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Perceived Organizational Support Employee Trust And Job Satisfaction Management Essay

In this present age employees look forward to a satisfying experience at the workplace and the employers vie for pleasing their employees in order to reap benefits. The study which we intend to conduct aims to establish a relationship between Perceived Organizational Support and Job Satisfaction with Trust as the mediator. This research takes into account the job satisfaction levels of employees in the public and the private sector that is employment sector is the moderator.

Findings may help the employers and employees alike in figuring out determinants of Job Satisfaction and devise ways to improve them in their respective organizations.

Contents

Introduction

For years researchers have been trying to establish relationship among various parameters affecting the job satisfaction, job commitment, job dedication and job performance of the employees in the organizations. This is particularly important for organizations in order to improve working conditions, figure out the motivating factors and thus increase employee productivity by creating a healthy work environment.

Our research aims at analyzing the relationship between perceived organizational support and job satisfaction. Trust acts as a mediator in our model. Perceived organizational support is the degree to which employees believe that their organization values their contributions and cares about their well being. Trust is to believe the person who you trust to do what you expect and job satisfaction describes how content an individual is with his or her job. There are various standard scales available to measure each of these parameters. In this study we have taken use of mostly the shortened version of the scales.

Research Problem

This project aims at finding a relationship between perceived organizational support (POS) and job satisfaction. The mediator here is the trust and we aim to find a relationship between POS and trust; and trust and job satisfaction. There are various standard scales available to measure each of these parameters. In this study we have made use of mostly the shortened version of the scales.

Apart from finding the relationship the study aims at finding the difference in the degree of relationship between these factors in the public and the private sector in India. Since the work culture of these two sectors are very different and so are the job factors. The work environment in the private sector is more competitive, open and result-oriented while in public sector it’s conservative, less open to new ideas and generally plunged by stagnation in the long run. So, we aim to analyze the variables of POS, trust and job satisfaction in these two sectors and try to find the differences in perception due to the way the system works.

Research Objectives

This research aims to help the existing organizations in the public and private sector to figure out reasons for decreasing job satisfaction of the employees devise ways to improve the perception of organizational support which in turn will create satisfied employees. This research will also assist respondents in chalking out reasons for their low job satisfaction thereby giving a clearer picture This project aims at finding a relationship between perceived organizational support (POS) and job satisfaction. The mediator here is the trust and we aim to find a relationship between POS and trust; and trust and job satisfaction. There are various standard scales available to measure each of these parameters. In this study we have made use of mostly the shortened version of the scales.

Apart from finding the relationship the study aims at finding the difference in the degree of relationship between these factors in the public and the private sector in India. Since the work culture of these two sectors are very different and so are the job factors. The work environment in the private sector is more competitive, open and result-oriented while in public sector it’s conservative, less open to new ideas and generally plunged by stagnation in the long run. So, we aim to analyze the variables of POS, trust and job satisfaction in these two sectors and try to find the differences in perception due to the way the system works.

if what they expect from the employee – employer psychological contract.

Literature Review

Perceived Organizational Support:

(POS) is the degree to which employees’ believe that their organization values their contributions and cares about their well-being (Eisenberger, Huntington, Huntington, & Sowa, 1986). POS is generally thought to be the organization’s contribution to a positive reciprocity dynamic with employees, as employees tend to perform better to pay back POS (Rhoades & Eisenberger, 2002). POS is viewed as procedural justice, interactional justice and distributive justice.

Trust:

It is the willingness of one of the parties to be vulnerable to the actions of the other party. Trust is to believe the person who you trust to do what you expect. In an organizational context it refers to the idea that if one works well for the organization, the organization would not do something unfavorable or contrary to one’s beliefs. It encourages them to feel comfortable and excel in the workplace, increase the cooperation level and help them perform better.

Job Satisfaction:

It describes how content an individual is with his or her job. The happier people are within their job, the more satisfied they are said to be. It is in regard to one's feelings or state-of-mind regarding the nature of their work. It can be influenced by a variety of factors, e.g., the quality of one's relationship with their supervisor, the quality of the physical environment in which they work, degree of fulfillment in their work, etc.

It refers to an individual’s general attitude towards his or her job. It is important because it affects the emotional well being and psychological health of organizational members. At the organizational level, satisfied workers are important contributors to an organization’s effectiveness and ultimately to long term success.

The relationship between trust and POS:

According to Schein, a psychological contract is the interaction between the organization and employee and represents an exchange in which the organization does certain things to and for the employee and the employee reciprocates by providing the organization with certain services and behaviours. POS is theoretically based on reciprocity in the social exchange relationship (Allen and Brady, 1997) in which good treatment by the organization creates a general obligation, based on the reciprocity norm for employees to care about their organization and treat it well in return (Eisenberger et al., 2001). If the employees perceive that the target of trust is genuinely interested in their welfare and motivated to seek joint gain, trust will emerge (Doney et al., 1998. This identification and involvement with a particular organization corresponds to the findings of Cook and Wall (1980) who noted that trust in management was positively correlated with measures of identification, loyalty and involvement. Similarly, employees with high POS expressed greater effective attachment to the organization and greater performance-reward expectancies (Eisenberger et al., 1990). Trust in supervisor has been found to be a mediator of procedural justice and organizational citizenship behaviour (Konovsky and Pugh, 1994) while POS has been found to mediate the relationship between procedural justice and organizational citizenship behaviour (Moorman et al., 1998). Together, these two sets of results suggest a possible relationship between trust in supervisor and POS.

The relationship between POS and Job Satisfaction:

The study by Armstrong-Stassen and Ursel examines the positive correlation between Perceived organizational support and Job satisfaction (Hypothesis 5). This study measures organizational support in terms of customized training opportunities and options of flexible working hours for older employees. Career satisfaction also acts as a mediating variable for relationship between perceived organizational support and employee’s intentions to continue in the organization (Hypothesis 6). This study examines the negative correlation between job satisfaction, hierarchical and job content plateauing and intention to remain. The Hypothesis of most relevance to the proposed study, H 5 is confirmed in this study through an observed significant positive correlation.

Job Satisfaction and Trust:

According to the research work (Thomas, Scott et.al, 2002) there is a significant positive relationship between an individual's accountability to co-workers and job satisfaction; and that there is a significant positive relationship between an individual's accountability to management and job satisfaction. Also, trust affects the relationships between accountability to management, accountability to co-workers and job satisfaction. Based on a survey (Thomas, Scott et.al, 2002)of workers in a small US manufacturing company, finds that the correlations between job satisfaction and accountability to managers and co-workers were significant and that this affected the level of trust felt by the worker in management and supervisors. Thus, there exists a relationship between job satisfaction and trust.

Research Hypothesis

Hypothesis (H): There exists a positive relationship between Perceived Organizational Support and Employee Job Satisfaction

H1: Perceived Organizational Support has positive relationship with Trust

H2: Mutual Trust has positive relationship with Job Satisfaction

Here the moderator is the sector in which the employees work. This can take 2 values: Public sector and Private sector

Null Hypothesis: There exists no relationship between Perceived Organizational Support and Employee Job Satisfaction

Research Model

Moderator: Employment Sector

Research Scales Proposed

Constructs

Scales

Perceived Organisational Support

Eisenberger(2001)

Trust

Tyler Scale(2003), 7 items

Job Satisfaction

Brayfield and Rothe’s Scale(1951)

Design

In our exploratory research we have decided to use Questionnaire filling as the sole method of obtaining information from the respondents. These questionnaire responses will be analysed on the basis of scales as mentioned above. The use of projective techniques is used to ensure that there is no bias and difficulty in obtaining sensitive and socially undesirable responses.

Timelines

Timelines

Action Items

8th March

Research Proposal Formulation and Submission

15th March

Sample Collection I

18th March

Sample Collection II

20th March

Research Submission

Target Group

We would target workers at managerial, supervisory or higher levels through the survey questionnaires. Based on the mediating variable, employees in public and private sector enterprises would be targeted and studied in separate groups.

Likely Implications

The research would establish positive relationship between the three constructs of perceived organizational support, job satisfaction and job trust as defined through the specified scales. This would prove that employees who perceive a greater organizational support are more satisfied and trust their organization more than the employees who perceive little organizational support.

Also, it would differentiate the perceived support, satisfaction and trust perceptions of the private and public sector employees.

Limitations

A large percentage of mail responses among the research surveys could introduce inaccuracy as the mail surveys are an inefficient and inaccurate form of data collection.

Number or range of employees researched would have limited variation in terms of geographical area, years of experience and seniority of position. This could introduce a bias in research.

Scope of Future Research

Our research problem caters to the relation between Perceived Organisational Support and Job Satisfaction with a mediator, Trust. This research can be carried forward to take into account the impact of Job Satisfaction on Job Dedication and Job Performance. This would require studying the relation between Trust and Job Dedication, Job Satisfaction and Job Dedication; and POS and Job Dedication. This extension may give clearer results to the organisation as to how can the performance of employees be enhanced by improvising on the antecedents.

Also, another moderator of age group can be considered to get concrete results on how Perceived Organisational Support leads to Job Satisfaction among employees of different age groups/work experience.

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