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Culture on key elements in brand management

The purpose of this assessment in International marketing subject is to critically analyze Eisingerich. A. & Rubera. G. 2010. Drivers of brand commitment: A cross- national investigation. Journal of International Marketing, 18 (2): 64-79.

Eisingerich and Rubera in this article are investigating the influence of culture on the four key in brand management elements: brand innovativeness, brand customer orientation, brand self relevance and brand social responsibility on customer commitment to a brand (Cayla and Arnould, 2008). Therefore, the authors select two countries (China and United Kingdom) in order to collect data from customer about global furniture store brand. The authors have conducted a comprehensive study based on the hypotheses they have arrived at, after a thorough study of the literature on international marketing, brand management and consumer behavior. From a global brand manager perspective this study will provide a guide line for management decision making, by positioning their brand in order to be successful in particle cultures (Ã-zsomer and Altaras 2008).

This paper will be divided into three sections. The first section will provide the article overview, which include the content of the article, summarize the article topic, the idea of the report and the author's key conclusion. In section two the paper will clarify the strengths and weakness of the study mention in the article. Finally, in section three the paper would outline the practical implications for managers. These papers will be concluded by summarizing the main idea and stating how my findings relate to a broad context.

the overview of the article content is based on the author knowledge, there are four main elements that are used in a brand management decision such as brand innovativeness, brand customer orientation, brand self relevance and brand social responsibility. These elements are valuable to global brand managers to increase customer brand commitment. These brand elements are influences by the economy in manufacturing, research and development activities. Also, the brands have a value in being global. Therefore, brand relevant of consumer is important to be successful, in effectiveness of the culture. Therefore culture has to be studied for the efficient brand positing (De Wulf el at, 2001).

This article aims to contribute in three ways, first it improve current understanding of brand management and customer brand relationship. Secondly, it contributes to the knowledge of how cultural damnation effects brand effectiveness. Finally, this study provides recommendation for effective brand positing because only some specific cultural contexts work.

To conduct his study, he picked to types of cultures, group culture china and individual culture UK. Out of the four brand elements certain elements work depending on the culture. The values of the study help in determining brand position. The authors design their research and experiment by conducting a survey in U.K. and China, those countries has been chosen as they represent two types of cultures (Hofstede, 1980).

Eisingerich and Rubera arrived at as they are four brand elements include different hypotheses, it will be differentiation from the type of culture in each country. First H1, contended that brand innovativeness would have a stronger effect on commitment in countries whose cultures were individualist, short-term oriented, and low on power distance than in countries with opposite cultures. The effect of brand innovativeness is stronger in the United Kingdom than in China, in accord with H1a-H1c. For example in U.K. people are more independent, they like to stand out and their close reveals their independed nature. Second H2, explain that customer orientation would have a stronger effect on commitment in countries whose cultures were collectivist, long-term oriented, and high on power distance than in countries with opposite cultures. Customer orientation had no effect in the United Kingdom while it had a significant, positive effect in China. For example, in china people like to blend with their culture and like to build strong and long lasting relationship. Third H3, brand self-relevance would be more effective in affecting customers' commitment to a brand in countries whose cultures were individualist, short-term oriented and low on power distance than in countries with opposite cultures. the effect of brand self relevance was stronger in the United Kingdom than in China. Finally H4, maintained that corporate social responsibility would have a greater impact on commitment in countries with cultures that were collectivist, long-term oriented and high on power distance than in countries with opposite cultures, corporate social responsibility had no effect in the United Kingdom,while it had a significant, positive effect

In addition, the analyses in the article illustrate that in U.K. H1 and H3 are applied when the brand innovation and self relevance would be more effective in the term of individualist, short term orientated and low in power distance. However, in China H2 and H4 are applied, when the customer orientation and social responsibility would have a greater impact on collectivist, long-term oriented and high on power distance. The author recommendation is to underline the value and nature of the culture highly influences in brand management elements in brand positioning. As, it shows that if the global brands managed accordingly inspect of different culture dimensions it will be successful.

Furthermore, in section two the paper will provide the strengths and weakness of the study mentioned in the article. Eisingerich and Rubera discuss that the only reason that can reduce the customer intention to purchase the firm product is social responsibility.  When the firm considers the cultured context and which brand is positioned and sold, this will reduce the risk. Moreover, the authors show that customer orientation does not have a great effect in customers' commitment to a brand. Experimental study has been taken by conducting a survey for 167 responds from U.K. and 230 from China, to analyze the role of culture between brand management decisions elements and customers commitment to brands.

Eisingerich and Rubera studies were limited because of the countries that used U.K. and China.  However, there are several strong outcomes that have been mentioned in the article. Firstly, the authors confirm his fact by using many references and some of them are up-to-date. Secondly, the documentation is structured very well and it was easy to read the article. Thirdly, the ideas of the authors were clear to understand since they used simple language. Finally, all the hypotheses that mention in the article have been tasted.

In section three the practical implication, it explains that globalization had a huge impact on the branding strategy of an international company. Many companies have moved from multidomestic to a global marketing while using global branding strategies. Global branding contains two main benefits. The first benefit according to Steenkamp, Batra and is Alden (2003), that global branding has a great impact on the company by expanding economies of scale and scope in manufacturing, research and development activities. The second benefit is global branding which is realized as the value of being recognized in different countries. However, some scholars think that global brand will not be successful if it is not adept in the local specialization (Cayla and Arnould, 2008).

Eisingerich and Rubera in this article did not explain clearly the role of culture difference.  They focus on the four brand management elements that global brands manager can develop in order to increase the customer commitment to a brand.  This study shows that each of these elements can be effective according to the culture type and where the brand operates. Additionally, the theoretical viewpoint admits that firms must create different brand management element. As some of these elements have no impact on customer commitment in several cultures. In order to strengthen customer commitment to the brand, the brand managers should develop the brand innovation by creating a brand that is relevant to the consumer's self image. This will be effective in countries whose cultures are individualist, short-term orientated and low on power distance than in culture with the opposite characteristics. Therefore, the global brand managers would benefit from deeper understanding to customer's culture, in order to have positive culture meaning from local consumer to global brands (Strizhakova et al, 2008).

According to the limitation that mentions in the article, the authors are criticized their argument by providing several findings. The first finding is lacking at nation-state levels, which is thereby linking national culture to individual countries. For example, each culture dimension is different according to each country citizen and regions. The second finding is limitation of the countries that have been chosen for the study. For example, since U.K has an individual culture, it represents part of the Weston countries, which does not mean that all the Western countries have the same cultures.

This study is not valid because the author did specific research for two types of culture the western and the eastern, which are different than the Africans and American cultures. Finally, the authors clarify and test key brand measures in customer brand relationship across different culture contexts, which depend on exchange and brands self connection theory. In order to understand customer brand relationship across culture, the article present useful guidance to firm's global brand management.

In conclusion, the article approved that the four key brand management elements brand innovationists, customer orientation, brand self relevant and social responsibility are influenced by the types of culture. Therefore, the study has been performed in two countries U.K. and China, as it was based on different hypotheses. However, the data that collect was effective in order to analyze that each culture has different aspect of customer commitment to the brand. This article is generally containing three set of important literature on international marketing, brand management and consumer behavior ( Al- Sulaiti and Baker, 1998).  Finally, the article demonstrated that global brand managers have to build strong brand positioning in order to strengthen customer brand commitment across cultures.

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