Investigates the effect of country
CONSUMER RESPONSE TOWARDS COUNTRY OF ORIGIN ON THE BASIS OF PRODUCT CATEGORY INVOLVEMENT
This study investigates the effect of country of origin information in evaluation of foreign made products on the basis of levels of involvement with the product category. Country of origin is also compared with other extrinsic cue i.e. Brand name and product intrinsic attributes/features. Research was conducted by taking Nokia Mobile phone as high involvement product and Sunsilk shampoo as low involvement product. Levels of involvement were taken as dependent variable and country of origin, brand name and product attributes/features were taken as independent variables. Data was collected from total 100 respondents, 50 respondents for each level of product category involvement. Data was analyzed on SPSS by using the technique Multinomial Logistic Regression. Result indicates that consumers with the high involvement with product category use the country of origin information as product evaluation factor while consumers with the low involvement with product category use the product attributes information for evaluating a foreign made product.
In this era of globalization consumers have immense choices for purchasing a single product of different origin at different prices and attributes and of different qualities. They make their decisions after collecting related information and doing entire evaluation of that product. Among different extrinsic cues, country of origin has been known as the most important cues to evaluate a foreign product (Bandyopadhayay and Banergee, 2003). A "made in..." label or a country of origin have significant role in the product evaluation (Aboulnasr, 2007). For the purpose of international marketing, multinational companies must have understanding of how consumers evaluate a foreign product or a country of origin (Bandyopadhayay and Banergee, 2003) because consumers related to different regions have different ways to evaluate any product so the marketing strategies for the consumers of different region would be different for the same product.
A country of origin label is an attempt to make consumers think about the product attributes and could lead their thinking towards making purchasing decision after evaluating other extrinsic cues and creating perception about intrinsic cues on the basis of country of origin image. According to study of Cordell (1992), consumers of less developed countries perceive the products of more developed countries as of higher quality. Some products are just perceived of good quality just because of image of that country of origin of that product in the consumers' mind.
However in some researches it is indicated that country of origin could not be the only reason to perceive a product of good quality or attributes. Consumers cannot take the purchasing decision just by considering the country of origin, it occurs when they do not have detailed information about product. Consumer decision making also on the basis of product category also depends on the product category based on the level of involvement i.e. the high involvement product category and the low involvement product category. (Aboulnasr, 2007)
In this study, two products i.e. Nokia mobile phone, taken as high involvement product and Sun silk Shampoo, taken as low involvement product are compared on the basis of country of origin, product attributes/ features and brand. The response of consumers towards the country of origin is studied in each product category considering the other factors are same which are prices, quality attributes/features and brand. Consumers were also given an option of "no preference" if they do not want to prefer any country of origin but they are willing to purchase the product after considering the attributes or just by brand name. In short, the both category products are compared on the basis of country of origin product features/attributes and brand.
The study of the processes of evaluating, selecting, buying and using the products or services by an individual or group is termed as consumer behavior. For the process of evaluation of a product and making decision about its purchasing, consumers require some information cues. According to Ahmed and Alain (1995) a cue is the information stimuli, provided or available to consumers before acquisition and consumption. These information cues can be differentiated into intrinsic and extrinsic (Elliott and Cameron, 1994) Intrinsic cues are direct physically related to the product and its composition such as taste, design and performance. While extrinsic cues are not directly related to the core product but used for quality evaluation prior to purchase such as price, warranty, brand and country of origin. (Okechuku, 1994) since it is not possible to evaluate the intrinsic cues before actually consumption of that product, consumers make their decision on the basis of extrinsic information, which can be easily interpreted. In other words it can be said that consumers rely on extrinsic information where they are unaware of intrinsic ones. Cattin et al. 1982)
Among the extrinsic cues, country of origin has been known as a strong information cue for the consumers of foreign products (Bandyopadhayay and Banergee, 2003). it is the cue, which leads a consumer to make inferences about the product's intrinsic attributes (Johansson et al , 1985). Country of origin can also be said as an intangible product attribute, which is not directly associated with the core product but could be a risk eliminant, possessing the qualitative information for the consumers of foreign product but do not have significant knowledge about intrinsic attributes of the product. For these type of consumers, country of origin could be a judgment base information (Cordell, 1992). Agarwal and Sikri (1996) suggested in their study that country of image represented as brand name where consumers do not have enough knowledge about intrinsic product attributes and they derive their perception from the other brand belong to that particular country of origin. The country of origin, as an extrinsic cue could have negative impact on the consumers' mind if their perception is negative about that country.
Country of Origin
Country of origin is the country of manufacturing, where the product is made or the home country of that product or brand (Samiee 1994).It has a significant role in international marketing that makes consumers to think about the intrinsic factors of product and lead them towards purchasing decision. The aspect of country of origin effect should always keep under consideration by multinational companies while formulating new marketing and promotional strategies in different countries. (Aboulnaser, 2003)
The "made in..." label attached with the products in global market has a major role in product evaluation and made a significant perception in consumers' mind about the product attributes(Liu and Johnson 2005) .Johansson (1989) suggested that country of origin works as strong representative of intrinsic product attributes such as performance and reliability.
Earlier researches were conducted to know that either country of origin effect exists or not? In 1965, Robert Schooler was the first who concluded that country of origin effect the consumer behavior towards a foreign product. He started the methodological research on the effect of country of origin and now it has been known as most studied issue in the international marketing to understand the consumer behavior and processes for evaluating and assessing a foreign made product. After Schooler, many research studies were conducted on the same issue and all of them concluded that country of origin effect exists.(Bilkey et al, 1993). In 1997 Cheron et al performed a Meta analysis and he arrived at the conclusion that country of origin has significant effect on consumer behavior. It has been demonstrated by many research studies that country of origin influence consumers up to enough extent in evaluating product and making purchasing decisions. Han (1989) in his study suggested that country of origin works as surrogate for other product attribute, by getting the country of origin information, consumers require much less amount of other information for making purchasing decision. Previous research has suggested that consumers perceive a country of origin information as a quality indicator in either case i.e. in absence or presence of other attributes information (Nebenzahl, Jaffe, and Lampert 1997) .Nagashima (1970) demonstrated that consumers' perceived image of a country works as the stereotype or the reputation associated with that country. Baker et al. (1993) stated that due to its significant importance country of origin should be considered as the fifth element of marketing mix. It influences consumers' perception for each product, though for some products it's a very strong cue and for some it is weak. (Yun, Lee, and Sego 2002) stated that cues that indicate country of origin such as made in label, foreign country language and advertising slogans are very practical ways promote and discriminate their products for the ease of selecting by consumers. Bilkey and Nes (1982) found that both individual consumers and industrial buyers make the perception of any country on the basis of the offerings and services of the products and later they use it as stereotype for evaluation every foreign product.(Aboulnaser, 2003)
Erickson et al (1992) mentioned in his study that a brand or a product could get more attention and required less information for evaluation if there is any other successful brand exist in the global market belong to the same country of origin.
Hong and Wyer (1989) demonstrated that country of origin cue influence product evaluation either directly or indirectly. Firstly it stimulates the perception and facts about that country after seeing the country of origin label. Secondly it gives signals to consumers for assuming the product quality prior to evaluate other attributes of products. Thirdly they said that country of origin itself works as product feature and is used in product evaluation same as other product attributes. Finally, country of origin influences the amount of attention and information given to other product attributes.
Many researchers demonstrated that impact of country of origin image varies according to the type of products. If any consumer perceive a product of good quality y from a particular country of origin, it is not necessary that another product or brand would be perceived of good quality by same country of origin (Niffenegger 1980).He suggested that certain countries possess the good reputation for certain type of products. Like Japan is well known for automobiles and electronic products, United States for highly innovative technologies, jeans, and cigarettes, France for perfumes, wines and luxury goods. He added that made in labels are displayed more prominently at the products, which are made up of highly preferred country.
How ever impact of country of origin in product evaluation has been recognized significantly but many researchers demonstrated that its effects vary in different product types such as low and high involvement products, different situation such as in presence of multiple cues and in different regions i.e. less developed and more developed countries. Nagashima (1970) defined in his study that country image in consumers mind is formed by its products, political background, economical condition and historic tradition.
Less Developed Versus More Developed Countries Schooler (1965) argued in his study that product evaluation is affected by country economic development. A product made in more developed country has been perceived of good quality as compare to a product made in less developed country. There is a positive correlation between the product attributes evaluation and the economic level of the country of origin of product. (Hampton 1977.The country of origin cue has positive effect for more developed countries and negative effect for less developed countries. (Hen et al,1988).
Economic level of the country of origin of a product being evaluated is considered as a important variable in determining the image of country. The countries, which are highly developed like USA and Japan are preferred more by consumers as compared to those countries, which are less developed like China and South Korea. Consumers give more value to those products which are made in more developed countries and less value to those which are made in less developed countries. Jo (2005) demonstrated that countries such as Japan and Germany are famous for manufacturing high quality products, have good image in consumers mind while developing countries suffer from negative country of origin effect, so that marketing strategies for a single product should be different for different regions. Any strategy which is successful for more developed country is not necessarily be the successful in less developed country. Bandyopadhayay and Banergee (2003) explained that consumers recognize the products of less developed countries because they have perception that in less developed countries workers are less educated and inadequately trained and they do not acquire latest technologies so they are incapable of manufacturing products of good quality while, for more developed countries they have perception that their workforce is well trained and educated and they possess latest technologies so they can provide the better quality products.
Consumers from different countries have different attitudes towards a product of a given country of origin. In 1974, Krishna Kumar stated that when the consumers from India and Taiwan were asked to rate the British products, Indian consumer rated the British product higher than consumers of Taiwan. Amine et al. (2005) found that consumers in United States evaluate a product made in Korea of low or averaged quality being of lower priced as compare to made in US products but consumers of South Asia evaluate the same Korean product as good quality products. Bilkey and Nes (1982) mentioned that consumers of different regions perceive the made in US products as being of higher quality than the products of made in less developed countries, and the same specific brands of less developed countries some times evaluated of good quality when the country of origin information was not provided to them
Single Versus Multiple Cues
Although many researchers have suggested that country of origin effect has influence on the consumers' evaluation of product and purchasing decision up to greater extent but many studies have argued that effect of country of origin becomes weaker when other product attributes or other cues are available to consumers. Jo (2005) reported that country of origin has great importance in the international marketing but its importance varies in different criteria. Sometimes it acts as a very strong cue for the product evaluation and sometimes its effect becomes weaker or moderate. However its not necessary that country of origin effect is stronger where only it presented as single dominant quality cue but also in the studies where country of origin information was provided with other quality indicating cues such as brand, price, store name, product features and product warranty. Bandyopadhayay and Banergee (2003) also suggested in their study that effect of country of origin cue becomes weaker where other cues also presented to consumers such as warranty, price, retail distribution and satisfaction assurance. Therefore it is recommended to less developed countries to offer attractive warranty strategy in order to make consumers attentive towards their products.
Ahmed et al (2004) conducted a research study in which he compare foreign made and domestic food products and he tested the effect of country of origin in presence of other two cues i.e. brand and price. He concluded that country of origin does effect the consumer evaluation but in the case of low involvement products, while its effect becomes low when other information cues are available to consumers.
The other study conducted by Okechuku (1994)on consumers of United States, Canada, Germany and The Netherlands, he tested the products of both high and low involvement product and concluded that country of origin has significant importance in preferring product besides the presence of other cues.
Collectivist Versus Individualistic Culture
Maheshwaran (1994) demonstrated in his cross-cultural research that consumers from different cultures show different attitude towards the country of origin effect. He conducted his research between Japan as collectivist culture and US as individualistic culture on the comparison of domestic and foreign made products. He concluded that consumers from the individualistic culture i.e. USA evaluate their home country product more favorably and they prefer the foreign made product only when the particular product quality is greater than home country made product. While consumers from collectivist culture i.e. Japan, prefer their home country products regardless the fact of high quality of foreign made products.
In against of Maheshwaran's study, Douglas and Craig (1992) argued that cultural difference has negligible influence on product evaluation behavior of consumers because they use same signals for evaluation of products such as brand name, price, retailer reputation and physical appearance of products. He added that consumers from different cultures evaluate the products in the same way.
High and Low Product Involvement
The level of involvement has a significant role in the study of consumer behavior towards the foreign made products. The level of involvement affects the consumers' decision-making process up to certain extent (Aboulnaser, 2003) "Involvement is defined as an internal state of excitement, interest and force induced by a product
" (Dholakia 2000). Petty et al. (1983) defined involvement as a motivational force that stimulates the cognitive effort to evaluate the intrinsic attributes of the products. According to Traylor (1981) involvement is the understanding or valuing that consumers have for a specific product. Engel et al. (1995) defined involvement as personal gratitude and interest in the product. The higher level of interest indicates high involvement and lower level of interest indicates lower involvement.
The high level of involvement or enduring involvement has been related to the complex product evaluation process including greater motivation of exploring the intrinsic attributes of the product and greater use of cognitive activities to arrive at purchase decision. (Petty et al., 1983 and Celsi & Olson, 1988). Sherif and Cantril (1947) demonstrated that enduring involvement is associated with consumers' core values and past experience. In the purchase decision of the higher involvement products, consumers reflect their ego. The lower level of involvement or situational involvement refers to the simplicity of decision-making in process of product evaluation. It is just to make consumer bring out from a situation by following any product related stimulus such as advertising or psychological influence. Richins and Bloch (1986) described that major difference in enduring and situational involvement is persistency. The enduring involvement indicates the long term choice and association with the particular product because these products are linked with the nature and ego of the consumers while situational involvement changes frequently because it is provoked by an external stimuli such as advertising and with the change of these stimuli the choice of consumer changes.
Consumers with different involvement level also differentiate in their product evaluating processes. Their level of involvement affects their attention towards the extrinsic and intrinsic cues. Gardner et al. (1985) stated that involvement level is associated with the process of elaboration. The higher level of involvement leads the consumer to elaborate the evaluation process more extensively.
According to Petty and Cacioppo (1981) consumers with the high involvement level evaluate the each and every attributes of the product in order to make the judgment and take the purchasing decision. They do not rely only on the extrinsic cues such as country of origin in fact they gather information from different sources to understand the intrinsic attributes. on the other hand consumers with low involvement mostly depend on country of origin information and use it as quality indicator . For these types of consumers information regarding the intrinsic attributes has less importance.
Country of Origin versus Brand on the Basis of Involvement
Consumers in the global market preferably use brand name and country of origin information for evaluating the product quality in case where another product related information is not available or the product is newly launched in the market. (Realdon et al 2005). According to Cordell (1992) brand name has greater importance that country of origin information because it makes the information more precise regarding the product. In the research of Bandyopadhayay and Banergee (2003), it is concluded that consumers were more attractive towards the brand name and its image and they are less bothered to know the country of origin or made in country of that product. Tse and Gorn(1993) demonstrated in their study that brands get the higher importance and recognition that country of origin, the reason behind it is the marketing efforts. Manufacturers invest million of dollars on the sales and promotional activities of their products by the name of brand rather than the made in country and ultimately their successful brand names become the intangible assets for their organization.
Han and Terpstra 1989 demonstrated that brand name is the stronger cue than country of origin in the case where manufacturer is well known or the brand name is already known and successful in the market. Co-branding is also the one of the reason. But where product and manufacturers are new or unknown, country of origin used as a stronger cue to indicate the product quality. Erickson et al. (1992) mentioned in his study that some brand enjoy the success of their country of origin name, if there are already some brands existing in global market from a particular country, the new upcoming brand of the same country will ultimately get the benefit of shared success. For example Japanese brand are perceived as reliable, here no brand name is shown but due to the present Japanese successful brands the upcoming brands will get the higher preference.
Likewise country of origin, the importance of brand name information also varies according to the level of involvement. Brand commitment and liking are the result of the involvement with the particular category of the product. if a consumer is really involve in the product category than he will be much more curious about the brand name i.e., consumers with the high involvement levels are likely to evaluate product by its brand name or brand image (Beatty et al. 1988, p. 152; Crosby and Taylor 1983) but Cushing and Douglas- Tate in 1985 stated that consumers with high involvement do not rely always on the brand names instead they always sought to get the more better form of their product irrespective of the brand name.
According to Macdonald and Sharp (in 2003), consumers often do not spend so much time on decision making for low involvement products, they just make their decisions on the basis of brand names to which they are familiar through advertising and promotional activities. According to them if an organization is spending more on its advertising its mean they are getting high profit because of increased sales.
To study the purchasing behavior of the consumers of high and low involvement products on the basis of
- Country of origin
- Product attributes/features
- Country of origin is more important for consumers in high involvement product category as compared to brand name.
- Brand name is more important for consumers in low involvement product category as compared to product attributes/features
Research methodologies mainly divided into two categories i.e. Quantitative and Qualitative which are differentiated on the basis of information collected from the respondents. Qualitative researches tend to present analysis on the basis of words while quantitative researches tend to present the analysis on the basis of figures.(Cooper et al, 2003)
In qualitative research, researchers create the hypothesis after getting some primary data instead of creating it at the very beginning. The chances of personal biasness are more in qualitative data because researcher tends to inclined towards the knowledge or information related to its desired perspective. There are mainly two types of qualitative research:
- Historical research
- Exploratory research
(Cooper et al, 2003)
In quantitative research, researchers represent their result of data in terms of figures by using any statistical tool. Researchers have to explain the objectivity and generalizations at the beginning of the research. . Quantitative research is mainly divided into four types.
- Descriptive research
- Co relational research
- Causal research
- Experimental research
(Cooper et al, 2003)
The methodology used in this research is Descriptive, because in this research the behavior of the consumers is studied on the basis of product involvement level. Descriptive research tends to explain the phenomena or behavior .it gives the basic framework or direction for many researches, the next step can also lead to qualitative research. It has nothing to do with the causes or the reason behind the phenomenon. .(Cooper et al, 2003)
Accordin to Saunders et.al. (2000), there are two types of data i.e. Primary data and Secondary data. The data which has been already gathered and interpreted by the previous researchers in their study known as secondary data. It is available in form of journals, books, articles and internet. The primary data is collected by researcher own self through questionnaire, interviews, focus group or observations. there is a lot of secondary data is available regarding country of origin and other extrinsic cues but majority of those researches were conducted in the western countries which are fully or quite developed but very little amount of knowledge is available regarding usage of these extrinsic cues by the consumers of developing countries. Therefore the analysis is more based on primary data, which was collected though the survey.
After finalizing the data collection approach i.e. survey, researcher has multiple choices for conducting the survey i.e.
- Personal interview
- Telephonic interview
- Self administered questionnaire
Personal interview and telephonic interviews are mostly used in the researchers where researcher wants to find out the problem deeply i.e. in causal research. E-mail is most convenient and easy way of data collection, but mostly respondents don't pay so much attention to the questions and they just click on the answers just to fill the questionnaire and mostly respondents don't get bother even to open email, this may cause the research less appropriate as compare to self administered questionnaires which is more reliable than e-mail. The self administered questionnaire gives respondents more time to think about questions and they give more importance to them (Malhotra, 2003)
In this research, Self administered questionnaire was used as data collecting instrument. The questionnaires for high and low involvement products were different.
For high involvement product
For the high involvement product, data was collected from the Nokia mobile outlet, mobile zone outlet and united mobile outlet, from the users of Nokia mobile and went there to purchase the Nokia mobile phone.
For low involvement product
For the low involvement product, data was collected from users of sunsilk shampoo at different super stores and shopping malls.
Two questionnaires were constructed i.e. for high and low involvement product categories, keeping the level of involvement as dependent variable and extrinsic cues (country of origin, brand name and product attributes) as independent variable. Both the questionnaire contained same questions but are differentiated according to the product category and their countries of origin. The questionnaire contained all the close ended questions in order to obtain precise results.
Pre-testing means to test the questionnaire on a small sample of respondents in order to identify and eliminate prospective problem. ( Malhotra 2003). According to Burns and Bush (1998) a pre-test of 5-10 respondents is usually adequate to identify problems with a questionnaire. In this study, pre testing was conducted on 10 respondents of each product category involvement in order to identify if there is any problem in questionnaire faced by respondents while filling the questionnaire. Burns and Bush (1998) suggested that a pre-test of 5-10 representative respondents is usually sufficient to identify problems with a questionnaire.
Sampling is the part of research especially the quantitative researches. Sampling is the selection of individuals in order to obtain some information or knowledge from them. The method of sampling used in this study was Convenience sampling, the non-probability method of sampling. In this method researcher select the sample among the population which is easily reached. The advantages of convenience sampling are, its easy, less cost and less time consuming.
This research was conducted on 100 respondents, 50 respondents for each product involvement category.
Ø Target population for high involvement product (Nokia Mobile Phone):
- Age group: 18 - 45
- Gender: Both
- Social Class: Middle class and above
- Educational background: any
Ø Target population for low involvement product (sun silk shampoo):
- Age group: 18 - 45
- Gender: Both
- Social Class: Middle class and above
- Educational background: any
The statistical technique used in this research is Multinomial Logistic Regression; because the dependent variable in the research is categorical (Nominal), and independent variables are also categorical.
FREQUENCIES TABLE COMPARING LOW AND HIGH INVOLVEMENT DATA
RESULT OF ANALYSIS
After applying the multinomial logistic regression technique in the software; SPSS (Statistical Program for Social Sciences), the following out put was obtained.
Model Fitting Information
This table tells about the over all fitting of data in the technique applied. If the significance vale is in between 0.000- 0.050, the test model is fit to data and if its greater than 0.05, it indicates model does not fit in data.
Here significance value is 0.000, indicates that model and data are significantly fit with each other.
Goodness of Fit Test
This test also tells about that how well the observations are fit with the assumptions of test. In goodness of fit test, the significance value less than 0.05 indicate that model is not adequately fit with the data and the value greater than 0.1 indicate that data is consistent with the model assumptions.
In the below table, both significance values are showing that data is according to the assumptions of test.
Logistic regression do not have the R-squared test that is found in linear regression, but in place of that it possess Pseudo R-square test which shows the proportion of variance of the response variable defined by the predictor variable.
Cox and Snell's R2 is an effort to replicate the explanation of multiple R-Square in the likelihood model. Its maximum significant value is 1 but usually it's less than 1.
Nagelkerke's R2 is an adaptation of the Cox and Snell test to declare its range from 0 to 1. It's normally higher than Cox and Snell measure.
McFadden's R2 is also an indicator of likelihood of the test. Its value varies from 0 to 1.
Likelihood Ratio Tests
Likelihood ratio test reflects the possibility that the observed values of the dependent may be predicted from the each observed value of independent.
The value in the table which is considered for examine the data is Sig. value. These are the significance values of the variables which are entered in the analysis. The variables possessing the significance value greater than 0.05 will be excluded one by one in such a manner that the highest value will be excluded first. If the highest values are same, then any one of them can be eliminated first. Those variables which have the significance value is less than or equal to 0.05 will remain in the test to analyze the effect of level of involvement on the product evaluation. (Table 5)
After selecting the independent variables having significant relationship with the dependent variable in the likelihood ratio test in table 2, parameter estimates table is used to identify the significance of its role by differentiating the each category of the variables with the reference category. This significance can be easily estimated by the odd values given in the column B in table6. The ratio of the possibility of selecting one outcome category over the possibility of selecting the reference category is known se relative risk or ODDS.
As shown by the odd values (column B in table 6) showing that probability of choosing country of origin is high for product evaluation in consumers of high involvement product category (involvement=0) as compare to low involvement (involvement=1) product, as odd value of high involvement product is very high i.e. 113.75, having the reference category brand. In other words, consumers of high involvement product category are likely to prefer the country of origin for product evaluation. This can be easily seen by error bar graph given below showing the probability comparison of high and low involvement consumer response towards response category 2 i.e. Country of origin.
Response category 2: Country of Origin
- Country of origin is more important for consumers in high involvement product category as compared to brand name.
- Brand name is more important for consumers in low involvement product category as compared to product attributes/features.
The odd values are showing that probability of selecting product attributes/ features over brand is high in product evaluation in consumers of low involvement product category (involvement =1) as compare to high involvement (involvement=0) product, as the odd value of high involvement is negative i.e.-14.24. This can be easily seen by error bar graph given below showing the probability comparison of high and low involvement consumer response towards response category 1 i.e. Product Attributes/Features.
The purpose of this study was to explore the behavior of the consumers of a developing country towards the product evaluation cues when purchasing a foreign made product by comparing different level of involvement. Many researches have been conducted regarding the country of origin or other extrinsic cues, but majority of these researches were conducted in western and developed countries. As it's already discussed in literature review that consumers of more developed countries and less developed countries evaluate the products differently. Consumers of less developed countries perceive the products of more developed countries as of superior quality and the consumers of more developed countries perceive the products of less developed countries as of low quality products. With the country of origin, brand name is also an important extrinsic cue on the basis of which consumers evaluate the products before purchasing. It has been concluded from many previous researches that evaluating the products on the basis of these extrinsic cues also varies according to the level of involvement with the product category and the consumers with high involvement do not only emphasize on extrinsic cues but they search for the products attributes and features.
This research was conducted by taking these there elements (country of origin, brand name and product attributes) as independent variables. These variables were tested on the basis of involvement level towards the product categories. The results suggested that consumers of high involvement product category are more likely to prefer the country of origin information for evaluating a product, while consumers of low involvement are more likely to evaluate the product on the basis of its attributes/features. Mostly respondents of both levels of involvement were agreed that brand name is a factor which is more associated with the prestige, but they also agreed that success of a brand is associated with its country of origin up to enough extent. As it's a descriptive research, so only the behavior of the respondents is explained according to the data collected from them and no reasons or causes are defined.
For a managerial perspective, it is very important to understand the consumer behavior particularly in the case of international marketing, which is now very common as it's an era of globalization. Many global companies search market in developing countries after the western markets have become saturated. For launching their products in new market they must have sufficient knowledge about the behavior of the consumers of that particular country or region for designing the marketing strategies for their products.
Limitation and Scope
This research has provided a scope to understand the behavior of the consumers of a developing country i.e. Pakistan towards evaluation of the foreign made products on the basis of level of involvement with particular product category. This study would be very helpful from the perspective of international marketing of multinational organizations. However this research has some limitations, first of all due to limited time data was collected from small number of respondents i.e. 50 respondents for each level of product involvement. May be with the large number of respondents result may vary. Secondly, the education level of the consumers was not considered in this study. This factor may have an important contribution in these types of studies especially in the less developed countries; some respondents were not clear with terms brand and country of origin. And finally, the level of involvement with a particular product category may vary from person to person. These limitations represent a potential scope for next researches regarding the consumer behavior.
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