Methodology of research and the process of data collection
The previous 2 chapters were pointing out the introduction, the operational definitions, problem and objectives of the research as well as the hypothesis and the literature review of the leadership styles and the impact of it on the different types of organizational commitment.
This chapter will explore the research methodology including the research design, sample and population, data collection and analysis
This research is pointed out to explore the a very important problem in the Egyptian organizations as well as being an interest topic ever since it was introduced in the early 1950s to the field of organizational behavior (Aryee & Heng, 1990; Meyer & Allen, 1997; Baruch, 1998; Mowday, 1998; Goulet & Frank, 2002). These authors indicate that the continued interest is a result of the belief that if properly managed, organizational commitment can lead to beneficial consequences such as organizational effectiveness, improved performance, reduced turnover and reduced absenteeism (Meyer & Allen, 1997 and Mowday, 1998). And so we could extract the organizational improvement through managing the employees. The problem now in Egypt is to have a leadership style that could affect the commitment of the employees to their organization, in order to get the best performance of the organization as a whole. It should be a significant study to the manufacturing companies in Egypt.
This research is to determine the relation between the impact of the different selected leadership styles on the different selected types of organizational commitment. The purposed relationship of of the variables of interest is illustrated in next Figure shown 1.5 the conceptual frame work.
The results of the study would help managers of manufacturing companies to determine the different types of leadership styles to adopt in order to induce and maintain the organizational commitment from their employees.
The hypotheses are concerned with the relationship between the various leadership styles being practised within the organization and its influence on the various employee commitment styles. The results of the research could explore how future leadership training will be configured within the company being researched. Therefore, the hypotheses for this research are as follows:
H01: There is no statistical significant relationship between transformational leadership and affective commitment to the organization.
Ha1: There is a statistical significant relationship between transformational leadership and affective commitment to the organization.
H02: There is no statistical significant relationship between transactional leadership and continuance commitment to the organization.
Ha2: There is a statistical significant relationship between transactional leadership and continuance commitment to the organization.
H03: There is no statistical significant relationship between laissez-faire leadership and normative commitment to the organization.
Ha3: There is a statistical significant relationship between laissez-faire leadership and normative commitment to the organization.
The goal of the research is to identify different dimensions of leadership style that have an influence on employee commitment in general and be able to determine the relationship between the two. Thus, the main objective of the study is to investigate the relationship between various leadership styles and various employee commitment styles in manufacturing companies in Egypt. From the identification of the broad objectives of the research, the specific hypothesis was formulated (As shown in Chapter 1). The hypotheses are concerned with the relationship between the various leadership styles being practiced within one of the manufacturing organization in Egypt and its influence on the various employee commitment styles. The results of the research could mould how future leadership training will be configured within the company being researched.
This research is appropriate to use the quantitative method that requires standardizing information in order to define and describe variables or it can also study relationship between variables.
A survey is the most appropriate method can be used to collect information from large population. In the current study relational survey will be used to measure the relation between the leadership styles and the organizational commitment of the employees in a manufacturing organization in Egypt.
In this research the research used a questionnaire to test the different variables used in this research by means of:
Two questionnaires were used in this research to obtain information on leadership and organizational commitment, respectively, namely the Leadership Questionnaire and Organizational Commitment Questionnaire.
The Leadership questionnaire takes the form of a number of statements about the leadership style of the individual being tested. The questionnaire used in this study contains 16 statements that identify and measure the key aspects of leadership behaviors. Each statement corresponds to one of the three types of transformational, transactional or laissez-faire leadership .
The Organizational Commitment Questionnaire takes the form of number of 10 statements about organizational commitment with different styles affective commitment, continuance commitment and normative commitment.
Examples of items from the Organizational Commitment Questionnaire include:
(a) Affective commitment – “I feel like part of the family at this organization”
(b) Continuance commitment – "I could not leave this organization because I'll lose a lot"
(c) Normative commitment – “I would break my trust and beliefs if I leave this organization now”.
The Leadership questionnaire and Organizational Commitment Questionnaire comprises a 5 point Likert scale and the respondents were instructed during the administration of the questionnaires by the researcher to mark the most suitable answer. The scale ranges from 1 to 5 as follows:
1 - Strongly Disagree
2 - Disagree
3 - Neutral
4 - Agree
5 - Strongly Agree
Sample was selected among all the middle management and the juniors in any manufacturing company in Egypt. The sample is a simple random sampling which will be divided into equal categories. Category 1 will be sent a questionnaire for the middle management who represents 50% of the population used in this research and category 2 will be sent to the juniors in the organization who represents the other 50% of the population used in this research.
Data Collection Plan:
The prepared questionnaires have been sent to the population intended by using online questionnaire. And the collection of this data was gathered by recieving it on the researcher mail automatically.
Data analysis for the collected data was figured out by using statistical package for social science (SPSS) software.
SPSS provided tabulated results and figures that illustrate clearly the outcome of research compared to hypothesis.
Research Ethical Considerations
Ethical considerations of confidentiality and privacy were addressed. A concerted and conscious effort was made at all times to uphold this promise. A guarantee was given to the middle management managers and also junior employees respondents that their names were not revealed in the research report. In order to ensure the success of the research, managers were linked to subordinates in such a manner that each subordinates’ response remained anonymous apart from being linked to a particular manager. Finally, the organization will be given a copy of the final report after being analyzed.
There were some limitations to the research and they are as follows:
Time limitation: the time scheduled for the research was very tight. Meanwhile the data collection phase was very tight also to get a good population sample for the research.
The slow/no response rate of the participants was high
This chapter presented the methodology of the research and the process of data collection and analysis. The hypothesis of the research was presented and the research design outlined. Information regarding the sample size and the number of participants, included in the final statistical analysis, was presented. An overview of the data collection method was then given. Each of the two instruments used in this research, as well as their reliability and validity, were then discussed in detail. Finally, the statistical analysis of hypotheses was highlighted. Also included within this chapter were the ethical considerations that needed to be taken into account when doing the actual research and data gathering.
The previous chapters discussed the theoretical background of the research topic, and this chapter discusses the research process and methods of obtaining both the relevant information and the subsequent results. The following chapter will present the results obtained from correlation analysis conducted in an attempt to test the research hypothesis.
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