of the use of subliminal advertising. initially,There is a question that this experiment ever took place or whether the information is simply made up. Secondly, there was able to duplicate these results. there is suggests that people start to giggle with embarrassment whena brief period in an experimental device "dirty" was to be exposed to research. Here, again, issues that are not aware of the actual word he saw was very brief, but it is clear that some embarrassing performance identified is. 

Organizational buyers. Goods and services to buyers and individual rather than Organizations attributable, to a large part of the market. In general, organizational buyers, who make a living to make buying decisions for companies and some are more complicated than ordinary consumers.However, these organizational buyers are also often do not like risk. With a new resource being a threat, maybe better (higher prices or lower quality), which do not prove the product could become a problem. In many cases, the potential rewards more than run the risk of the fear is to get a good deal. In the old days, and to companies today and the bit face increasing pressure to cut costs are beginning to say simply that this attitude "You can not remove IBM to buy" can be. 

Organizational buyers come in many forms. Resellers either wholesalers or retailers that buy from an organization and some other institutions are involved in selling. For example, large grocery chains sometimes buy products directly from the manufacturer and sold to final consumers. May retailers and wholesalers who in turn sell to sell to consumers. Manufacturers also buy products from manufacturers to create a sub-end product. For example, instead of self-manufactured parts, the hard drive manufacturers and computer manufacturers often, motherboards, cases, monitors, keyboards, and other components to buy and put them together to create the final product.Governments to buy a lot of things. For example, an incredible amount of supplies for the army to feed and army should be equipped. Finally, largeinstitutions buy products in bulk quantities. For example, each month you can buy thousands of packages of paper UCR. 

Organizational buying usually involves more people who buy individual. In many cases, decision-making as shared by many of the people as follows: (a) to purchase, (b) to purchase, (c) what quantity of them (d). Engineered to be an expert, who spends all their time or materials that organizations need to find the best deals from the last purchase made without the need to buy, which may be approved by the Director of the specifications can create. In many cases, it be to buy such works may be long delayed. Government, and strict rules are often private, for example, sellers of fruit cake and fourteen pages developed by the Department of General Services to meet the specifications. In many cases, buyers also strongly committed to the government to go with lower prices. Even if it became clear that high prices will provide vendor and product is better, it can be hard to accept that offer. 



The case study on the Internet, a shopping site and e-commerce clothing line is Levis. Levi Strauss & Co. a private sector that in 1853 San Francisco-owned Company was founded. The main product was blue jeans, and with American values of individual areas defined brand. Association of the American West with long jeans, and to "identify with personal freedom and freedom of choice to meet the sound when a customer buys Levis sjeans. They support the values inherent to  (Sullivan, 2006).

The Levis Privacy Policy

Levis site provides a privacy policy, "Levi Strauss and Co. 's commitment to privacy," May 22, 2006 upgrade. And treatment of PII, and especially secure socket layer technology (SSL) to use to describe the security of personal information. Levis is the promise that any personal information "without the approval of the customer is not part of. 

However, non-personal data collection, or unknown, a different class, and not specially protected or subject to the approval of affirmative action. Levis America "automatically collect and others to enable us to analyze and improve our site and Internet expertise to provide our customers with complete, for example, we each time you visit our site at Your IP address and browser information and reference site domain name to collect. We also collect information store. be customer traffic patterns and site usage information about. Policy Report announced third-party company, Street A, "your visit to our site to collect anonymous information about it mainly through the use of a technique is accomplished., Normally a beacon of the way Web an ... referred to as the anonymous information about your visit may be used. Internet sites and others for goods and services of interest to you to provide ads about 'policy did not describe the name of any third party; the site of the site using web beacons to measure locations. policy agreement concluded by addressing the questions: (2009f) "It is through the use of our website, you and us to collect your non-personal For details of using the information agree to allow as described in this Privacy Policy. There are other external service providers that data can be collected from customers of Levis that are a reference to. 

Levis brand of freedom and autonomy is a long term relationship with American values. Levy in Australia, targeting behavior using direct values for the Levis brand of customer service as a basis for trust is the opposite.Fairness and compassion that the construction of badly affected by behavioral targeting in its current state to the perceptions of e-commerce sites can be. 

The study data was collected and the amount shared with third parties shows that much of what the privacy policy described in Levis. To the Levis and never promised to share personal information without consent, the targeting behavior, which calls for anonymous data collected on the data does not promise. Icon Figure 2 shows multiple web beacons are attached during a single trip is displayed. As shown in Figure 3 cake with a tag value that is shared include behavioral targeting. For approval of these systems Levis, Levis and share information with partners that are not identified to the customer's demand. The omission of a clear explanation of behavior practices Levis, the privacy policy which begins with these words, the aim of reducing the credibility of: ÄúLevi deeply committed to Strauss & Co. to maintain confidentiality, and the African Union ( 2009f). When e-commerce site loses its credibility, it quickly and our customers trust (Gefen Karahanna, et al, 2003) loses the integrity. 

U.S. customers who, Levy, Australia, web beacons and extensive use of blue jeans with freedom freedom to associate for marketing may come as a shock with unknown colleagues continue to gather data. Consumer-driven, and the emergence of deceptive practices in the market for high risks involved, and may be a public relations nightmare. 

There are also wider social impact of such behavior can impact. Evidence that behavioral targeting in 2007 before the U.S. housing market collapse in prices during the last run was a factor. Documents and a statement ÄúSupplemental aggressive sub-prime mortgages in the marketing role of behavioral targeting and request investigation and complaint in support of a restraining order and illegal and deceptive on the internet, and a legal Federal Trade Commission by the Center for Digital Democracy brief submitted to the African Union with respect to practices, 2007 (2007) in November. Äûmortgage such words, and Union, Äûrefinance African and African Union to the dollar, or up to $ 20 to $ 30 per click. A secondary mortgage loan out Google, Yahoo and MSN search engines like consumers to collect shopping. These expectations of interested parties that provide financial services (2007) have been sold. 

Has been treated targeting Cindy Cohn, Electronic Frontier Foundation legal, directors and, Äúthe business model, control and the African Union (Cohen, 2009) is described by. Not asking for explicit consent, and the condition of sterilization behavioral targeting individuals and elements that can destroy trust in electronic commerce to use for marking anonymity. Even if consumers are anonymous, these ad networks to gather data quietly influence purchasing decisions. Motivation behind the self-government to protect the privacy and use of information to prevent a relationship (Waldo Lin, et al, 2007) within the changing power dynamics. 

Consumer behavior targeting without the consent of the threat of freedom, and of good faith and could weaken expectations associated with the brand name customers. 

Another concern leading behavioral targeting similarities between him and techniques used by hackers and viruses. Their clients transplant web beacons, and a Trojan horse virus known as the Australian way to compare the case of the browser. Like a Trojan horse file is loaded gentle sounds of this Web site Your goods, Amnesty International, at least seven Web beacons out multiple ad networks to bind the unsuspecting visitor.Levis, a brand that has been carefully symbols of America and individual freedom, and enable consumers to large scale tracking can be very destructive as designed to fit with her role as a company . 


Browser cookies, Web beacons, cookies and flash through normal web browsing is not visible to a large extent, such devices are tracked with the consumer. Image files used for web beacon on the page can not be seen, and for its size and significantly reduce any performance impact that they can put small. And behavioral targeting for protecting the information collected is anonymous. The defense can keep track of a party do not have the power of the consumer to buy on the Internet with anonymous but very real impact the market does. 

Privacy Forum for the Future (2009d), a privacy advocacy group, a "consent form" to recommend positive behavioral targeting, this means that consumers are given explicit consent (ie, opt-in) within the ad network to collect data and exchange data. February 12, 2009 for targeted advertising (2009c) behavioral targeting to increase transparency in the Federal Trade Commission issued new recommendations. At the very least, you the customer about what type of information is being collected to consult e-commerce sites should be. Focus groups with customers, and a floating neutral in terms of where it is the interpretation of these data collection methods should conduct the implementation. Availability of a - system slow to emerge, choose carefully examined and you be more likely to modify the need to become stronger and more widespread. 

There are forces that will change the current practice of targeting are the size of the view. E-commerce sites to move quickly on the data collection practices should restore consumer confidence by providing greater transparency, and targeting practices to implement mechanisms for explicit consent. President Jon Leibowitz of the Federal Trade Commission has announced, "People and authority should be on your computer ... and the current" Don "t ask, don 't tell" framework to end and to track online " (Story, 2007). 

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