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Descriptive Statistics For Each Dimension Marketing Essay

Authenticity in other words which means validity of a statement given or created. It is a determinant in terms of a quantitative research. It stamps out the whether if the intended measures were met or how pure the results are. (Patrick and Oliver, 2010)We can also decipher this statement as if the exact objective of the research was met by utilising the research tool. A series of questions aids the validity of a research. The ultimate objective is of the researcher is determined by gathering the information collected using the questionnaire as a tool. Reliability can be also referred to as meticulous study of the overall population under study and results recorded over a constant period of time. (Patrick, 2010) In the event, such results can be replicated using a similar method as a tool, then the research system is considered as reliable. Two factors are revealed with regards to validity and reliability respectively. First is, if instrument of measurement is accurate enough and is the intended measurements are recorded with the measures. The second is the measurement instrument has measured results which can be replicated with other modes of measure.

A lot of effort and scrutinising was done to identify the series of questions and the selection sample to meet the criteria of validity and reliability. Varieties of sources were searched and looked upon for literature and was reviewed to validate contents. Reliable sources were sought after to ensure legitimacy of data gathered. Previous professional researches had provided instruments to measure information. A sample questionnaire was sent out to supervisor for his opinion on the relation between the questions and research objective to check the authenticity of the survey.

3.10 Research Limitations

Definitely limitations are present in any research and so does this. The focus is quite narrow towards Branding and only has been discussed in terms of impact on customer loyalty. In dept general information of Branding has not been sought after due to the focus on the impact of customer’s loyalty. There are limited tools to be used to measure service quality. Some important points might have been disregarded due to the limited measurement dimensions. I have only given a choice of 5 point scale and this might be not adequate for a respondent to reflect their views. Only 70 respondents’ response was studied due to shortage of time and this does not represent the total population who visits fast food outlets which may lead to inaccurate data. Therefore careful attention must be given when responses are examined.

Chapter Four: Findings and Analysis

4.1 Introduction

A discussion of the findings and analysis of the questionnaire will be done in this chapter. This includes the answers of the research questions as well. A test will be performed on the hypotheses and will be presented. The SPSS method will be used to compile all data and information which will be presented and analyzed.

4.2 Profile of Respondents

The socio demographic features of all respondents are showcased in the table below as data. The table has comprised of the respondents who have participated in the survey. The 100 responses received were mandatory for all participants which is the first part of the questionnaire. The percentage and frequency are the characteristics. Each variable’s majority is presented at the column indicated as Mode.

Table 1.1: Respondents’ Data

Variables

Frequency

Percentage

Mode

Gender

Female

31

47%

Male

Male

39

53%

Total

70

100%

Variables

Frequency

Percentage

Mode

Age

>60

4

6%

18-30 Years

18-30

41

58%

31-60

25

38%

Total

70

100%

Variables

Frequency

Percentage

Mode

Nationality

Foreign National

7

10%

Singaporean

Permanent Resident

13

20%

Singaporean

50

70%

Total

70

100%

Variables

Frequency

Percentage

Mode

Status

Student

20

29%

Corporate

Self Employed

4

6%

Government

5

7%

Corporate

27

39%

Other

13

19%

Total

70

100%

Variables

Frequency

Percentage

Mode

Education

Post Graduate

5

7%

Diploma

Undergraduate

13

19%

Diploma

44

64%

Secondary

7

9%

Primary and Below

1

1%

Total

70

100%

Variables

Frequency

Percentage

Mode

Annual Income

(SGD)

>80k

6

8%

30K-50K

50K – 70K

11

16%

30K-50K

24

29%

>30K

18

26%

Others

11

20%

Total

70

100%

Variables

Frequency

Percentage

Mode

Fast Food Names

MacDonald’s

13

17%

MacDonald’s

KFC

11

15%

Long John Silver’s

10

13%

Burger King

9

14%

MOS Burger

2

4%

Texas Chicken

6

9%

Subway

8

11%

Popeye’s

7

10%

Wendy’s

4

7%

Total

70

100%

Source: Result Summary of SPSS used for the purpose study

4.2.1 Findings and Analysis

The table 1.1 consists of a total number of 70 respondents whereby out of the 70, 53% are made up of male population and the rest which is 47% is made up of the female gender. The numbers of the most participants of the survey fall into the age category of 18 to 30 years which is 58%. The next in line is 31 to 60 years which is 36%. The majority of participants are Singaporeans which is 70%. The survey was done with mostly people who are in the working class which makes up to 39% and followed by 29% which are the students. This statement gives us an idea of the largest social group patronising fast food outlets for their needs. The educational status of the respondents tells us that most of the patronisers of fast food outlets are diploma holders which makes up 64% and followed by undergrads which makes up 19% the rest of the classes such as post graduates, secondary and below makes up the rest of the population. The majority of the patronisers of fast food outlets do have a steady income of about 30k-50k (SGD) which makes up 29% of the respondents. Followed by this stats belongs to the next highest which will be a salary range of 30k and below which is 26%. The fast food brand patronised widely by the respondents points to MacDonald’s restaurant and followed by Kentucky Fried Chicken. The percentage is 17% and 15% respectively. Even though it shows the majority visiting MacDonald’s, most do have a second choice when they feel a need to savour different items or just not happy with the services provided by their preferred fast food outlet.

4.3 Perceptions of customers of Branding Strategies of Fast Food Outlet

A tabulation of how customers feel towards the efforts made by their respective fast food outlets with regards to branding strategies was also taken. This will tell us more how closely are customers observing the fast food outlets tactics and improvement in their food, service and quality. At the same time how customers are being enticed by these brands and how successful the Brand is.

Figure 1.7

Statement: You feel your Fast Food Brand takes health of customers’ as priority

4.3.1 Findings and Analysis

The pie chart in figure 1.7 shows the response from participants with regards to on how much effort have been imposed on preparing and serving the food as healthy as possible even though it is a fast food where most of the food is processed food. 60% feel that measures have been taken however 17% disagree with the statement. We can analyze that majority have faith in fast food brands of maintaining their hygiene level and as much as possible giving importance to health in order to attract and retain customers.

4.4 Customers response to Branding Strategies performed by Fast Food Brands.

Currently customers are aware of their favourite Brands’ branding strategies and effects. Some do acknowledge it and some support it by word of mouth. However there are others who just goes for the taste and not interested in being part of any Branding strategy or call themselves ‘victims’ of Branding. There are also people who totally disagree with Branding and feels that it inflates the product values. But this group of people are actually ‘loyal’ to a fast food Brand they want to be associated with.

Figure 1.8

Statement: You support the Branding initiatives undertaken by your Fast Food Brand

4.4.1Findings and Analysis

The pie chart above indicates that 44% of the participants support the Branding strategies undertaken by their fast food brands including by word of mouth. 42% were not interested but were patronising the fast food names for convenience sake or taste. Indirectly this percentage had aided Branding in a way as they revisit the same fast food name for ‘taste’ and visit the same name in the name of convenience. Branding has still prevailed.

4.5 Descriptive Statistics for each dimension

Descriptive statistics are the presentation of manageable form of quantitative descriptions. This aids to describe the single variable and the associations that links one variable to other (Babbie, 2010). Likewise descriptive statistics are utilised in this study to explain this in numbers. SPSS was used to tabulate the numbers such as minimum, maximum, mean, sum and standard deviation. The results are as follows:

Table 1.2: Descriptive statistics

Variables

N

Minimum

Maximum

Mean

Std.

Deviation

Services

70

1

5

3.35

0.95

1) All Services

provided with

70

1

5

3.64

1.014

respondents brand

2) Happy with Brand

70

1

5

3.61

.752

services

3) Another brand

70

1

5

3.16

1.080

services are used

4) Problem with

services of first choice brand

70

1

4

3.04

1.006

5) Brands are

responsible towards

70

1

5

3.51

.816

society and

environment

6) Change the brand

70

1

5

2.96

1.049

if it was convenient

7)You receive regular

70

1

5

3.55

.963

updates/newsletters

from your bank

Branding

70

1

5

3.19

0.85

1) Your brand

undertakes branding

70

2

5

3.74

.634

activities

2) You support your

70

2

5

3.38

.688

Brands’ activities

3) You would like to

be more involved in

70

2

5

3.41

.773

the brands’ activities

4) You have

aided in your

70

1

5

3.04

1.077

brands branding activities

5) You have

70

1

5

3.20

.994

supported in other Brands’ branding initiative

6) An update of all

Branding initiatives taken is let known to you

70

1

4

2.64

.985

7) You do not support any branding

70

1

4

2.35

.888

initiatives

8) You support only

Branding initiatives you think is useful

70

1

5

3.80

.815

Customer

70

1

5

3.82

0.73

Retention

1) Branding is an

important criteria

70

2

5

3.36

.785

2)

Prices are an

important criteria

70

1

5

4.23

.710

when choosing a

brand

3) Quality of service

is an important

70

1

5

4.17

.663

criteria

4) Image of brand is

70

1

5

3.52

.779

an important criteria

Customer Loyalty

70

1

5

3.79

0.65

1) You would

continue with your

brands as they

70

2

5

3.58

.651

Enhance Branding

activities

2)

You would

publicise your brand

70

1

5

3.86

.670

for their Branding

3) You are proud of

your brand for

70

3

5

3.96

.527

Performing Branding

Activities

4) You would

recommend your

70

2

5

3.77

.789

brands to others due

its Branding success

Source: Summarised from results of the SPSS test for the purpose of this study

4.5.1 Findings and Analysis

The dimensions which we were looking at have been given and derived in a numerical form to understand it better. The table 1.2 has described and given the mean and standard deviation for a better understanding. All the information were taken and input directly from the set of questions from the survey. The value of each tabulated the point form answers from the questionnaire. Thus Branding and the impact on its customer of a fast food brand can be meticulously expressed ina a statistical format. The total numbers of participants are 70. The average or mean is used to describe the central tendency of all samples.

As per the results shown in table 2.1, the average value on the dimensions is Mean = 3.45 and the average SD = 0.83. The values for the dimensions measure a minimum of 1 (strongly disagree) and a maximum of 5 (strongly agree). Among the 4 dimensions, customer retention receives the top score with its Mean = 3.82 and its standard deviation is 0.73. The lowest rating in the 4 dimensions is the dimension with its mean at 3.19 and SD = 0.85. The customer loyalty dimension comes second with its average Mean = 3.79 and its SD = 0.86. Coming in at third place is the services dimension with its average Mean at 3.35 and SD at 0.95.

From the answers tabulated we can see there is influence of Branding strategies on retaining customer. How it is not the top influencer in doing so. The data reads and deciphers that customers should be aware of a brand’s branding strategies and activities in order to choosing to be loyal to a certain brand. As the Branding dimension showcases low Mean, we can come to such statement. Branding strategies should be improved and more communication with its customers will contribute to dramatic results. Communication via improved Branding strategies will prove vital.

4.6 Results of Research Questions

The research questions which were raised in section 1 will be extracted with answers and presented below

Q1: Is service quality important than Branding to customers of fast food outlets in Singapore?

Answer to Q1: Yes service quality is more important than Branding Strategy to customers of a fast food industry in Singapore.

Explanation: As shown in table 1.2 the service dimension have an average Mean = 3.35 and with 5 for its top score. This dimension presents the average perception of a fast food brand customer towards the services at the brand. Its SD at 0.95 is likely to differ in a large scale from one participant to the other. When comparing to the branding dimension, which rated lowest on its average Mean = 3.19. This dimension tells that customers are not completely aware of the fast food branding initiatives and secondly due to the said lack of awareness they do not support and participate as much. Therefore the answer to the question is, service quality is more important to customers than branding strategy of a fast food brand.

Q2: What are the benefits to fast food chains applying Branding in Singapore?

Answer to Q2: The 2 benefits derived from this study are customer retention and customer loyalty.

Explanation: As shown in table 1.2, customer retention scored highest among the 4 dimension with its Mean at 3.82. This dimension shows that the branding strategies of a fast food name do have an impact on a customer. Although from the statics it is seen that branding strategy is not the main influencer in retaining customers. This is followed closely by customer loyalty with its average Mean at 3.79 and SD at 0.86, showing that a customer’s loyalty is influenced to a large scale by branding strategies. Thus it can be said that the largest benefits for a fast food name applying Branding strategy is customer loyalty followed by customer retention.

Q3: Do Branding strategies influence the loyalty of customers towards their favourite fast food name?

Answer to Q3: Yes branding strategies influence the loyalty of customers towards their fast food name.

Explanation: The average rate from the test in dimension 4, customer loyalty has a result of 3.79 Mean value. This informs that the average level of loyalty among customers of a fast food brand is not as high as the main reason for customer retention in a fast food name. But the answer is rated above the median rate, meaning almost 70% of the participants reveal that their loyalty towards their fast food name is influenced by branding strategy. The top rated dimension, statement 3 “You are proud of your fast food name for undertaking branding activities” indicates that most customers please with what the fast food outlet is doing and are happy to be associated with the brand name. Taking into consideration the low SD of .527, shows that the participants’ answers are very similar.

Q4: Do customers support all the branding tactics of fast food outlets in Singapore?

Answer to Q4: No, customers do not support all branding activities of their fast food brand.

Explanation: As shown in the statistics table, Branding dimension statement 8 “You support only branding strategies you believe in”, has an average Mean of 3.80, which is the top compared to all the other variables in the dimension. It’s SD at .815 tells that the answers of the respondents does not vary in huge variation from each other. This is an important point to note as it shows that customers do not relate to all branding strategies undertaken by a fast food name, therefore before implementing Branding strategies a Fast food name should consider the impact all planned branding strategy could have on their customers.

Q5: How effective are fast food branding methods in retaining their customers?

Answer to Q5: Branding strategies of fast food names are the least effective in retaining customers.

Explanation: As reported in the presented table, the dimension of customer retention scores the top average Mean (3.82), however the mean for statement 1 of this dimension, “Branding strategy is an important criteria when choosing a fast food name”, rated the lowest Mean (3.36). This reflects that the customer does not consider the fast food efforts on branding as an important criterion when choosing a fast food brand. The statement received a high SD of .78, which goes to show that the respondent’s views vary to a big extent from each other. However the highest rated in this dimension is statement 2, “Prices a fast food brand charges are an important criteria when choosing a fast food restaurant” with the highest average Mean (4.26). This reveals that customers consider prices and promotion rates as the main criteria for selecting a restaurant. Although the SD of this statement is .710 meaning that views of participants did vary to a certain extent.

4.7 Hypothesis Results

The hypothesis to be examined for this study is indicated in chapter three of this paper. Given below is a summarised overview of the same:

Hypothesis: Branding positively affects the customer’s loyalty in Fast food names in Singapore

There is a positive relation between the quality service offered between the fast food outlets in Singapore and Customer Loyalty.

There is a positive relation between Branding of the fast food outlets in Singapore and Customer Loyalty

There is a positive relation between Branding strategies leading to customer retention in fast food outlets in Singapore

Utilizing the Pearson correlation analysis, in this study the relationship between Branding and customer loyalty is tested. The word “correlation” refers to a method of determining the degree of connection between two or more variables. Correlation coefficient is described as a single summary number that gives a good idea about how closely one variable is related to another variable (Sharma, 2005).

A correlation coefficients at all times has a range from -1.00 to +1.00, therefore a correlation coefficient of -1.00 is looked as a perfect negative relationship between the two variables, whereas, a correlation coefficient of +1.00 represents that there is a perfect positive relationship between the two variables or if the correlation coefficient measures 0.00 it means that there is zero correlation, or no relationship, between the two variables (Higgins, 2005)

In this study the correlation coefficient and the degree of positive relationship between branding and customer loyalty is interpreted in the range given below:

0.0 < r < 0.2 = low positive correlation

0.2 < r < 0.4 = balanced correlation

0.4 < r < 0.6 = high positive correlation

Table 1.3: Results of Hypotheses

SQ.

CSR

CR.

CL

Service Quality

1

.241**

.342**

.492**

Pearson

Correlation sig. (1-

-

.000

.000

.000

tailed)

70

70

70

70

N

Branding

1

.112**

.427**

Pearson

Correlation sig. (1-

--

--

.000

.000

tailed)

70

70

70

N

Customer

1

.561**

Retention

Pearson

--

--

--

.000

Correlation sig. (1-

70

70

tailed)

N

Customer Loyalty

1

Pearson

Correlation sig. (1-

--

--

--

tailed)

70

N

Note: **: Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (1-tailed).

Source: (Table) created for this study

As presented in the statistics above the Pearson Correlation analysis is utilised to describe the relationship between 4 different variables. The total number of participants, who took the survey, are shown by the letter ‘N’ in the table above. The standard significant level is normally measured at 0.01 (P<0.01), and is known as the ‘P-value’, when measured less than 0.01 then it is considered to be a significant relationship between the 2 dimensions.

4.7.1. Test for Hypotheses

There is a positive relation between the quality service offered between the fast food outlets in Singapore and Customer Loyalty.

As stated in table, the correlation coefficient r = .492, this shows a good correlation between the dimensions of customer loyalty and service quality. The P-value of .000 is below 0.01 and thus it tells that a significant amount of correlation is present. Therefore, the test from Hypotheses can be justified, to say that there is a significant and positive relationship between service quality and customer loyalty in the fast food industry in Singapore.

There is a positive relation between Branding of the fast food outlets in Singapore and Customer Loyalty

As calculated in the table, the correlation coefficient for the relationship between the dimensions of branding and customer loyalty is r = .427, this indicates that a medium yet positive correlation is present. The P-value of .t000 is below 0.01 and therefore it shows that a correlation exists. Therefore, the test from Hypotheses is not justified, it does not tell that there is a significant and positive connection between Branding and customer loyalty in the fast food industry in Singapore.

There is a positive relation between Branding strategies leading to customer retention in fast food outlets in Singapore.

As tabulated and shown in the table, the correlation coefficient for the relationship between the dimensions of Branding and customer retention is r = .112, this indicates that a very low and insignificant correlation is present. The P-value of t000, is below 0.01 and therefore it shows that a correlation exists. Therefore, the test from Hypotheses is not supported, it does not prove that there is a significant and positive connection between Branding and customer retention in the fast food industry in Singapore.

Therefore, in the overall hypothesis, which is justified by the test, it can be derived that Branding strategies do have a positive impact on customer’s loyalty in fast food industry in Singapore.

Chapter Five: Conclusion and

Recommendation

The final chapter of this study consist of the conclusion to the entire study. This is substantiated by a relevant recommendation derived from the conclusion. The final part will contain a analysis on the limitations faced by the author.

5.1 Conclusion

As said in the previous chapters, most of the researches on branding are narrowed on foreign countries; this study has prevailed to divert that focus. This study talks about mainly Branding in the fast food industry in Singapore and its impact on customer loyalty. There have been various areas where Branding and its impact on customers’ loyalty was put to stern test in order to prove the outcome. The study has also revealed to all the trends being worshipped in the industry focusing in the increase in knowledge and support of the concept by a company’s key stakeholder, the customer. Low et al. (1985) concluded that Branding in Singapore was reaching its peak. After more than two and a half decades, this statement does not characterise the position of Branding in the current time line. The time taking yet steady turnover is obvious and through this study it is revealed that people are aware of the concept. Branding even though was not followed by Asian traditional system, foreign names and brands have made Asian to run for their money. In turn, making ‘branding’ important for any business to succeed in Asia.The power of ‘Branding’ is that it creates demand for products which are not essential as well. So customers’ loyalty has fallen prey for it as well. But of course it was done over time and is not of something overnight.

In this study the main aim was to decipher the relationship between branding and customer loyalty and how branding has an impact on customer’s loyalty in the fast food industry in Singapore. This study has revealed that it is just not branding working towards customers’ loyalty but also beyond that. Through the use of various dimensions the study is looking at ways to find out the most possible way to retain a customer in the fast food industry. The dimensions on top of looking at retaining, it also has made space for new customers. Other than contributing to branding and customer loyalty from a theoretical opinion the paper also identifies the dimensions of branding, which evolves into a criterion for customers to analyse how efficient a fast food name is with its branding outcome. The dimensions have become an eye opener from a customers’ prospect or point of view.

In the study, a range to read the statistical measurement of branding and customer loyalty in the fast food industry in Singapore is raised. The relationship between the various dimensions and customer loyalty are graded with the help of Pearson correlation analysis through a correlation matrix. The majority findings of this study can be concluded as the following:

Customer retention is derived as the top rated dimension among the 4 dimensions, while branding scoring the lowest in accordance to the customer’s perception. This tells that the efforts taken to make branding initiatives more open to the customers of the fast food brands are ultimately poor. More involvement would follow up to great involvement of customers, which in turn would bring about increased appreciation.

Although the utmost information of the influence of branding on customer loyalty was concluded to be positive among fast food names in Singapore. Thus improving and improving branding initiatives will accumulate to the ever growing loyalty of customers in fast food outlets in Singapore.

This study also makes aware that the use of the various dimension method is a useful and appropriate tool for the grading of Branding in the fast food industry. Therefore fast food names can use this tool to analyse Branding and its numerous connection in the fast food industry.

Another aid to this study was the adopted way of the dimensions through the self-administered questionnaire. It aids customers to identify Branding and its different dimensions and the way they think about branding as a mode exercised by fast food names, this would evidentally help a fast food in mentioning the parts to improve.

In conclusion, the study reveals that branding do have an influence on customer loyalty in the fast food services industry. It is obvious that branding is an exceptional factor to customer loyalty, therefore saying that fast food names can acquire competitive advantages and obtain overwhelming financial benefits by investing more in Branding. From the statements stated above companies should discover that branding initiatives can produce a positive public relations strategy, more importantly in the current industry environment in which stakeholders, which are customers, may have strong marketing concerns.

5.2 Recommendations

Over the last two decade fast food brands in Singapore have improved their branding strategy to a huge level. For an example, it is realised that all fast food names in Singapore have come up with a unit specifically catering to branding. However, there is still a moderate level of appreciation for branding initiatives done by the fast food names in Singapore among their customers. This is presented through the questionnaire where 40% of participants informed that they do not receive enough updates of branding or promotions handled by their fast food brands. Thus a request to the fast food would be to use more communication tools to communicate more about their branding promotions and its status to their customers. This could be improved by:

Advertising a regular newsletter about all promotions the fast food pursues.

Inviting customers to participate in branding events in the form of competitions.

Requesting customers for their feedback and suggestions about their branding methods.

Another area is with importance to the significance of the branding strategies to the fast food brand customers. The methods should be aligned in a way that they attract to the correct target audience. As of now a monority part of the customers do not refer totally to the branding strategies, even if they look like to be interested in branding. This was presented via question number two, part two of the questionnaire, where 42% of the participants informed of a neutral feeling towards aiding the branding strategies of their fast food brand. By improving the level of involvement for a customer towards the branding strategies, fast food brands could create a tighter relationship with customers and thus enhance their loyalty. This could be done by:

Creating more areas for the scope of branding into more fields.

Researching the cultural and social dimensions of their customers in order to develop branding awareness that their customers can refer to.

Developing branding strategies that looks on local population and areas. For example aid to improve or provide health information of their food that customers really are concern about.

This study proves that there is scope for further investigations in Branding in the fast food industry in Singapore. It would also improve the credibility of the study to collect information from a larger sample population. Besides, additional studies could narrow on several dimensions on which branding has an impact on, other than customer loyalty, such as customer attainment, customer satisfaction, or value creation.

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