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The Five Major Elements Of The Entire Thesis Marketing Essay

To understand people one needs to understand what leads them to act as they do, and to understand what leads them to act as they do one needs to know their goals…(D’Andrade, 1992, p. 31).

This introductory chapter aims at describing the nature and objectives of this study. This chapter focuses on explaining the five major elements of the entire thesis, including problem statement, background, purpose of the study with its significance, and the limitations or difficulties that might face the study. Finally, it discusses how this study is organized.

Motivation has been defined as ‘an inner drive that reflects goal-directed arousal’ (Arnould et al., 2002, p.378). Shopping motivations and its fundamental determinations have been a topic of study for many years (Engel et al, 1995; Schiffman and Kanuk, 2000; Liu et al., 2008). In very simple way, shopping motivation can be viewed as the reasons or forces that make people go for shopping. Studies on shopping motivation have examined and developed various shopping typologies, for example Arnold and Reynolds (2003) have proposed “Adventure shopping” as a motivation typology. They explain that “people go for shopping for reasons such as; having adventure, thrills, stimulation, excitement, and entering a different universe of exciting sights, smells, and sounds” (p. 80).

The topic of online shopping has been increasingly recognized all over the world, especially in the developing countries where the infrastructure is just ready for marketing activities over the internet (Kau, Tang and Ghose, 2003). Studies revealed that even though internet shopping represents a small portion of retail sales in undeveloped countries, it will increase drastically in the future (Hawkins et al., 2001).

Since the internet becomes available for almost all people around the world, it becomes an increasingly effective marketing tool for retail businesses as well as other business. The internet is deemed to be a prevalent method for information searches and product purchase in our current society. Online retail sales are estimated to grow up to 329 billion US dollars by the year 2010 (Zhou et at., 2007). The increasing number of sale in volume and profit urge marketers to understand consumer choices and perceptions in order to be more effective in sales (Phau and Poon, 2000).

Various factors influence consumer online shopping include convenience, various selection, low price, original services, personal attention, and easy access to information, (Richards, 2005; Kerner et al., 2004). Studies stated that it is important to study the consumer online shopping behavior towards retail business in different context as the influences vary related to consumer attitude and other demographic factors (Athiyaman, 2002; Limayem et al., 2003).

Moreover, studies underpin family decision making is one of the most interesting theme in determining shopping motives (McConocha et al., 1993; Davis and Rigaux, 1974). In his study Davis (1976) explains the variability in spousal participation in the decision making of purchases and economic activities among families due to various factors such as education, job status, and time availability. In their study Granbois and Willett (1970) have examined the role of both spouses and suggested that the allocation for each spouse is similar and any differences reflect differing perceptions.

Studies have suggested that some consumers are more interests in convenience and less motivated by social interaction compared to women consumers (Swaminathan et al., 1999). While women found to have more positive attitudes toward shopping and prefer shopping from time to time (Alreck and Settle, 2002). Studies for family member influence have covered cultural norms and gender roles (Blood and Wolfe, 1960; Cunningham and Green, 1974; Green and Cunningham, 1975; Parsons and Bales, 1955).

Shoppers have different attitude toward shopping motives (Alreck and Settle, 2002). Moreover, they may initial different demands and request different type of information to build their buying decision. The motives for shopping for family may differ in term of gratification seeking, social shopping, high quality seeking, confused by choice value shopping, brand loyal/habitual, brand conscious, utilitarian, hedonic shopping and role playing. Voluminous studies have suggested that the roles played by genders in family differ with regard to shopping motives (e.g. Belch and Ceresino, 2002; Piron, 2002).

1.1 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

Previous literatures found that consumers motivates to buy a product/service are different and these motives either drive them towards or inhibit them from online shopping (e.g. Dittmar et al. 2004). The family is a core element when considering shopping motives (Lee and Beatty, 2002). The changes in the economic and life welfare have greatly impact the roles of family in the shopping motives and behaviour caused a gap or differences in the shopping drivers and influences in the family (Cherlin, 1992; McConocho and Tully, 1993).

The influences on buying decision-making on the family and their shopping behaviour have bend extensively investigated and studied in various context (Chiu, Lin Tang, 2005; Rodgers and Harris, 2003, Zhou, Dai, and Zhang, 2007). Most of studies have considered the family role and behaviour in the developed countries. However few and limited number of studies have been conducted in the developing countries. The gulf reign countries and in particular the state of Kuwait is different than the developed countries in term of culture, religion, traditional, and thus might gender role. Thus, what affects shopping motive in other countries might not be applicable in Kuwait until empirically finding existed. Bases on family role and gender, the investigation of motives of Kuwaiti families thus needs to be investigated.

In Kuwait, multinational retailers operates in different locations, these firms vividly seek to better understand the driver of shopping motive of Kuwaiti families. There is a clear need for any study on family shopping motivation to widen the base of awareness on which the retailer can build a competitive advantage. The study argues that knowledge about the role of shopping motivation of Kuwaitis family would benefit retailers to understanding shopping behaviour of Kuwaiti family and enhance its marketing strategies.

1.2 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY

Shopping is part of the life of most of Kuwaitis. shoppers in Kuwait tend to use online shopping in daily base for different reasons and needs, for example to acquire a products and services searching for information, comparing and learning for new trends and activities. However, there are scarcities of studies and literatures in public domain regarding online shopping motivations of Kuwaitis. Therefore, this study is an attempt to understand drivers or motives of consumers’ online shopping behavior in Kuwait and to what extent the buying decision-making affected by these motives.

Investigating Kuwaiti’s motives and influence has important implications for online retailers, who would better develop their marketing ordination and services based on this knowledge. Revealing Kuwaiti motives toward online shopping would help many marketers to set their marketing strategies, especially the promotional effort. The primary focus of this study is thus to investigate drivers of online shopping. The specific objectives of this study are:

To examine online shopping motives of Kuwaitis.

To segment Kuwaiti based on their shopping motives and decision-making style.

To examine the similarities and differences among the shopper segments based on demographic variables (e.g. age, martial, education and income).

To provide suggestions for retailers to enhance their marketing strategies.

1.3 RESEARCH FRAMEWORK

It is impossible to consider all online and offline shopping motives. However, the study aims to provide a comprehensive model that underpins recent factors available in marketing literatures. Based on Tillmann and Thomas (2010) recommendation, this study aims to implement a validated framework (which used for physical shopping) to explain online shopping motives. As results some items has been included and others has been replaced (e.g. Discount hunting instead of Price Hunting), dissimilar to Tillmann and Thomas (2010), the study has consider online shopping motives.

The study uses a comprehensive framework to explain Kuwaitis motives and attitude toward online shopping. Based on the literature that will presented in Chapter 2, the study investigates the presented research framework and develops the research hypotheses related to shopping motives.

Figure 1.1: Research Model

Purpose Specific:

-Utilitarian

-Hedonic

Activity Specific:

-Efficiency

-Inspiration

-Discount Hunting

-Gratification

-Gift shopping

Demand Specific:

-Variety

-Shopping

-Convenience

- Web Atmosphere or Visualization

-Online Help

Shopping Context:

As shown in figure 1.1, these hypotheses are:

H1. Task-fulfillment has a positive effect on (a)-efficiency, (b)-inspiration, (c)-discount hunting, and (d)-gratification.

H2. Recreation has a positive effect on (a)-efficiency, (b)-inspiration, (c)-discount hunting, and (d)-gratification.

H3: efficiency shopping has a positive effect on (a)-Variety, (b)-Shopping Convenience, (c)-Web Atmosphere or Visualization, and (d)-Online Help.

H4: Inspiration has a positive effect on (a)-Variety and (b)-Web Atmosphere or Visualization,

H5: Discount Hunting has a positive effect on (a)-Variety, (b)-Shopping Convenience, (c)-Web Atmosphere And Visualization, and (d)-Online Help.

H6: Gratification has a positive effect on (a)-Variety, (b)-Shopping Convenience, (c)-Web Atmosphere And Visualization, and (d)-Online Help.

H7: Gift shopping has a positive effect on preferences for retailers’ (a) Variety, (b) Shopping Convenience and (c) Web Atmosphere.

H7: The shopping context will have a stronger moderating influence upon the relationship between activity-specific and demand-specific shopping motivation than on the relationship between purpose-specific and activity-specific motivation.

1.4 THE RESEARCH QUESTIONS

Related to the study objectives, the current study attempts to answer the following primary questions:

What are the motives that affect Kuwaitis toward online shopping?

To what extent qualifications and educational variable affect Kuwaitis toward online shopping?

To what extent Age variable affect Kuwaitis toward online shopping?

1.5 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

Based on the research questions and hypotheses presented, the current study aims to incorporate quantitative research design to determine motives of shopping for Kuwaiti consumers. Using Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS) version 18.0, the study used several statistical tools, such as descriptive statistics, frequencies, Crosstabulation, normality test, correlations test, linear regression and ANOVA testing to compare between groups. More description and justification of using these statistical tools are discussed in the methodology chapter.

1.6 LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY

The limitations of the current study could be summarized as follows:

The result of this study depends on the honesty and neutrality of Kuwaiti consumers. Thus, the result of the data analysis and outcomes of this study would be affected by the accuracy of respondents to the research questions/items.

Due to the time limitation of the final thesis submission, the study expected to collect surveys from participant in a short period of time, the limited period for distributing thus could be another limitation of this study.

Moreover, the study acknowledges that the limited numbers of participants would affect the overall result of the study.

Finally, the scope of this study was restricted to Kuwaitis. Due to differences in culture, the result of data analysis and finding might not be applicable to other consumers in Kuwait or other Gulf region countries.

1.7 THESIS STRUCTURE

This study will compromise the following chapters as presented in the following figure 1.2.

Figure 1.2: the organization of the dissertation

Chapter 1

Introduction

Chapter 2

Theoretical Review

Chapter 3

Research Methodology

Chapter 5

Discussion and Conclusion

Chapter 4

Analysis and Results

Chapter 1 provides the background information of consumer shopping behaviour and gender role. It presents the problem statement, purpose and significance of the study. Chapter 1 further presents a brief description of the research methodology, and finally, mentions the limitations of the study.

Chapter 2 presents literature reviews regarding online shopping motives and factors that shape consumer behavior, which will be used in this study, in addition to critical reviews of existing literature pertinent to the study.

Chapter 3 discusses the research methodology used in this study. The chapter covers the theoretical framework model, which shows the relationship of various variables used in this research. This chapter also focuses on the detailed explanation of the research instrument, including sampling design and data collection procedures, as well as the techniques used to process and analyze the data obtained.

Chapter 4 discusses the research results and analysis. This chapter highlights the findings obtained from this study. Chapter 4 further presents the key findings by summarizing statistics available from survey respondents. It exposes the results of hypotheses testing in addition with interviews, and ends with a discussion of the research findings.

Chapter 5 concludes by confirming the key findings and implications of the results derived from this study. It also highlights how these findings contribute to our knowledge to understand consumer shopping behaviour in Kuwait in particular and in other Gulf region countries in general. Recommendations for future research are also included in this chapter.

CHAPTER 2

LITERATURE REVIEWS

This chapter reviews previous literatures and studies related to online shopping motives. The purpose of the literatures presented in this chapter is to look at past work in order to develop significant insights into the research area that is being examined. To provide necessary background for investigation, the study underpins recent studies and literatures related to online shopping motives.

2.1 ONLINE SHOPPING AND MOTIVATION

The internet populace has grown terrifically since its opening to commercial traffic in 1991, and it has reached more than 176 million having Internet access from home or office (International Herald Tribune, 2002). In Asia, it increased to reach about 738 million by the end of 2000. Growing numbers of online retail shopping users, to purchase goods and services, gather product information or even explore online retail shopping for enjoyment. This phenomenon is driven by underpinning consumers efficient use of time, as well as an increasing number of computer-trained consumers (Han and Maclaurin, 2002).

Studies has suggested that online shopping relay largely on the characteristics of the products and services that would be presented (e.g. Hui and Chau, 2002; Huang, 2003). Various studies indicated that the suitability of online shopping to people varied by the type of products, due to either the exclusivity of the product itself, the nature of the Internet, or the newness of the distribution channel (e.g. Hui and Chau, 2002; Huang, 2003). Furthermore, studies explained that to be fast-selling products on the Internet were clothes, books, computer products, travel, health and beauty products, in which marketer had sufficient information about their products (Reda, 2001; Schaeffer, 2000).

The revenues from online retailing continue to grow (Andrew and Vanitha 2004). The growth of online shopping has generated considerable interest among academic researchers. In particular, researchers have begun examining the impact of online shopping environments on consumer choice (Swaminathan et al., 1999), the role of internet shopping as a channel of distribution (Alba et al., 1997), motives of shopping online (Swaminathan et al., 1999), and the impact of online shopping on price sensitivity (Shankar et al., 1999).

One of the crucial questions that researchers have considers is that why do people shop. To provide an answer to this question the examination of consumers’ shopping motives is thus necessary. This study stresses on the importance of motivation to understanding people behavior. Motivation defines as a “the driving force within individuals that impels them to action” (Schiffman et al., 1997, p .90). Similarly, Solomon (2002, p.102 defines Motivation as “the process that cause people to behave as they do”. Neal et al., (2004, p. 299) defines motives as “a construct representing an unobservable inner force that stimulates and compels a behavioral response and provides specific direction to that response”. Motivation influences individuals in the way it stimulates and directs behavior. For that reasons motivation can be viewed in terms of its strength and its direction (Solomon, 2002, p.103).

Previous studies and literatures have suggested diverse shopping motivations, however most of these motives are applicable for offline shopping (Liu et al., 2008). Furthermore, the identify classifications of shopping motivations differ in terms of their composition, while some conceptual overlaps exist. (e.g., Arnold and Reynolds, 2003; Bloch et al., 1994; Tauber, 1972; Westbrook and Black, 1985; Wolfinbarger and Gilly, 2001).

Among many framework work existed in the body of literatures, Westbrook and Black’s (1985) present comprehensive and prevalent of shopping motive. Primary, they have had proposed seven types of shopping motivation, such as role enactment, affiliation, stimulation, anticipated utility, choice optimization, negotiation, and power and authority. However, their classification of shopping motives does not exactly apply to online shopping.

More recently, Tillmann and Thomas (2010) have developed Westbrook and Black’s (1985) framework and provide more comprehensive model, which explain offline shopping motive. Figure 2.1 shows Tillmann and Thomas (2010) model, which is the most recent framework available in the body of literatures that explain offline shopping motivation.

Source: Tillmann and Thomas (2010)

This framework comprehensive has enhanced our understanding regarding diverse motives of the traditional shopping. The framework has enhances retailers to better develop that attract their customers and enhance their perception toward shopping. One limitation of this framework relay in the inapplicable on the online shopping. The formwork cannot used to explain the online shopping motives without modifications in its components. Based on Tillmann and Thomas (2010) framework, this study attempts to provide alternative types of online shopping motivations, which address the online shopping setting. The following section develops literatures that has primary consider the online shopping motives.

2.2 PURPOSE SPECIFIC: RECREATION (HEDONIC) AND TASK FULFILLMENT (UTILITARIAN) PERSPECTIVES OF SHOPPING

Emphasizing the importance of investigation shopping motivations, numerous studies have stressed on the hedonic and utilitarian perspective, focusing on the factors that influence entertaining shopping experiences (Ibrahim and Wee, 2002). Recreation or hedonic defines as “consumption behaviors that relate to fantasy, happiness, sensuality, and enjoyment” (Hirschman and Holbrook, 1982), while, on the other hand, task-fulfillment or Utilitarian consumer behavior defines as a “rational approach involving a purchase that is efficiently made, even if the shopping itself may not provide any fun” (Babin et al., 1994).

In reviewing previous studies literature, motivations for online shopping range from utilitarian motivation to hedonic motivation. Many individuals do online shopping with the objective of purchasing particular products or services. They are task-fulfillment shoppers, looking for functional product benefits (Tauber, 1972). Studies explained that Hedonic and utilitarian motives related with attitudes towards products and brands (Crowley et al., 1992; Spangenberg et al., 1997; Voss et al., 2003). Noble, et al. (2005) explains that task-fulfillment motives include information attainment, price comparison and discounts, immediate possession and gratification seeking.

Studies have explained that task-fulfillment motives involve satisfying either functional or economic needs (Babin, et al, 1974). Task fulfillment motives have been characterized as Utilitarian and rational (Batra and Ahtola, 1991). Studies explained that task-fulfillment shoppers do online shopping only if they want to purchase, thereby neglecting all the other motivations (Babin, et al. 1994). Moreover, studies have explained that task-fulfillment motivations might include convenient shopping; web atmosphere and product/services variety (Kim & Kang, 1997). For this segment of shopper, shopping is “effective”, where main motivation is to purchase a specific and predetermine goods or services as quickly as possible.

In contrast, some shoppers do online shopping with mainly non-utilitarian motives (Babin et al., 1994). This type of shoppers who is seeking for “fun” and “recreation” (Babin et al., 1994). Recreation shopping or ‘Hedonic’ has regarded as a positive experience where shopper may enjoy an emotionally satisfying experience when they do online shopping regardless of whether or not a transaction was made. Recreation shopping motivations is thus mainly related to experiencing fun, amusement, and sensory stimulation (Babin et al., 1994). Recreation satisfactions may be derived from entertainment, ambience, browsing, and social experiences outside the home (e.g., watching new products online, chatting with friends, watching events and people). Bardhi and Arnould, (2005) have explained that recreation shopping is related to the satisfaction of a shopper desires and it is an expression of experiential consumption. From the above literatures, the study propose the following two hypotheses:

H1. task-fulfillment has a positive effect on (a)-efficiency, (b)-inspiration, (c)-discount hunting, and (d)-gratification.

H2. Recreation has a positive effect on (a)-efficiency, (b)-inspiration, (c)-discount hunting, and (d)-gratification.

2.3 ACTIVITY SPECIFIC: SHOPPING MOTIVES

Reviewing previous studies and literatures regarding online shopping the study develops four factors related to activity-specific motives, these factors are; Efficiency Shopping, Inspiration, Discount hunting and Gratification.

2.3.1 EFFICIENCY

Previous studies and literatures suggested that efficiency shopping is a motive that considered by shoppers (Komaki, 1982). Efficiency shopping defines as “consumers’ goal to realize a fast and effortless shopping process” (Tillmann and Thomas, 2010). The task of efficiency shopping becomes very important when a shopper need for a fast and frictionless shopping procedure. Related to online shopping, the efficiency shopping requested several attributes such as website accessibility, convenience and customer services and help (Van Kenhove et al., 1999). The study thus proposed that efficiency shopping exhibit elevated needs for online service variety, convenience and support. Moreover, studies explains that consumers’ efficiency is sustained by means of habitual behavioral patterns (Verplanken and Wood, 2006). In general, shoppers in a habitual decision-making mode favor simple task environments while dislike unfamiliar or complex environments (Janiszewski and Meyvis, 2001). Since unfamiliar environments may stem from web atmosphere, Convenience, online help and product/service variety the study propose the following hypothesis:

H3: efficiency shopping has a positive effect on (a)-Variety, (b)-Shopping Convenience, (c)-Web Atmosphere or Visualization, and (d)-Online Help.

2.3.2 INSPIRATION (IDEA SHOPPING)

Inspiration refers to shopping desire in keeping up with trends and new fashions. Inspiration or Idea shopping refers to shopping to gather information about new trends, fashions, and products. The offline shopping studies suggested that Inspiration or “idea shopping,” is a significant factor for shoppers who reported that they shop to keep up with the latest trends and fashions (McGuire’s, 1974). Studies explain that describe shopping as a way to keep side by side with new products and services that are available. Inspiration has first addressed by McGuire’s (1974) who attempt to explain the human need for structure, order, and knowledge, as well as objectification theories, which view the human as needing external guidelines and information in an attempt to make sense of himself.

Moreover, Tauber’s (1972) suggested that inspiration is a personal shopping motive, which guide and keep shoppers to catch up with new trends and keeping informed about the latest trends in fashion, styling, or innovations. Related to online shopping, studies suggested that some shoppers might enjoy browsing to obtain information as an end in itself, not to make a particular purchase (Bloch et. Al, 1989). Since inspiration is related to the availability of variety products and services, and how these products or services presented in the online shopper, therefore, the study proposes the following hypothesis:

H4: Inspiration has a positive effect on (a)-Variety and (b)-Web Atmosphere or Visualization,

2.3.3 DISCOUNT HUNTING

Discount-hunting shopping refers to the joy of hunting, finding discounts, and seeking sales. In his study, Miller (2000) indicated that the internet allow virtual vendors to save expenditure that online retailers enable consumers to purchase at a lower price and offer various discount. Moreover, it is relatively simplistic for those who buy from online shoppers to make price comparisons via internet at any time. Moreover,

Chandon et al. (2000) suggested that discount hunting is a motive for online shopping since shoppers would think themselves to be smarter when getting a discount. Similarly, in their study Arnold and Reynolds (2003) has suggested that discount hunting is a motive for shopping online, they explain that getting good discount makes the online shopping is better than traditionally shopping especially related to hedonic who seek to reduce cost and increase value (Babin et al., 1994). The study propose the following hypothesis:

H5: Discount Hunting has a positive effect on (a)-Variety, (b)-Shopping Convenience, (c)-Web Atmosphere And Visualization, and (d)-Online Help.

2.3.4 GRATIFICATION

Gratification shopping is the creating of a positive feeling, which make shopper feel better or give a special treat to oneself (Westbrook and Black, 1985). shopping has been viewed in the literature as a form of emotion-focused coping in response to stressful events or simply to get one’s mind off a problem (Lee, Moschis, & Mathur, 2001). In their study, Dittmar and Drury (2000) suggested that shopping seems to play psychologically and emotionally encompassing role while shoppers focus on the outcome to get the actual goods with the least effort or the benefit attached to shopping. Studies suggested that “gratification shopping,” involves shopping for stress relief, shopping to lessen a negative mood, and shopping as a special treat to oneself (Dittmar and Drury, 2000). For example, some shopper do online shopping to relieve stress or to forget about their problems.

McGuire’s (1974) suggested that gratification shopping is as a way to wind down, relax, improve a negative mood, or just treat themselves. Similarly, Babin et al. (1994) has suggested that the value of shopping as a self-gratifying, escapist, and therapeutic activity, describing respondents who view shopping as a “pick-me-up” and a “lift” when they feel depressed. In his study Tauber (1972) has suggested that self-gratifying provide benefits to shopper such as feel better.

In his study, Sherry (1990) suggests that in the shopping process shoppers pay more attention to sensual satisfaction rather than the product itself. For example, women stress emotional and psychological involvement in the buying process, whereas, men emphasize efficiency and convenience in obtaining buying outcomes (Dittmar et al., 2004). Studies suggested that the enjoyable is a driving force and motive to do online shopping (Alreck and Settle, 2002). Arnold and Reynolds highlight the concept of this motive by stating, “role shopping reflects the enjoyment that shoppers derive from shopping for others, the influence that this activity has on the shoppers’ feeling and moods, and the excitement and intrinsic joy felt by shoppers when finding the perfect gift for others” (p. 81).

H6: Gratification has a positive effect on (a)-Variety, (b)-Shopping Convenience, (c)-Web Atmosphere And Visualization, and (d)-Online Help.

2.3.5: GIFT MOTIVE

Gift motive is regarded as the positive feelings that shopper get from finding the perfect gift for someone (McGuire’s, 1974). Previous studies explain that some shoppers motivated to look for and purchase a gift for someone else. These type of shoppers are commonly try to correspond to distinct or potential product needs of others, which can be addressed by retailers’ variety. Related to in McGuire’s (1974), gift motive was labeled as “role shopping,” which display the enjoyment of shoppers when he buy things for others. This motive influence the feelings and moods, and the excitement and intrinsic joy felt by shoppers when finding the perfect gift for others. Many shoppers express their enjoyment when they obtain gifts from the online retailers to give for other people.

In his study, Babin et al. (1994) has explained that shoppers view shopping as a duty, but enjoy the experience and obtain hedonic value from the process. Further, other studies have explained how, for some consumers (especially women), shopping is an expression of love (cf. Miller, 1998; Otnes and McGrath, 2001). Moreover, studies suggested that gift shoppers attracted by the web site attractive and visualization cues to select they best gift that satisfy their needs (Laroche et al., 2000b). Gift shopper expected to affect by the variety of product or services, web visualization and convenience of online shopping expected, therefore the study propose the following hypothesis:

H7: Gift shopping has a positive effect on preferences for retailers’ (a) Variety, (b) Shopping Convenience and (c) Web Atmosphere.

2.4 DEMAND-SPECIFIC: SHOPPING MOTIVATION

Reviewing studies regarding to online shopping motivation, the study develops the following demand-specific motives; Shopping Convenience, Web visualization, Variety and online help.

2.4.1 VARIETY SEEKING

In his study, Raju (1980) defines Variety seeking as “the need for varied behavior or the need to vary choices of stores, brands, or products”. Raju (1980) describe many variety-seeking items, however, variety-seeking research is narrowed in the online content, previous literatures have suggested that variety-seeking come the intrapersonal or interpersonal motives (McAlister and Pessemier, 1982).

Studies have linked variety seeking to the availability of an ideal level of stimulation (e.g., an intrapersonal motive for novelty, complexity, or change) (Raju, 1980 and Menon and Kahn, 1995). A shopper optimal stimulation level determines their degree of exploratory and variety-seeking behavior in situations such as shopping. In the traditional shopping, studies explain that sometime shoppers become very unhappy about the variety and availability aspect of (McGann, 2004a, b). The ability to comparison between online retailers for example may increase variety-seeking behavior in the online context; therefore, variety seeking is expected to be a significant motive in the online context. Studies suggested that shoppers when go online, he requested sufficient variety of product to choose from. For example, Rohm and Swaminathan (2004) suggested that the ability to do comparison-shopping online increases consumers' variety seeking behavior.

2.4.2 SHOPPING CONVENIENCE

Convenience defines as “time savings and effort savings, including physical and mental effort” (Swaminathan et al., 1999). Numerous studies of shopping motive have suggested that convenience as a distinct motive for store choice in the offline setting studies (.g. Lee and Overby, 2004; Evanschitzky et al., 2004; Alba et al., 1997; Grenberg, 2000; Hoffman and Novak, 1996). Similarly, Convenience is an important attribute for shoppers when it comes to shopping online. The online shopping is Convenience due to the easy for shopper to locate retailers, find product or service, and procure offerings and control over the transaction. Studies suggested that one of the most important advantage of online shopping is that individuals can decide to buy or not and the transaction is under their control (Eastlick and Feinberg, 1999), furthermore, people can avoid social interaction and crowded environment.

Bellenger and Korgaonkar (1980) suggested that by doing online shopping convenience shopper can select stores based upon their time or effort savings. In his study (Swaminathan et al., 1999) explains that convenience is an important factor, particularly because location becomes irrelevant in the online shopping context. Similary to traditional shopping, the online shopper may be motivated by the convenience of placing orders online at home or at the office any time of day. Consistent with past research regarding time and effort savings this study consider time and effort savings as a part of the overall shopping (Bellenger and Korgaonkar, 1980 and Eastlick and Feinberg, 1999).

2.4.3 WEB ATMOSPHERE AND VISUALIZATION

In his study, Bitner (1992) explained that online environments are specific types of interfaces, in which people access for the explicit purpose of shopping. Numerous literatures considered how individuals interact with the computer interfaces, however relatively few studies have specifically underpinned how individuals interact with the online shopping (Coyle et al., 2001; Li et al., 2002; Palmer and Griffith, 1998). Primary, literatures have suggested that environments influence consumer behavior (Bitner, 1992; Turley and Milliman, 2000).

Online environments are different from offline environments in term of virtual vs. real, small vs. large and sensory representation (Coyle and Thorson, 2001). Huang (2003) explained that online hopping as the consumer consumption activity that work with a specific set of motivations that often go beyond the pure gaining of products, and may include information gaining, services, fantasy or fun. Literatures suggested that when people use their computers to visit retail web sites, shoppers are deemed as consumers as well as other computer users (Koufaris, 2002; Steuer, 1992).

Furthermore, literatures have captured the real meaning of the online interface that may be useful as starting points; the focus of consumer research needs to remain on consumer perceptions of shopping environments, as opposed to user perceptions or technical properties of a generic interface (Draper et al., 1998; Huang, 2004). Voluminous studies of online shopping have considered the level of the individual attribute that influences behavior, however, few attempts have considered the differential impact of holistic attributes of the environment on consumer response (Dailey, 2004; Fortin and Dholakia, 2005; Koufaris, 2002).

According to (Kim et al., 2006) many studies have explained and determined the effectiveness of the websites and thus efforts to enhance the quality of websites should be made. Furthermore, Kim et al., (2006) suggested that the quality of websites depends on three principles; presentation quality, content and function, adequacy and navigability. Kim et al., (2006) explained that the performance principle consists of reliability of the website and the response time. Finally, they explained that development elements include flexibility, page coupling code readability, and modifiability.

Moreover, Literatures suggested that the design of website in an online retail shopping is a motive and has a major impact on online purchase (Yang et al., 2003). Studies assist that when customers are unable to navigate around the site to find the accessories or clothes they require or are unable to carry out transactions securely on the retail web page. They are improbable to buy from the site or consider repeating purchase (Oppenheim and Ward, 2006). It is very important that the website design of an online retail shopping is aimed at the retailer target market and that people are provided with an appropriate amount of information about the product they want to purchase (Oppenheim and Ward, 2006).

Studies suggested that shoppers usually evaluate their internet shopping experiences in terms of expectations and perceptions towards the way that the retailers present product, product information, the method of payment, delivery terms, extra service offered, navigation and visual appeal, privacy issue, security, risk concerned personalization, presentation, entertainment and enjoyment (Burke, 2002; Parasuraman and Zinkhan, 2002; Mathwick et al., 2002).

Moreover, the environment of online retail shopping was founded to be of an increasing importance for the overall relationship between e-retailer and their consumers. The impact of these online retail-shopping environments on consumer attitude and behavior is critical to understand for both information technology and marketing planning. Literatures suggested that the web sites provide various benefits for both marketer and consumer (Hoffman et al., 1996). On the other hand, a website can enlarge the image of online retail shopping and create loyalty to its leadership (Sullivan, 1996). In his study, Kim (2003) uttered that a website can improve other communication channels with different organization.

In explaining the major objective of a website, Simeon (1999) suggested that the objective of website is to attract a number of interested parties to visit the company’s online presence. Online retail clothes for example use web page as a mean to introduce themselves, services and products to a wide range people all over the world, which create global corporate and product awareness in the market (Kim et al., 2003).

In his study, Thelwall (2000) explained that because of the great role that website play to enhance business image and activities, its paramount important that webmasters should be aware of Internet technologies and be able to better design a good quality website and in the meantime they should try to provide an effective quality (Thelwall, 2000). Finally, literatures explained previous online shopping experiences resulted in satisfactory outcomes have positively led consumers to keep on shopping on the Internet in the future (Shim et al., 2001).

2.4.4 ONLINE HELP

The availability of online help and its effect on shopper motives toward online shopping has not been fully explain by previous studies and literatures. Thus, this study further suggests that the presence of online help and the presence of 24 hour help desk of shopper is a motive of people to do online shopping for various products.

2.5 SHOPPING CONTEXT

Previous studies recognized that Shopping motivation is a situational phenomenon, which vary between different product and services (Darden and Dorsch, 1990, [Kaltcheva and Weitz, 2006). nevertheless, various studies and literatures suggested common effects of shopping motives among different shopping contexts on. For that reason, this study expected that shopping context (e.g. gift seeker) affects the relationships among shopping motives. In his study, Guiry et al. (2006) has suggested that when shopper display a superior general desire for shopping, this inclination becomes part of their relatively permanent personal identity. While Sheth (1983, p. 15), on the other hand, suggested that shopping motives have to be viwed within the situational or shopping context “at which to shop for a specific product or service class”.

This difference seems possible and plausible since Cohen and Warlop (2001) has expressed that “motives on abstract levels employ a more central position within consumers’ cognitive structures, whereas relationships among more specific motives tend to be more influenced by given contextual factors”. Similarly, Bagozzi et al., (2003) has stressed on the importance of shopping context. Accordingly, the expects that contextual influences will be stronger on relationships among motives on lower hierarchies than on relationships connecting movies on more abstract levels. Thus, we hypothesize that:

H7: The shopping context will have a stronger moderating influence upon the relationship between activity-specific and demand-specific shopping motivation than on the relationship between purpose-specific and activity-specific motivation.

2.6 RESEARCH FRAMEWORK

Related to the literatures that have been developed in this chapter, the study propose the following research framework that presented in figure 2.2

FIGURE 2.1: RESEARCH FRAMEWORK

Purpose Specific:

-Utilitarian

-Hedonic

Activity Specific:

-Efficiency

-Inspiration

-Discount Hunting

-Gratification

-Gift shopping

Demand Specific:

-Variety

-Shopping

-Convenience

- Web Atmosphere or Visualization

-Online Help

Shopping Context:

2.7 CONCLUSION

While a large number of consumers all over the world with frequently shop on the Internet, studies and research seek effortless to understand what drives consumers to shop online. This chapter presents various studies literatures to enhance our understanding regarding online shopping motives. The chapter explains various concepts and focus on the online motives factors. The literatures presented in this chapter develop the framework of Tillmann and Thomas (2010), which has considered only offline shopping motives. The following chapter discuses and presents the research model and hypotheses attached to the research model.

CHAPTER 3

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

This chapter presents the methodology of the current study and it consists of seven sections. The first section discusses the purpose of the study. The second section presents the research design. The third section presents the question and hypothesis of the study and the constructs model. The fourth section presents questionnaire developments. The firth section presents data collation. The sixth section presents the pilot study, and the final section presents data analysis and tools.

3.1 THE PURPOSE OF THE STUDY

In his explanation to research purpose, Jackson’s (1994) explained that a researcher should identify the purpose of his / her study, and identify research questions or hypothesis that are related to the research objectives. The current study implements this strategy and thus an explanation of our purpose is necessary. The purpose(s) of any study could be categorized as three types; exploratory research, descriptive research and explanatory (or casual) research (Yin, 2003). This is precisely the strategy that the current research shall adopt.

3.1.1 EXPLORATORY RESEARCH

In an exploratory research, a researcher attempts to study a new phenomenon. As explained by (Saunders et al., 2000), exploratory studies are precious means of findings "what is happening; to seek new insights; to ask questions and to asses a phenomenon in a new light”. Furthermore, exploratory studies are more precisely in, illustrative concepts, providing explanations, gaining insight, reducing impractical ideas and forming hypothesis (yin, 1994). Exploratory research are always used when surveying certain people about their experiences and reflections. As the current study attempts to investigate Kuwaiti perspectives towards the online shopping, expletory research will be conducted to identify the main factors that affect online retail shopping and the data will be analyzed to verify the hypotheses of the study.

3.1.2 DESCRIPTIVE RESEARCH

Descriptive research is used when the phenomenon is understandable by people and thus the researcher attempts to enhance their understanding by describing this phenomenon, its properties and inner relationships (Huczynski and Buchana 1991). In his explanation to descriptive research, Robson (1993) said, “descriptive research is to portray an accurate profile of persons, events or situations”. Descriptive research assists a researcher to find out the answers of who, what, when, where, how and to conclude the difference, in need, features and users characteristics (Zikmund, 2000).

Furthermore, descriptive research seeks to describe users of a product or service, how they use this product or service, and predict future demand to this product or service. Contrary to exploratory studies, descriptive studies identify questions, users surveyed and the technique of analysis before beginning of data collection. Proceeding from our explanation and keeping in mind that the primary research question is partly descriptive in nature; thus our research shall adopt a descriptive purpose in some aspects.

3.1.3 EXPLANATORY OR CAUSAL RESEARCH

A study is deemed as explanatory (or causal) when the focus is on cause-effect relationships, explaining how one variable affects other variables (Yin, 1994). Explanatory research attempts to find the cause and effect relationships between various variables through laboratory and field experiments. Punch (2000) confirmed that explanatory (or causal) exposes the nature of the problem under investigation and investigates the basis for the proposed solution. The current study attempts to explain the relationship between various factors. Due to the nature of the current study and its hypothesis, the primary research purpose of the current study is thus explanatory research. Explanatory (or causal) explains complex of interrelated variables identified that posted in the hypothesis and research question of a study.

3.2 RESEARCH DESIGN

Determining a research design is considered a critical important decision of a researcher (Creswell, 2003). There are two main research designs to select from when conducting a study in social science field, quantitative or qualitative design (Hair et al., 2003). These two approaches are different in using. Choice of a research design fundamentally depends on the research problem, and the data needed to answer this problem.

The qualitative design underpins the importance of looking at variables in the natural context where they can be found. To qualitative approach, the interaction between variables is essential. Qualitative design collects data through open-ended questions that provide direct quotations. The interview is the main method of the investigation. The current study does not follow this research design, because qualitative data takes more time to be collected, and the results are less able to generalize. The study thus implements the second approach, which is quantitative design.

The quantitative design primary determines the relationship between various variables in a population. A qualitative design is more flexible and largely depends on the researcher’s description, emotions and reactions (yin, 1994). As our study aims to identify the online shopping motives of Kuwaitis by developing several hypothesis, the study thus adopts quantitative research design to better test hypothesis. Quantitative research uses survey as the main instrument to collect data. Quantitative approach is deemed as the most effective way to address research hypothesis. Qualitative approach is used when the study is considered of a great closeness to the respondents, their usage and perspectives (yin, 1994). Studies suggested that this approach is powerful when conducting a wide investigation that compromises many variables (Holme and Solvang, 1995). Quantitative researches are objectivity, generalizing ability and reliability (Creswell, 2003).

3.3 RESEARCH QUESTION AND HYPOTHESES

To achieve the purpose of the current study, the study aims to answer three questions:

What are the motives that affect Kuwaitis toward online shopping?

To what extent qualifications and educational variable affect Kuwaitis toward online shopping?

To what extent Age variable affect Kuwaitis toward online shopping?

Moreover, the current study carries out seven research hypotheses that are developed from previous literatures and studies Figure 3.1 presents the proposed model and factors. Based on Tillmann and Thomas (2010) recommendation, this study aims to investigate and consider online shopping motives. As results some items has been included and others has been replaced. Dissimilar to. The study uses this comprehensive framework to explain Kuwaitis motives and attitude toward online shopping.

Figure 3.1: Research Model

Purpose Specific:

-Utilitarian

-Hedonic

Activity Specific:

-Efficiency

-Inspiration

-Discount Hunting

-Gratification

-Gift shopping

Demand Specific:

-Variety

-Shopping

-Convenience

- Web Atmosphere or Visualization

-Online Help

Shopping Context:

As shown in figure 3.1, these hypotheses are:

H1. Task-fulfillment has a positive effect on (a)-efficiency, (b)-inspiration, (c)-discount hunting, and (d)-gratification.

H2. Recreation has a positive effect on (a)-efficiency, (b)-inspiration, (c)-discount hunting, and (d)-gratification.

H3: efficiency shopping has a positive effect on (a)-Variety, (b)-Shopping Convenience, (c)-Web Atmosphere or Visualization, and (d)-Online Help.

H4: Inspiration has a positive effect on (a)-Variety and (b)-Web Atmosphere or Visualization,

H5: Discount Hunting has a positive effect on (a)-Variety, (b)-Shopping Convenience, (c)-Web Atmosphere And Visualization, and (d)-Online Help.

H6: Gratification has a positive effect on (a)-Variety, (b)-Shopping Convenience, (c)-Web Atmosphere And Visualization, and (d)-Online Help.

H7: Gift shopping has a positive effect on preferences for retailers’ (a) Variety, (b) Shopping Convenience and (c) Web Atmosphere.

H7: The shopping context will have a stronger moderating influence upon the relationship between activity-specific and demand-specific shopping motivation than on the relationship between purpose-specific and activity-specific motivation.

3.4 QUESTIONNAIRE DEVELOPMENT

The current study uses questionnaire as the main instrument to collect data. The study first reviews previous literatures and studies which investigate various factors that affect online shopping. This was done primary to ensure the high reliability of our construct model. Table 3.1 presents the authors whose measures are used the variables considered in this study and developed in the questions.

Table 3.1: Research Variables and Measurements

Variable


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