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The different roles of various managers

2.2.1. General Manager: The General manager is responsible for all the operations in the hotel, they exercise their authority over creating budgets, allocating resources, setting prices, setting standards, including the quality of employees, food, amenities, and décor. Their skills may also be required in the establishing of new hotels to create models of operation, develop a systematic workflow, and manage the renovations.

2.2.2. Executive housekeeper: They are responsible for cleaning every area of the hotel, including the guest rooms. Each area of the hotel must be cleaned, in accordance with the occupational Health and Safety Act 85 of 1993 and the standards of the hotel, the chemicals, and other tools used in the cleaning process must be maintained or ordered at an adequate level to ensure that there is no pause in operations.

2.2.3. Front Office Manager: They are responsible for the front desk and has a team to deal with the guests. The front office team must deal with the guests are checked in, reservations, assigning rooms, guest complaints and make changes to the bill. The manager oversees all this, controls it and ensures that the staff receive the relevant training so that they are able to do the job.

2.2.4. Banqueting manager: Any hotel that hosted events such as conferences, parties and weddings has a Banqueting manager who works with the client or client company and the various hotel operations in order to organize an event. The manager will plan everything for the event from décor to the itinerary and they have to be on hand during the event to ensure that everything goes according to plan and if it does not they have to take the necessary corrective action.

2.2.5. Assistant manager: There are many assistant managers especially in large hotels, their role is to aid their supervising manager in their duties, and taking over their duties in the supervising managers absence.

2.2.5. Executive Chef: The executive chef position is one of the most demanding job positions in a hotel because of the many responsibilities placed on the executive chef, including running kitchen operations, creating menus, maintaining quality food service guidelines, submit orders to suppliers, and plan for regular services or deliveries. Such as linen deliveries or deep cleaning of dining rooms or kitchen equipment, basic maintenance and cleaning of equipment, they inspect the quality of fresh meats, poultry, fish, fruits, vegetables, and baked goods, cooking utensils, furniture, and fixtures to make sure their requests are fulfilled, and organise different services like pest control garbage removal. With so many responsibilities, such a manager must be well trained and experienced.

2.2.6. Education and training of Hotel managers

However managers who have a masters degree usually have a much greater ability to view the organisation holistically which is an excellent quality in a high ranking manger, it allows them to make decisions that are more informed.

Analysis of job requirements

This is an in depth investigation into the skills knowledge of each job position, including an analysis of the job specification and how each job inter-links with one another to achieve the organisational goals. After these first three steps there should be a clear understanding of where the problem areas are and who the potential candidates for training are.

Leadership

“All managers should ideally have leadership skills, but not all leaders are necessarily managers.” This is the unfortunate fact of our industry (Dr Mitchell The leader should have authority, power, influence, the ability to delegate, and must be responsible. Authority is something that can be earned through a job position or qualification. Power is some thing that is given to the leader by his/ her followers. Influence is the ability of the leader to change the peoples behaviour. Delegation is the act of assigning formal authority and responsibility for the completion of specific activities to a subordinate. To have these traits are not enough because to be truly effective the leader must be consistent in their instructions, know how to praise their followers, lead by example, learn from their mistakes, show enthusiasm for their work, as well as a good sense of humour and he shouldn’t be afraid of taking risks.

2.4.2.1. Autocratic Style:

This style of leadership means that the leader plays the roll of boss, the leaders ideals are enforced and the employees participation is limited, there is unilateral decision making which is enforced by the leader dictating to the employees. the employees may feel secure only if the leader is competent enough to do the job however the employees can still become frustrated with their restricted participation. This style may seem cruel or out of date but with the right motivational and

2.6. Herzbergs Two Factor Theory

Herzburg’s (1959) theory for motivation was that there are factors that create job satisfaction and there are factors that create job dissatisfaction, with both motivators and hygiene factors satisfied the worker will be motivated. He called the factors that cause job satisfaction motivators and those that cause job dissatisfaction, hygiene factors.

2.6.1. Motivators

Motivators are factors that must be satisfied for the worker to become satisfied with their job with will make them motivated. The motivators are achievement in work which gives the person the feeling that they are the best at what they do, recognition gives the employee the feeling that they are valued or an asset to the company and lets the employees know that their hard work was not for nothing, promotion opportunities allows the employee to explore new avenues of their work and show that they are going somewhere in their careers, responsibility is very important to the employees because if an employees is given more responsibility it proves that their abilities are trusted and every employee wants like they are trusted or wanted and lastly changes in personal growth and development a person may do this by choosing a new job, location to work or a different company, so that they can gain or improve on certain traits this is very important for managers, because they have to develop their leadership skills and this can best be done by managing and or leading people of different cultures or corporate cultures. According to Herzberg (1959) none of the motivators can be achieved if the hygiene factors have not been satisfied.

2.6.2. Hygiene factors

When these factors are adequately satisfied, it will prevent the worker form becoming dissatisfied, but will not play a role in motivation of the individual. These factors are associated with the conditions surrounding the work such as the work environment, it does not involve the work it’s self.

Quality of interpersonal relations with others is affected by stress, recognition, sleep, work environment, the home environment and these factors directly affect the motivation of the individual. All these factors affect the person holistically, resulting in a person that just doesn’t want to go to work, in other words a de-motivated person. To motivate an employee the manager would need to ensure all his staff to work reasonable hours, recognize them for their good work, and allocate their due leave to them so that they may use it to sleep and de-stress, and pay them sufficiently so that they will have the resources to manage their home environment. Lastly the work environment this can be managed by implementing a code of conduct, organising rules to keep the work environment neat and orderly.

2.7.1.3. Grapevine:

When information travels from one person to another via word of mouth, it is travelling the grapevine. Within every organization, community or social group there is a grapevine transferring information that is usually meant to be kept confidential. The disadvantage of this medium is that the reliability of the information is questionable because there could be a broken telephone effect. This is when the information is changed as a result of bias or anger or even misinterpretation.

2.7.2. None verbal Communication:

2.7.2.1. Body language:

Body language is the facial expressions, eye movements, posture and gestures that convey messages. The message given off is usually unintentional for the untrained person, but for a manager it can be used in conveying a point while giving presentations or speeches, it helps to keep the audiences attention and studies show that the audience will retain more information if the speaker uses positive body language. Body language can be positive if the message being sent out s positive messages of confidence and enthusiasm.

2.7.2.2. Written Communication:

Written communication is constantly done throughout the day. Whether its in emails, memos, or hand written letters, it is still important to communicate the intended point across. Every manager should be able to write creatively no matter the message or purpose of the literature.

2.7.2.3. Communication Barriers

There are factors that hinder communication especially in multi cultural organisations, factors such as filtering, emotions, selective perception and language. Filtering is the deliberate manipulation of information to make it seem more favourable to the receiver. Selective Perception is information that based on what one sees and hears, in other words this information comes from the grapevine and is unreliable. Emotions could affect a persons ability to interpret a message depending on the persons state of mine at the time when he/ she received it. Anger, jealousy, fear, hatred, are some of the emotions that effect a persons ability to understand a message. The best approach to dealing with emotions is to accept that emotions are part of the communications process and to try to understand it when it causes a problem and if an employee is behaving aggressively the manager should calm him down and talk about their concerns, paying careful attention to what they say. Language South Africa is a country of eleven official languages and many slang terms, not every one understands all of these many languages and terms, this is the largest barrier to communicating in the hospitality industry, but it can be over come if the manager learns the language that is most common to that area this will greatly help to reduce the communication difficulties. When giving instructions, the instructions should be clear, concise language. Make sure they understand what needs to be done, get feedback and check their understanding of what was said. And observe them work and correct them wherever necessary. When taking statements from employees the manager check the accuracy of the statement, and prevent yes or no answers, this can be done by using feedback and it will prevent biases from corrupting the information.

2.8.1. Coaching

Coaching in business is aimed at improving skills in management, communication and strategic skills. It also promotes self-responsibility and initiative, and facilitating adaptation to new challenges and accommodates and supports the employees obligations to their homes and families so that they are productive while they are at work Blanchard,Thacker (2007). Coaching can deliver all this by developing employee skills in line with organisational objectives and by advising or helping them with their work making them feel valued according to (Jacky Pratt, PECI,2004)

2.8.3. Job rotation

Job rotation involves the movement of employees through a range of jobs in order to increase interest and motivation an increase their technical skills. This system creates multi skilled employees, which are exactly what managers need to be. However, it does have one disadvantage that, productivity will be slowed down while the employee is learning how to do the activities in the new job position.

2.8.4. Training positions,

The trainee is given duties and under the supervision of a supervisor or an experienced co worker, the trainee will observe the other co workers and learn the methods, procedures, and standards required for performance of departmental duties. The trainee will also receive other forms of training to try and fast track his or her progress, he will also have to work in various other departments (job rotation) so that he or she can acquire more technical skills. This type of training is tedious and other employees often get frustrated with trainees mistakes, the trainee may even slow down production.

2.8.5. Classroom Training

Direct teaching, co operative learning, lecturing, panel of experts, brainstorming, video tapes/slide shows , case studies role playing, worksheets/ surveys. These are the classroom learning techniques According to (Adprima,1997).

2.8.6. Direct teaching

The students are told what to learn and why they have to learn also because the learning objectives are so clear it is easy to measure the students progress, it is a .widely used technique and is good for teaching facts and basic skills. This technique require the teacher to prepare the material in advance and an oral presentation is needed, it also may hinder the creativity of the teacher According to (Adprima,1997).

2.8.7. Co operative learning

This technique helps to encourage mutual responsibility, patient and companionate with regards to their group members, they also learn how to work together. The tasks are time consuming since each member has to be consulted on how the task is to be done, this is why the group must not be too large. The disadvantage is that some group members may be lazy or controlling According to (Adprima,1997).

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