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JOB DISSATISFACTION AMONG SERVICE DEPARTMENT EMPLOYEES

Abstract

During the passed decade the job dissatisfaction had become one of the most concerned and discussed topic. The employee turnover and the ever rising mismatch between employee’s expectations and the employer’s offers have aggravated the concern. In our country though it is always complaint that the employees don’t pay adequate attention to their job duties and responsibilities because they always keep on augmenting their expectations and the desires from the industry, however the true fact is that the main cause of this lack of solitude at heart could be the job dissatisfaction or some other genuine factors.

In this study, author collected the responses to a questionnaire from the employees of three organizations regarding their satisfaction level with the current employment, and history of the job turnover. The purpose was to evaluate the fact that whether job dissatisfaction influences the absenteeism and the job turnover incidences.

This study found a higher tendency of dissatisfied employees towards switching over to new job if a suitable opportunity is found. This study also found that the disciplinary steps taken to curb the uninformed absenteeism, can significantly reduce the incidence of absenteeism even in dissatisfied employees. Further more it reveled that the “intention to be absent” must be considered and recorded separately from the “actual incidence of the absenteeism”.

INTRODUCTION

1.1 Background

Job satisfaction describes how content an individual is with his or her job. Factors which influence the job satisfaction may be internal or external. The external factors may be pay, benefits, work opportunities, promotion opportunities, peer group pressure, wok style and work culture, employee involvement, empowerment and autonomous workgroups, attitude of employer and co-workers etc. The internal factors may be work itself, expectations from job & employers, matching of interest with that of the working responsibilities, intrinsic motivation, and perceived degree of satisfaction. Job satisfaction is one of the areas of great concern. Satisfaction is determined by a discrepancy between what one wants in a job and what one has in a job. A number of researches have been conducted till date to identify the factors adversely influencing the job satisfaction, and the factors which enhance the job satisfaction.

The various theories have been proposed to explain the phenomenon of the job satisfaction. The dispositional theory (Timorthy A. Judge in 1998) has suggested that there are four factors determine one’s disposition towards job satisfaction: self-esteem, general self-efficacy, locus of control, and neuroticism. This model states that higher levels of self-esteem (the value one places on his self) and general self-efficacy (the belief in one’s own competence) lead to higher work satisfaction. In another theory, Fredrick Herzberg’s two factor theory (Herzber. F1991) suggested that satisfaction and dissatisfaction are driven by different factors motivation and hygiene factors, respectively. Motivating factors are those aspects of the job that make people want o perform, and provide people with satisfaction. These motivating factors are considered to be intrinsic to the job, or the work carried out. Motivating factors include aspects of the working environment such as pay, company policies, supervisory practices, and other working conditions.

Absenteeism is the term which refers to unscheduled employee absences from the workplace. Many causes of absenteeism are legitimate—personal illness or family issues, for example—but absenteeism also can often be traced to other factors such as a poor work environment or workers who are not committed to their jobs. If such absences become excessive, they can have a seriously adverse impact on a business's operations and, ultimately, its profitability.

(Ref: http://www.answers.com/topic/absenteeism)

Since employees are individuals who are unique, they are different from one another; their job satisfaction is affected differently by among others; their age, sex, education, and their personal differences.   Thus, the main rationale of the author behind choosing this topic was to find out a clear picture of what job satisfaction and dissatisfaction are assumed to be essential to lead us to identical comprehension and it will be worthy to note their definitions established by the following scholars.

(Ref:http://www.oppapers.com/essays/Job-Satisfaction-Dissatisfaction/151579)

Some causes of absenteeism are uncontrollable. The major causes, however, are controllable. They center around the work-site environment. Such de-motivators as excessive rework, poor supervision, and unsafe working conditions are reported by workers to be more frequent reasons for absenteeism than personal illness. These data suggest that absenteeism can be minimized if managed. Well planned, safe jobsites where an effort is made to recognize workers' individual skills and utilize employees accordingly will have less absenteeism and inherently enjoy a gain in productivity.

(Ref:- Report C-2, "Scheduled Overtime Effect on Construction Projects," the Business Roundtable, February 1981)

The preservation of employees is equally important than the recruitment of the newer ones.

AIMS AND OBJECTIVES

AIMS AND OBJECTIVE

 The aim of this study is to explore the causes of absenteeism and high turnover in service employees. In order to accomplish this aim, a number of objectives needed to be formulated for this study. These objectives were formulated as follows:

AIM AND OBJECTIVES

AIMS

What are the main causes of absenteeism?

What can be done to reduce absenteeism?

To find relationship between job dissatisfaction/exploitation and absenteeism

To find relationship between job dissatisfaction and high employee turnover

To find relationship between absenteeism and profitability of the company

OBJECTIVES

To determine the main causes and reasons given for the current level of absenteeism among service employees

To find out whether service employees routinely submit a sick note after being absent;

To ascertain management practices and responses to combating absenteeism, and

To identify what can be done to reduce absenteeism.

The main research instrument which was used was a questionnaire. Some experienced academics were interviewed prior to administering the questionnaires to respondents in order to provide expert opinion and advice regarding this problem. These objectives were set to reveal the relationship between job dissatisfaction and employee absenteeism and turnover.

1.2.2 RESEARCH QUESTIONS

Is Job dissatisfaction of service employees is effecting the profitability of the company?

Can we reduce job dissatisfaction and absenteeism by effective job designing?

Are emotional challenging jobs leads to high absenteeism?

What are the prospects of job designing?

1.3 Rationale

With the advances in lifestyle, the utilization of the service industries including hotel industries has improved significantly. In such scenario there is a very urgent need to enhance the already available resources and minimize the loss of resources. It has been observed in latest trends that the absenteeism from work and the high incidence of the job turnover cost the organization severely. This makes it urgently important to identify the factors responsible for high turnover and absenteeism. Also it is equally important to identify the factors leading to job dissatisfaction.

1.4 Definition and introduction of technical words or variables used in this research:

Job Satisfaction

Job satisfaction is defined as a pleasurable or positive emotional state resulting from the appraisal of one’s job or job experiences.(Locke, E.A(1976)& Lise M Saari et al(2004).

Absenteeism

Absenteeism is a habitual pattern of absence from a duty or obligation. Traditionally, absenteeism has been viewed as an indicator of poor individual performance, as well as a breach of an implicit contract between employee and employer; it was seen as a management problem, and framed in economic or quasi-economic terms. More recent scholarship seeks to understand absenteeism as an indicator of psychological, medical, or social adjustment to work. (Johns. G 2007 ).

Employee Turnover

The turnover or labor turnover is the rate at which an employer gains and loses employees. Simple ways to describe it are "how long employees tend to stay" or "the rate of traffic through the revolving door." Turnover is measured for individual companies and for their industry as a whole. If an employer is said to have a high turnover relative to its competitors, it means that employees of that company have a shorter average tenure than those of other companies in the same industry. (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Turnover_(employment))

1.5 Structure of this dissertation

The paper shall perform both quantitative and qualitative evaluation on the basis of the responses of the participants to the questionnaire, and will attempt to examine the relation between levels of job dissatisfaction and the incidence of absenteeism and job turnover in the Indian hotel industry.

The dissertation is divided into different chapters to enhance the clarity and the presentation of the topics. The first chapter is introductory and gives the baseline preface for the job satisfaction, absenteeism. It highlights the background of the job satisfaction and the factors influencing it.

Organization of Remaining Chapters

Chapter II deals with the intensive Review of literature concerned with the topic

Chapter III tells us in detail about the Methodology adopted during the study including the information about the subjects, their response to the questionnaire

Chapter IV gives a brief note about the way, in which the data was analyzed

Chapter V is concerned with the demonstration of objective results and findings for interpretation

Chapter VI includes the detail discussion on the findings of the study and trying to justify them with the help of support from the literature

Chapter VII concludes the result findings

Chapter VIII gives us all the references which were quoted

Fig .1.1 Flow chart

CHAPTER No.2

LITERATURE REVIEW

2.1 Background

This section describes in brief the theoretical concepts in the context of above mentioned research aims & objectives and research questions.

Hotel industry in India

'Hotels in India' have supply of 110,000 rooms. According to the tourism ministry, 4.4 million tourists visited India last year and at current trend, demand will soar to 10 million in 2010 – to accommodate 350 million domestic travelers. Over the last decade and half the mad rush to India for business opportunities has intensified and elevated room rates and occupancy levels in India. (Ref: http://business.mapsofindia.com/india-industry/hotel-industry-in-india.html)

Hotel Industry is inextricably linked to the tourism industry and the growth in the Indian tourism industry has fuelled the growth of Indian hotel industry. The thriving economy and increased business opportunities in India have acted as a boon for Indian hotel industry. The job opportunity has also increased in the sector along with responsibilities.

(Ref: http://www.iloveindia.com/economy-of-india/hotel-industry.html)

Service Department in hotel Industry

Service occupations account for almost two-thirds of the industry's employment—by far the largest occupational group. Hotels employ many young workers and first-time job holders in part-time and seasonal jobs. Work in hotels and other accommodations can be demanding and hectic. Hotel staffs provide a variety of services to guests and must do so efficiently, courteously, and accurately. They must maintain a pleasant demeanor even during times of stress or when dealing with an impatient or irate guest. Alternately, work at slower times, such as the off-season or overnight periods, can seem slow and tiresome. Still, hotel workers must be ready to provide guests and visitors with gracious customer service at any hour.

Because hotels are open around the clock, employees frequently work varying shifts or variable schedules. Employees who work the late shift generally receive additional compensation. Many employees enjoy the opportunity to work part-time, nights or evenings, or other schedules that fit their availability for work and the hotel's needs. Hotel managers and many department supervisors may work regularly assigned schedules, but they also routinely work longer hours than scheduled, especially during peak travel times or when multiple events are scheduled. Also, they may be called in to work on short notice in the event of an emergency or to cover a position.. Similarly as the large constitution hotel industry faces many problems, which are necessary to sort out. (Ref: http://www.bls.gov/oco/cg/cgs036.htm)

Absenteeism in hotel industry

Absenteeism is a common vocabulary faced by almost all employers. Continued absenteeism can be damaging to an organization, as there is potential loss of efficiency and effectiveness as well as a fall in customer service and not to forget a strain on the absent employee’s co-workers. Absenteeism not only impacts on production levels; it impacts on other staff.

Habitual absenteeism (of less than two days at a time but on a frequent basis) would be defined as unauthorized absence from work on a certain number of days per month over a 6 month period. Initially warnings would be given, but if the absence persists, the employee may face dismissal. The failure to be punctual would be treated the same way as habitual absenteeism.

(Ref: http://www.hg.org/article.asp?id=6198 )

Absenteeism is difficult to be dealt with at the best of the times since employees can simply produce the doctor’s certificate. These can be and at times are forged. This then be should be the primary question to be asked by the manager how valid is the present doctor’s certificate. According to the SAPA (2005:9) report indicated that sick leave costs South Africa millions of money per year. According to Neil Lilford, managing director of Health Wealth Happiness an employee benefit and services risk company absenteeism can never be eradicated but it can be managed, starting with an understanding of the causes. Though the absenteeism cannot be completely eliminated yet the measures to retain the employees with their assigned work and the careful monitoring of their satisfaction to some extent must influence and control the absenteeism among workers. A high level of absenteeism is a actual cost factor to the organizations and it must be minimized to make an organization sustain. Chauke, B.P(2007)

The absenteeism can also spoil the custromer’s faith in the organizations. It leaves customer unsatisfied, and also declines the morale among workers expected to cover for absent colleagues. Levy (1996).

Absenteeism is undesirable for employees, their colleagues and employers. It impacts on company profitability and on productivity, service delivery deficiency, labor relations, profits, employee-employer relation. For this study it is therefore important to find the relationship between the job dissatisfaction and the absenteeism. Money and financial secury is a major factor which leads to loyality and commitment to work. Levy (1996)

Job turnover in hotel industry

In a human resources context, turnover or labor turnover is the rate at which an employer gains and losses employees. Turnover is measured for individual companies and for their industry as a whole. If an employer is said to have a high turnover relative to its competitors, it means that employees of that company have a shorter average tenure than those of other companies in the same industry. High turnover can be harmful to a company's productivity if skilled workers are often leaving and the worker population contains a high percentage of novice workers.

Turnover is expressed as an annual percentage of the total workforce. For example, 25 percent employee turnover would mean that one-quarter of a company's workforce at the beginning of the year has left by the end of the year. Turnover should not to be confused with layoffs, which involve the termination of employees at the employer's discretion in response to business conditions.

(Ref:http://www.referenceforbusiness.com/encyclopedia/Eco-Ent/Employee-Turnover.html)

Employee turnover shot to its highest levels in nearly two decades in 1999, according to a survey conducted by BNA, Inc., a Washington- based specialty publisher. On average, 1.2 percent of the workforce left their jobs each month last year. Turnover increased from 1.1 percent per month in both 1998 and 1997, and just 0.9 percent in 1996. The survey found that turnover slowed toward the end of the year, which may reflect the anticipation of year-end bonuses or because hiring decisions often are postponed until the New Year’s new budgets.

(Ref:http://www.morebusiness.com/running_your_business/management/d953521018.brc)

According to the retention consultant Richard. Dick. Finnegan Money and perks can be used to attract people to your company, but they can't be used to keep people there,"& "The biggest reason people give for leaving their job is because they are disconnected from their bosses or work situation. He also says employee retention is driven by good bosses. Good pay and good benefits are important, but the real focus must be on making work interesting and establishing good managers. (Ref: Richard Finnegan(2009) http://www.retentioninstitute.com/about-richard-finnegan.html)

The theory of job design is an important concept in business management.   Workers are motivated by jobs in which they feel they can make a difference- and jobs can be designed with that in mind. (Ref: http://www.businessdictionary.com/definition/job-design.html)

Job design

In simple words, Job design refers to the way tasks are combined to form complete jobs. The nature of the work organization & the ‘design' of jobs can have a significant effect on the job satisfaction of staff & their performance. Money alone is not the only reason behind why people work. They need to get enjoyment from doing their job & this is why job design plays an important role in motivating employees. Job design is concerned with the relationship between workers, the nature & the content of jobs, & their task functions. It attempts to meet employees' personal & social needs at work through the reorganization or reconstructing of work. Jobs can be designed in such a way so that employees are encouraged to perform well & enjoy their job. There are two main reasons for attention to job design: (1) To enhance the personal satisfaction that employees derive from their work; (2) To make the best use of people as a valuable resource of the organization & to help overcome obstacles to their effective performance.

Job design uses an analytical approach to identify 1st the work, then the skill, & finally the employee who has or may acquire those skills. The three main methods of job design are: Job Rotation, Enlargement & Enrichment.

(Ref;http://www.oppapers.com/essays/Job-Rotation-Enlargement-Enrichmnet/107411)

Chapter No 3

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

The author plans to obtain a sample from the mass and for this purpose the author will use sampling techniques and the samples will be selected out of the universe. Author will choose simple random sampling techniques, as this technique is probability based. There will be sampling from 4 and 5star hotels and the managers and staff members will be selected randomly to reach the sample size.

The responses of the responder were collected using survey questionnaire. This questionnaire consisted of the questions carefully designed to infringe upon the responses specifically linked to job duties, job responsibilities, job duration, level of satisfaction, desire to stay absent and the turnover to some new job. During designing this questionnaire the principles of the ethics were carefully considered so that the human rights of the responders are well preserved. The ethical principles which were carefully considered are as follows:-

INFORMED CONSENT- ethically correct procedure is to inform prospective participants about study and to secure their voluntary consent. All the responder voluntarily responded to the questionnaire. There was no obligation for them to complete the questionnaire.

FREEDOM FROM HARM—Every precaution was taken to protect people being studied from physical or mental harm or discomfort. It was ensure that their name will not be reflected anywhere with their responses. It was necessary to prevent their identification from the responses. This was to cause double blinding of the responders as well as of the analyzing individual.

PRIVACY,ANONYMOSITY, CONFIDENTIALITY—individuals who divulge their personal views and efforts should be protected from public disclosure.  The mechanism that acts as safeguard of participants identifies are known as anonymity and confident ability . A participant is regarded as anonymous if even the researcher cannot link participant with information provided.  In face to face solutions in which anonymity is difficult the researcher should offer participants a guarantee of confidentiality. It was ensured that the responders cannot be identified from the responses. It was necessary so that they could respond freely without any fear of the employee.

ELEMENTS OF INFORMED CONSENT—the component of informed consent of information elements are closure of information and consent element ensuring voluntary nature of participation. 

RIGHT OF INFORMATION —subjects must be fully informed. They were given clarification of the question in case they needed before responding for it.

Data Collection Methods

Data Collection

This research is explanatory and descriptive as the proposed research aims to examine as whether there is any relation between job dissatisfaction and the absenteeism and high employee turnover. In an explanatory and descriptive research data can be collected in forms of secondary and primary data through various secondary and primary sources respectively. The author will use method of primary data collection which will be personal interviews and this will be done according to the questionnaires which the author will make for the staff so as to get the reply of his/her queries which will help in the completion of the dissertation.

Instrumentations and data collection

Data were collected using a questionnaire that contained measures of employee turnover due to

Structured Questionnaires: This will used as to generate information and data, which subsequently will use for both qualitative and quantitative analysis. The data were collected in April 2009.

Sample Selection

Random sampling is the one where the individual units (samples) are selected at random. Random selection does not mean unsystematic selection of units. It means the chance of each item of the universe being included in the sample is equal. The term ‘Random sampling’ here is not used to describe the data in the sample but it refers to the process used for selecting the sample Robert (2004).

Author had sorted out few of the randomly selected hotels for the data collection, these hotels are:

Rockland hotels

Oberoi Hotel‎, New Delhi

The grand

Tivoli Garden Resort, New Delhi

The Oberoi Amarvilas Hotel, Agra

The Connaught, New delhi

Clark International, Karol Bagh, New Delhi

Florence, Karol Bagh, New Delhi

Chapter 4

Data Analysis & Results

This chapter deals with the findings of the current study and their interpretation on the basis of the statistical analysis. The data was analyzed using the mean values of the total responses to each of the questions. The MS office Excel 2007 was used to plot the graphical presentation of the results.

1.1 Research findings interpretations

Biographical details

S.No

Age

Yrs in current position

Education

Average working hrs

Another job option

Hrs on another job

1

23

2

Degree

12.5

Yes

2-4

2

19

1

12th

13.5

No

-

3

25

3

12th

10.5

No

-

4

26

4

Degree

10.5

Yes

4-5

5

19

1

12th

13.5

No

-

6

23

2

12th

13

No

-

7

25

2

10th

10.5

No

-

8

27

3

12th

10.5

No

-

9

23

1

diploma

15

Yes

3-4

10

26

3

12th

10.5

No

-

11

25

1

Degree

15

Yes

2-3

12

19

1

diploma

15

Yes

2-3

13

18

1

12th

14.5

No

-

14

29

4

Degree

13.5

Yes

1-2

15

23

2

Degree

12.5

Yes

4-5

16

27

1

12th

15

No

-

17

29

1

10th

10.5

No

-

18

19

1

diploma

15

Yes

3

19

35

6

10th

9.5

Yes

2

20

23

1

10th

14.5

No

-

21

21

2

12th

14.5

No

-

22

26

3

Degree

14

Yes

4

23

26

3

12th

11.5

No

-

24

28

4

12th

11.5

No

-

25

21

1

10th

13.5

No

-

26

28

2

Degree

14

Yes

2-3

27

23

1

10th

12.5

No

-

28

24

3

10th

14.5

No

-

29

28

2

10th

11.5

Yes

3

30

20

1

12th

15

No

-

31

18

1

Degree

14.5

Yes

2

32

25

3

10th

12.5

No

-

33

28

2

Degree

10.5

Yes

2-4

34

25

1

12th

11.5

No

-

35

26

2

degree

13.5

Yes

1-2

36

27

6

10th

11.5

No

-

37

28

4

10th

11.5

No

-

38

21

2

12th

11.4

No

-

39

27

3

10th

14.5

No

-

40

29

5

diploma

11.5

Yes

2-3

41

20

1

10th

13.5

No

-

42

21

2

diploma

13.5

Yes

1-2

43

31

7

10th

10.5

No

-

44

18

1

10th

15

No

-

45

19

1

10th

13.5

No

-

46

23

3

Degree

14.5

No

-

47

29

3

12th

12.5

No

-

48

23

2

12th

11.5

Yes

2-3

49

19

1

10th

15

No

-

50

27

3

10th

12.5

No

-

PART II

For the Following Questions, Please Circle the Answer that Best Describes Your Views:

S no.

Question

Response

1

2

3

4

5

1

I had a good idea of what this position involved before I began

3

12

24

5

6

2

I feel that I am valued by this agency

2

7

10

27

4

3

I feel overwhelmed by my responsibilities at work

3

7

7

28

5

4

Other people view my job as a valuable profession

4

4

6

11

25

5

I am satisfied with the way that this agency is managed

1

3

8

28

10

6

I am confident of my abilities to succeed at my work

4

5

9

21

11

7

I regularly think/worry about work issues when I am at home

3

8

7

27

5

8

I believe that my position at work is a professional position

1

9

25

12

3

9

I am satisfied with my income

5

4

26

11

4

10

I have mastered the skills necessary to perform my work

1

10

25

11

3

11

Prior to accepting this position, I understood my job

1

7

6

12

24

12

I have ample opportunities for advancement in this profession

2

23

1

19

5

13

This job demands too much (physically, emotionally, mentally)

2

10

5

27

6

14

I am fully able to use my skills in this position

3

6

6

10

25

15

I make pretty good money compared to others in this field

23

16

5

4

2

16

If I felt that I needed extra training, it would be made available for me

6

2

24

14

4

17

I believe that my supervisors care deeply for me and for our clients

9

6

5

3

27

18

The work I do is interesting

10

8

6

1

25

19

This job adds significant pressure and anxiety to my life

4

9

5

6

26

20

I am satisfied with the benefits offered to me through this job

2

17

24

4

3

21

I am generally satisfied with the kind of work I do in this job

5

1

5

26

13

22

I receive adequate support from my supervisors

4

15

4

4

23

RATING YOUR JOB SATISFACTION

1

not satisfied

at all

2

3

somewhat

satisfied

4

5

extremely satisfied

Using the scale shown above, rate your level of satisfaction with the following aspects of your job.

(reference:http://www.eurofound.europa.eu/ewco/reports/TN0608TR01/Q0608TR01.pdf, (http://www.directcareclearinghouse.org/download/KY_DSP_Job_Satisfaction_Questionnaire.pdf)

How satisfied are you with (give scoring in 1- 5scale)…

Earnings, job security, type of work, number of working hours, working time, working conditions/environment, distance to work/commuting?

GENERAL WORKING CONDITIONS

_____ Hours worked each week

_____ Flexibility in scheduling

_____ Location of work

_____ Amount of paid vacation time/sick leave offered

PAY AND PROMOTION POTENTIAL

_____ Salary

_____ Opportunities for Promotion

_____ Benefits (Health insurance, life insurance, etc.)

_____ Job Security

_____ Recognition for work accomplished

WORK RELATIONSHIPS

_____ Relationships with your co-workers

_____ Relationship(s) with your supervisor(s)

_____ Relationships with your subordinates (if applicable)

USE OF SKILLS AND ABILITIES

_____ Opportunity to utilize your skills and talents

_____ Opportunity to learn new skills

_____ Support for additional training and education

WORK ACTIVITIES

_____ Variety of job responsibilities

_____ Degree of independence associated with your work roles

_____ Adequate opportunity for periodic changes in duties.

Chapter 5

Discussion

The aim of this study was to find the relation between job dissatisfaction and the absenteeism and turnover. The hypothesis that the job dissatisfaction among service department leads to absenteeism and high employee turnover, was not found to be totally true in this present study. There was found to be a g\higher tendency towards switch over to new job among the responders who were dissatisfied with their job. Yet the tendency towards absenteeism was not similarly prevalent among them. It means those who were dissatisfied with their jobs, had higher tendency to switch over to new jobs but they were not found to stay frequently absent from their jobs. This finding was a bit different from what was expected.

These results are similar to the findings of Lau et al (2003) who had conducted a meta-analysis on 19 different studies and found only a weak job satisfaction effect on absence from work.

Few previous studies have found a direct link between the satisfaction and the internal service quality and financial results. They also found that the satisfied employees are more loyal to their organizations and indulge less in the job turnover. Sweetman, S.J (2001) & Brooks. R (2000).

However the relatively low sample size might have been an internal threat to the objective of the present study. The Job satisfaction might be one of the factors that determine employees’ motivation to attend (Spector, 2000). There are many other variables, both personal and organizational, which seem to influence employee attendance. Though the job dissatisfaction might be responsible for the increased incidence of absenteeism and job turnover yet the mandatory job responsibilities, fear of losing job if staying absent, and the lack of other available job opportunity might force a person to continue with the job without switching over to the new one. This might be one of the factor which also needs to be considered while determining the relation between job dissatisfaction and the absenteeism incidence. Thus the “intent to remain absent” may be sometime also consider an additional factor beside the actual “incidence of absenteeism”.

The present study also found that the employees in higher level jobs having more experience tend to be less absent than employees with relatively lesser experience. Similar findings were reported by Fried et al (2002) who found similar results on a sample of 802 white-collar employees across twenty one organizations in Israel. Voss et al (2001), attributed such results to the fact that higher-level jobs tend to be more complex and have better working conditions, pay, promotion prospects, supervision, autonomy and responsibility. Hence these employees would less likely be absent.

The findings of the studies were discussed with the HR manager of the hotels to possibly narrow down the probable reasons for these findings. They were asked to explain how they dealt with the workers who had tendency to be absent from their work. The possible reason for the low relation between job dissatisfaction and absenteeism could be based on the disciplinary approaches taken by the HR management of these hotel organizations, upon receiving the complaint of nuisance or unethical absenteeism from the service department. These disciplinary approaches could involve deduction of money from wages, verbal/written warnings, issue of warning notice or fine charges if found guilty of being absent without prior permission.

According to Mr. Punit (HR manager of Oberoi hotel Agra ) such disciplinary steps were important to retain the old employees, so that the over expenditure for the recruiting and training new employees could be important, as the new recruitment and the training needs lots of money as expenditure.

At the same point it was also questioned that what possible steps were taken to avoid the punishment of innocent employees who remained absent from work due to some genuine reasons. On this Mr. Punit replied that the monthly review of the attendance charts and the punching system was done to register the accurate timings of their entry and exit to the hotel. Also they were given warning if they were absent from their jobs without informing their supervisors. In case they informed their supervisors about their leave then they were required to produce the evidence in support of their explanation for being absent.

CONCLUSION

This study found a higher tendency of dissatisfied employees towards switching over to new job if a suitable opportunity is found. This study also found that the disciplinary steps taken to curb the uninformed absenteeism can significantly reduce the incidence of absenteeism even in dissatisfied employees. Furthermore it revealed that the “intention to be absent” must be considered and recorded separately from the “actual incidence of the absenteeism”.

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Weblography

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