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Theories related to motivation and leadership

Charly is writing an introduction to leadership. What is leadership. What is the difference between a manager and a leader. What skills are necessary to be a good leader. Try to find a transition from the motivation part (Hertzberg) to the new topic leadership!

Both of you:

According to the theory about motivation and leadership, WHAT is a good leader? How does a good leader act, what skills and competences does he have? What are the key points about being a good leader? Then I hope you will conclude, being a good leader depends on the situation, so a good leader has to be able to adapt to each new situation!!! This is also your transition for the next point: in WHICH situation would which style be the best? Blake and mouton say that every leader should aim to have the 9.9 Team leadership style – BUT there are situation when this is not true!

For example: In a crisis, where a company has to react fast/quickly to some dramatic changes in the world or in the macro-environment they cannot care about the people as much as they might want to, but they have to care about the organization as a whole, make fast decisions, be more autocratic. So more into the direction of 9.1 leadership style. Try to think about that kind of scenarios and situations when there is not one perfect solution for a dilemma, and leaders have to adapt to new situations and change their leadership style. A leadership style is not something static but depending on the situation. Try also to refer it to Hertzberg theory of motivation and hygiene factors, therefore have a look at the comparision part of Hertzberg + blake&mouton!

Oh, and please, do not include it into this version of the term paper!!!! Write it in a separate word-document and send it to me, otherwise we will get confused with all the different versions!!!

½

Introduction

1

Background of the term paper (Anita, done)

½

Definition of Motivation

1,5

Motivation according to Herzberg & Herzbergs 2factors theory (Anita, done)

½

Introduction to leadership

1,5

Leadership according to Blake&Mouton, managerial grid (Anita)

2

Blake&Mouton’s managerial grid used on Herzberg’s 2factors theory (Eliska)

1,5

Our suggestion to a good leadership style according to the theory

1,5

In which situation would which style be the best (take some examples of situations and relate the theory to that)

1

Conclusion

Management Summary

Content

Preamble 2

Management Summary 4

Content 5

Background of the Term Paper 6

Aim and Reason 6

Methods 6

Problem Statement 6

Main Question 6

Sub Questions 6

Motivation 8

Herzberg’s 2-factor theory 9

Hygiene-Factors 9

Motivation Factors 9

Combining motivation and hygiene factors 10

Motivation and Hygiene factors as changing factors 10

Leadership 11

Blake&Mouton’s managerial grid 12

The managerial grid used on Herzberg’s 2factor theory 13

Good leadership? 16

Intelligent Headline?!?!? 16

Conclusion 17

Bibliography 18

Attachements 19

Attachement 1 19

Attachement 2 19

Background of the Term Paper

In this chapter, the background of the term paper will be explained in short. The aim of the term paper will be discusses as well as its importance. Also the methods used for writing it and the sources will be explained briefly. Afterwards the problem statement inclusive the main- and sub questions underlying this term paper will be discussed.

Aim and Reason

The aim of this term paper is to give information how to motivate employees and to which leadership style managers should adapt in different situations to keep their employees as motivated as possible. This is important, because de-motivated employees will never work as efficient as motivated employees and this might lead to negative results for a whole company.

Methods

This term paper is written by a group of four exchange students at Oslo University College using the article “Motivation and Leadership in Social Work Management: A Review of Theories and Related Studies” by Elizabeth Fisher (2009) as a background. Furthermore the group members individual pervious knowledge and gathered sources about the topic will be used in writing a well supported term paper. Desk research by using different books, articles and websites is another method used for writing the term paper as well as attending the class “Leadership and Human Resource Management” by Magid Al-Araki (Oslo University College) in order to gain in-depth information about the topic and the possibility of asking questions.

Problem Statement

The average employee spends more than 2hours during his workday wasting time in doing other things than doing his tasks. For an average company this means up to $759 billion a year in lost productivity (www.super-solutions.com). In order to remain productive and efficient, employees have to be kept productive and efficient. Herzberg’s 2-factor theory about motivation gives hints and tips for a leader about how to keep employees motivated. The managerial grid by Blake&Mouton developed different leadership styles according to the situation.

Main Question

How can the work motivation be increased according to Herzberg's

2-factor theory, and which leadership style might then be appropriate

according to Blake&Mouton's managerial grid?

Sub Questions

What is Motivation

What is Herzberg’s 2-factor theory

What are other possibilities of motivating employees

What is leadership

What is Blake&Mouton’s managerial grid

How can the managerial grid be used in different situations

Motivation

Managers have to promote productivity among workers which requires motivation (Fisher, 2009)

Supervise people, encourage staff. Therefore, manageres must understand what motivates people.

Motivation is all causes, conscious or unconscious, which are the origin of individual behavior. Usually manifested by the deployment of energy (in various aspects such as enthusiasm, diligence, perseverance), motivation is trivially treated as a "reserve power".

But more than a form of "potential energy", motivation is an instance of integration and regulation of a multitude of parameters relating to environmental opportunities and demands of a situation. Also the role of motivation is proportional to the degrees of ambiguity and ambivalence of a situation: it must dissipate the confusion or complexity of data and give them different values before drawing a conclusion in terms of behavior: the choice and investment in the preferred direction.

There are two types of motivation:

Intrinsic motivation:

Intrinsic motivation means that a person practices an activity just to get pleasure and satisfaction. A person is intrinsically motivated when she does activities voluntarily and by interest of the activity itself, without expectation of reward or any feelings to avoid any sense of guiltiness.

Extrinsic motivation:

 

Extrinsic motivation is defined as follows: the subject acts with intent to obtain a result which lies outside the activity itself, for example, receive reward, avoid feeling guilty, win the approval are motivated extrinsic.

Herzberg’s 2-factor theory

The 2-factor theory by Frederick Herzberg (1959) – also called the “motivator-hygiene-theory” - is a theory about work motivation and work satisfaction. Herzberg does not see satisfaction and dissatisfaction as two extremes of one attribute, but he sees them as two independent attributes: The hygiene-factors (unsatisfied – not-unsatisfied) and the motivation-factors (satisfied – not-satisfied).

Hygiene-Factors

Herzberg defines the hygiene-factors as factors that prevent from job dissatisfaction, if the factors are positive, but that at the same time they do not help increasing the satisfaction of employees, because if the factors are positive they will be seen as neutral. Often, hygiene-factors are seen as self-evident, but missed, if absent. If the hygiene-factors are negative, dissatisfaction will evolve. That means for instance, that a bad salary (= hygiene-factor is negative) can make an employee really unsatisfied, but by giving him more salary (=hygiene-factor is positive) his satisfaction and motivation cannot be increased endlessly.

Amongst others, hygiene factors are:

Salary

Relationships with colleagues and managers

Job security

Working conditions

(Fisher, 2009)

Motivation Factors

Motivation-factors influence the motivation for performance of the employees and often arise from the wors content. These factors increase satisfaction, but will not make an employee unsatisfied if they are missed.

Examples for motivation-factors are:

- Performance

- acceptation/accomplishment

- responsibility

- promotion and success

- development of competences

- recognition

(Fisher, 2009)

According to Herzberg, the aim of each manager is to give attention to both Motivation- and Hygiene-factors to increase the employee’s productivity (Fisher, 2009).

Combining motivation and hygiene factors

Combining hygiene and motivation factors, results in four possible situations concerning the work environment of a company:

High hygiene, high motivation

- ideal-situation, motivated employees that are not unsatisfied

High hygiene, little motivation

- less motivated employees, but no dissatisfaction

Little hygiene, high motivation

- motivated employees with a lot of discomfort  interesting and challenging work with a bad working environment

Little hygiene, little motivation

- the worst situation. Unmotivated employees in a bad working environment.

This leads to the conclusion that the best way of increase productivity through motivated employees can only be reached by giving attention to both factors. Sometimes managers cannot provide their employees with hygiene-factors due to the sector they are working in or company restrictions. In that case they should focus on increasing the motivation factors by increasing the variety of the work by giving the employees more tasks and more responsibility. This is called job enrichment and job enlargement and helps the employees to keep motivated and productive.

Motivation and Hygiene factors as changing factors

Whereas the distinction into hygiene-factors and motivation-factors might lead to the assumption, that factors belonging to these two groups are static, this is not true at all. Depending on the individual situation of an employee, a certain aspect can be seen as either a motivation- or a hygiene-factor. For example motivation-factors can become hygiene-factors if the employee considers them being self-evident. In that case, the manager then has to find out what then might be a motivation-factor for this employee.

In the same way, hygiene-factors can become motivation factors. This can happen if a hygiene-factor had been missing for a while.

Taking the example of a bad salary: It makes the employee unsatisfied and after a while he is so unsatisfied that his motivation will be so low that his productivity decreases, too. If he now gets a good pay increase, this hygiene-factor will become a motivation-factor for this employee. The high salary will increase his motivation, productivity and make him satisfied again. Until after a while he will become used to the new salary he is being paid; it is nothing, which still motivates him to be perfectly productive. The salary will then again become a hygiene-factor, and motivation has to be triggered by some other aspect.

So depending on each employee and each specific situation of the employee, there are different hygiene- and motivation-factors that play a role. The challenge of a good leader is then to find out what really motivates people in a certain situation and act accordingly to that.

Leadership

A group has to be motivated and focused to permit them to accomplish their goals, the leadership fulfills this.

"There is a profound difference between management and leadership, and both are important. To manage means to bring about, to accomplish, to have charge of or responsibility for,to conduct. Leading is influencing, guiding in a direction, course, action, opinion. The distinction is crucial" – Warren Bennis.

We can see that management and leadership are different; people’s organization is not applied in the same way. A leader utilizes feelings and passion whereas the manager doesn’t utilize irrational and informal processes. But both are important in business as says Jonh Kotter : ““Both are necessary for success in an increasingly complex and volatile business environment”. We need management and leadership as well, they are two ways of acting distinguished and each is use to accomplish distinctive things.

Good leaders obtain the respect and the trustiness of their group and so they are followed by them. What makes a good leader? Communication is one the most important thing in leadership. If there is no communication between people, the group cannot be effective and productive. A good leader has to learn communication skills and communicates with his team. Another main element to be a good leader is the motivation. Workers need motivation to work and if they don’t have a correct motivation they will stagnate or worse like be counter-productive in their job. Teamwork has to be considered to attempt to be a good leader. The point is to learn to the group how to work together but also, a good leader has to be in harmony with his staff. A good leader can be a born leader, and so he has an advantage compare to the others.

There is not just one style for a particular situation in leadership, but many different. Leaders have to adapt the leadership style with the situation because in some case one style is effective but next time not.

A famous theory referring what makes a good leader is Blake and Mouton managerial grid, where they see task orientation and people orientation as two main dimensions of leadership.

Blake&Mouton’s managerial grid

Robert Blake’s and Jane Mouton’s managerial grid is a scientific model, developed during the 1950s for understanding how managers actually lead within a company.

The grid has two axes/dimensions: The horizontal axe is the degree to which managers are concerned with production/tasks/results, whereas the vertical axis the degree of how much managers are concerned for people/relationships represents. On each axis, managers can score between 1 and 9, which leads to a combination score.

See attachement 1 for an illustration of the managerial grid.

The managerial grid can be used to understand how a leader perceives himself and how his subordinates perceive the leader. By giving themselves a score on the managerial grid and letting employees placing the leader on the grid, it gives managers the opportunity to compare the different scores, discuss the decisions and help improve the manager’s leadership style.

By combining the two dimensions relationship-orientation (the degree to which a leader thinks about the team member’s needs, values, interests and personal development) and task-orientation (the degree to which a leader emphasizes concrete objectives, organizational efficiency and high productivity), Blake&Mouton developed five main styles of leadership. Some styles whereby the leaders are very task-orientated and only care about how to get things done without caring for the employees, whereas other leaders are people-oriented and care about their employee’s satisfaction. And of course combinations of leadership styles.

For detailed descriptions of the five main leadership styles please see attachement 2.

According to Blake&Mouton the aim of each leader should be to act according to the 9.9 leadership style: Team Leadership, which they see as the perfect leadership style a manager can have.

The managerial grid used on Herzberg’s 2factor theory

To keep employees productive, managers have to find a way of how to lead their people. Besides the skills needed in order to lead successfully, they have to be able to motivate their employees. By now both a leadership as well as a motivation theory is studied, but how can these two theories be combined to form a basis for good leadership? In the following we combine Herzberg’s theory about motivation with the five different leadership styles of Blake&Mouton.

Country Club Leadership – 1.9:High People/Low Production

Is located at 1.9 position at the managerial grid. This type of the leader cares about the needs and feelings of his employees to the prejudice of production. The Country Club leader assumes that as long as the employees are satisfied they will work hard and he care very much about relationships on the working place.

According to Herzberg’s four styles combining hygiene and motivation factors we can relate them to Blake and Mounton’s five leadership styles.

For example we can say that Country Club leader is definitely going to fulfill Herzberg’s hygiene factors and also some motivation factors such as giving them the responsibility. But overall the lack of direction, regulations and control will lead to low production and unorganized (?) environment.

According to Herzberg theory, we can assign this type the combination of Little hygiene and high motivation.

Produce or Perish Leadership – 9.1: High Production/Low People

Is situated at 9.1 of the managerial grid. According to Blake and Mouton, this type of the leader is in opposition of the Country Club type. He applies the authoritative style, looks at employees as means of how to reach the profit and employee needs are always to be secondary. His focus is mostly on the productivity, not the employee and his leadership style is based on the control over people and dictatorship. Therefore we can say that this type of leader will probably try to fulfill some hygienic needs like an adequate salary but overall neither hygienic or motivation factors are going to be interesting enough to take them in consideration. This type of the leader also views punishment as an effective mean how to motivate people. According to Herzberg, we can relate this type either to the combination of high hygiene and little motivation or little hygiene and little motivation which mostly depends on the leader’s personality.

-

Impoverished Leadership – 1.1: Low Production/ Low People

This type of the leader, located at 1.1, is concerned neither about production, nor about people and therefore is the most ineffective. He simply ‚doesn’t care‘. Hence there is a question, whether he’ll care enough to fulfill anyone’s needs. Neither motivation, nor hygienic factors become fulfilled but from different reason than the Produce of Perish leader. While Produce of Perish Leader doesn’t consider these factors as important, impoverished leader doesn’t care. This kind of leader isn’t able to create satisfying and motivating environment and it leads to disharmony and dissatisfaction of the employees. His efforts to make the employees content goes as far as he is able to retain his position in the company. Again, in this case , we can refet to the combination of Little hygiene and little motivation or high hygienea and little motivation

Middle-of-the-Road Leadership – 5.5: Medium Production/Medium People

As the description the Middle-of the road leader prompts it is located in the middle of managerial grid carrying numbers 5.5. The question is whether being in the middle is good or bad? Golden mean, we say. In this case the two concerns of production and people are even which might be an ideal compromise but is the level 5 enough to fulfill people’s needs? This kind of leader takes care of the things he believes they are important. He is a responsible person but without any enthusiasm and effort important for a leader. He will be able and will try to fulfill both hygienic and motivation need but as far as his personality lets him / up to certain level. For example he might not be able to create a sufficient support a culture of respect and dignity for all team members [1] because he is not able to stand in the role of the leader itself. He would follow the norms and regulations, make the working conditions sufficient but don’t go beyond this point. This is the combination of high hygiene and little motivation which may be sufficient with certain type of employees.

He cares, but his personality is not a leader.

Team Leadership – 9.9: High Production/High People

Last type, and probably the most efficient one, the Team Leader located at 9.9 is concerned about high production and high needs of the people. They stress both production needs and people’s needs equally. This type or leader is able to connect the people with the organization. He is team oriented, he is able to make people achieve the objectives, stimulates them and appreciates their work.

The employees are involved in understanding organizational purpose and determining production needs. [2] He understands that these needs in some point coincide. Therefore he sees through and he behaves according to Herzberg/ takes Herzberg in consideration. He is deeply concerned about fulfilling the hygienic needs and determined to reach also the motivation ones. He knows that giving something from him to the people will benefit both of the sides. Therefore this is the combination where high hygiene and high motivation are present in great form.

According to this analysis, we tried to summarize it in this chart. This should demonstrate in which leadership style are the hygiene and motivation factors most likely to be present. We have to take in consideration that the personality of the leader varies, there is no proper way to use in every situation as the situations vary and therefore this is just a predictability.

1.1

1.9

9.1

9.9

5.5

Hygiene Factors

No I’d say

yes

Yes in certain point

yes

Yes

Motivation Factors

no

Not really

nope

yes

Yes in certain point

It is important for a manager to know how to become competent. Knowing these five leadership styles can help the manager to understand and improve is managerial skills. Managers move along the grid as the situation dictates. Each situation is different and unique therefore different behavior will be needed. Different leadership methods have different effect in different situations.

We ephasised the Team Leadership style as a most convenient method but it doesn’t need to be the most effective approach in every situation. As our case…… shows, there are also situations…

Good leadership?

No type of leadership style is best for all situations.

It is important to know someone’s natural leadership tendencies, so that there can be worked on developing missing skills.

Intelligent Headline?!?!?

Conclusion

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