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HR Practices and recruitment and selection procedures

After the analysis of recruitment and selection procedures, it was analyzed that there is a vast requirement of investigation which would result in organizational impact and business unit in both the departments. Interestingly every author describes that the organizational effectiveness depends upon the hiring and recruitment of highly skilled employees. If this is not the case then why should anyone buy into staffing? As a matter of fact there is a little direct, experimental proof assessing this postulation. These effects may be estimated by utility analysis but again those will only be estimates which are restrained to budgetary outcomes and are more oftentimes disregarded by managers. HR managers & practitioners will generally go above their authority to add critical value to their firm. Similarly,‭ ‬from a theoretical perspective,‭ ‬it is discouraging that there is not more direct, experimental evidence connecting personal conflicts to an organization’s effectiveness.‭ 

At the individual level we are able to see a large scale of staffing research being carrying out while on the other hand there is little staffing research at the organizational level,‭ ‬but each discipline rarely considers processes,‭ ‬constructs,‭ ‬and influences outside its respective level.‭ ‬That is,‭ ‬micro-‭ ‬and macro-level researches are both primarily single-level‭ ‬disciplines because their independent and dependent variables are contained within the same level of analysis‭ (‬Ployhart,‭ ‬2004‭)‬.‭ ‬Micro‭ (‬individual‭)‬-level research examines how individual differences ‭(‬knowledge,‭ ‬skills,‭ ‬abilities,‭ ‬and other characteristics‭; ‬KSAOs‭) ‬contribute to individual performance but assumes individual differences contribute to organizational value.‭ 

Micro research is usually conducted from‭ ‬the perspective of organizational‭ ‬psychology. Macro‭ ‭(‬organizational or business unit‭)‬-level research examines how HR practices‭ (‬e.g.,‭ ‬staffing‭) contribute to organizational performance but assumes that these practices have an effect because of their influence‭ ‬on employee KSAOs.‭ ‬Note that in macro research,‭ ‬these unit-level KSAOs are referred to as‭ ‬human capital‭ ‬and rarely measured.‭ ‬For example, research suggests that organizations using well-developed staffing practices have better performance‭ (‬Huselid,‭ ‬1995‭)‬, but the focus is on the practice itself and not the specific human capital affected by the practice. Macro research is usually conducted from the perspective of strategy or strategic HR management‭ ‬(SHRM‭)‬. If macro & micro both restrain their implicative insinuations to their respective levels,‭ ‬there would be no cause for concern. But both disciplines make inferences and assumptions that extend beyond their respective levels.‭ ‬This is known as a‭ ‬cross-level fallacy in more than one level of research and takes place when researchers inappropriately generalize their within-level findings to higher or lower levels of analysis‭ (‬Rousseau,‭ ‬1985‭).

Objective of research: Selecting, recruiting and hiring the right employees is the primary objective of any successful organization which also helps maintaining a high standard of that organization. 

Literature Review:

Recruitment:

Recruitment mainly focuses on competent applicants and looks for the people who are highly qualified for the perspective position available in the organization. The recruiters in an organization are well aware of the fact that recruiting skilled people is a major problem for them. Applicants have a vast choice of employers in the market due to tightened labor markets.

Surveys show that proximately more than half of the employees working in an organization are still passively probing for jobs & less than half of them are continuously searching actively. Most of the organizations have problems recruiting rather than selection. Selection is not easily affective, if ample quantity of employees apply to an organization then it may be financially condonable. Most of the organizations try really hard in order to attract a contrary workforce in associating this challenge. There is an expanding concept that for an organization to survive would be really hard if organizations start to recruit by itself instead of using selection. With the reflection of its significance, a lot of outstanding reviews have been issued on recruitment.(Breaugh & Starke, 2000; Highhouse & Hoffman, 2001; Rynes & Cable, 2003; Saks, 2005; Taylor & Collins, 2000). 

It does not supply us with the absolute detail or depth of those reviews.

Comparatively it provides with the up to date developments with extensive implication for an effective organization. The recruitment meta-analysis is a brilliant way to begin the review started by Uggerslev,Piasentin, Carroll, Jones and Chapman (2005). 

After a careful study, 71 studies were summarized to assess the affect sizes and path relationships among recruiting anticipation (hiring expectancies, perceived alternatives, perceived fit) and candidate's attraction source (job choice, acceptance intentions). This analysis is very helpful in adapting and clarifying  a rather diverse literature,‭ ‬and there are many specific findings,‭ ‬with the key ones listed below:‭ 

Perceptions of person-organization fit and job/organizational attributes were the strongest predictors of the various recruiting outcomes.‭ ‬The next strongest set of predictors tended to be perceptions of the recruitment process‭ (‬e.g.,‭ ‬fairness‭)‬,‭ ‬followed by recruiter competencies and hiring expectancies.‭ ‬Interestingly,‭ ‬The recruiter functional occupation or demographics does not show any relationship what so ever to the recruitment outcomes.

Personnel Selection Best Practices:

Personnel selection practices (e.g., employees skills, interviews) continue to acquire several attention from staffing scholars. There are several comprehensive reviews of selection practices as well as practical applications and discussions of research. Instead of reviewing all this research, the present review summarizes the major new developments. The current review abstracts the main and the latest advancements rather than reviewing the whole research. The arrangements and procedures for the selection and assignment of the members of the Scientific Committee of the European Union Agency for Fundamental Rights (FRA).

Pre-selection:

An advertisement is used for the selection of the members of the Scientific committee of FRA which would also show the level of interests of the candidates in accordance with the present procedures. The level of interest is to be published in the Agency's website as well as in the EU's official journal.The closing deadline for submission of candidates’ expressions of interest shall be fixed six weeks after the above mentioned publication.

The Agency's director shall prepare and organize the tasks for the affiliates of scientific committee. The director shall chair a preselection panel. Only 2 members of the management board may be allowed only as observers to attend the preselection panel.

The eligibility requirements may be verified by the preselection panel in accordance with the eligibility of the candidates. If they fail to satisfy any 1 of the requirements, it would result in omission of that particular candidate. He would not be allowed to go further in the selection process.

It all depends on the preselection panel on how they may assess each appropriate applicant according to the needs for selection. Each applicant will be provided with an individual assessment form, which would include emphasizing on specific values, short comment.

The result of preselection process will be presented by the director to the FRA executive board which will also include the information on unsuccessful applicants.

Selection:

Established selection requirements will be the basis of the executive board which will be assessing the applicants.

In this assessment the Board shall take into account:

• The work of the pre-selection panel;

• With correspondence of the objectives and mission of FRA, members of the scientific committee in specialist fields shall cover the most consistent scientific fields.

The list of the most eligible applicants will be submitted to the management board by the executive board. The list should not exceed more than 22 names but it should include more than 11 names. As a member of the scientific committee, each applicant will have merit points on the list and also their suitability in a certain department.

The results of the selection process to the Management Board will be presented by the chairman of the executive board,‭ ‬including a record of the applicants not included in the lists mentioned above as well as on applicants deemed ineligible.‭ 

‭‬The Agency services will provide technical and logistic support for the selection process.‭ 

Methodology:

Recruitment and Selection Process is basically very simple but important process for any organization because all departments require Recruitment and Selection Process efficiency.‭ ‬In this process we have two things Recruitment and Selection,‭ ‬firstly company bring more and more candidates and then put them on the selection process after the selection of final candidate this process is completed.Keeping the requirements in mind,‭ ‬I will be using a‭ ‬quantitative research design. The questionnaires will be filled from the different organizations.‭ 

‭Sampling technique and samples:

In order to know the affect of Recruitment sources,‭ ‬Interviews‭ ‬and Recruiters on Recruitment and selection process a lot of effort will need to be put in the gathering of data.‭ I will be using ‭a ‬ sample of 200‭ ‬manager‭s ‬and other HR related employees to conduct the study.‭ ‬I am looking forward to get all the information within a month’s time. Two hundred questionnaires will be distributed to different organizations where the HR practices are common.

For conclusion I will be using various statistical applications and the result will be presentedin a graphical or a tabular form.

HR practices reveal that staffing is a key for organizational improvement and development process. In any company, managers at various levels try to maximize the performance of their staff, make decisions regarding providing them training and whether they should hire employees or contractors for better performance. Project manager’s leaders make Hiring decisions according to their organizational needs. Staff is not as simple as one considers. It involves many aspects such as legal requirements of the country as well as keeping in view the labour market. We examined the case to case difficulties of today’s managers regarding suitable recruitment of human capital.

The most difficulty in recruitments is no availability of motivated employees . These companies make staffing decisions based on what makes sense for a particular situation. But there's a difference between what makes the most sense for an individual manager and what makes the most sense for the entire organization. A manager needs to fill a vacancy according to job specification. The manager may think that a contract resource will be required, since the need may not be long-term. But short term arrangements do not provide motivational employees as the recruited persons on contractual basis may not work with keen interest. But in the other hand, the company may have projects ending in other areas and people who need to be reassigned other duties or lay off. So, from a company perspective, perhaps the best course of action would be to look for an internal transfer, even if the person is not a fully fit according to the requirements.

If everyone makes staff-related decisions based on their individual needs, it'll typically end up being inefficient from an organizational perspective.

Staffing strategy is established at an organizational level for minimizing cost effects and increase productivity. Company makes policies for deployment of human resources in a befitting manner .staffing strategy provides overall guidance on how A manager deals with staff. This includes how he identifies new staff, the types of people he wants as staff, how you'll develop them, and how you'll retain them. The strategy must reflect current realities, but also set the direction for where you want to be in three to five years. To make it real, it must be followed and executed on a daily basis. The human resources department should provide input into the staffing strategy, but it's not up to them to develop it. Once the strategy is developed, HR will be responsible for building some of the policies and processes to support it. Important and relevant conditions in the marketplace and other external factors that must be considered in this strategy.

The beginning of the staffing process involves identifying candidates to fill openings. Your strategy provides guidance to managers for how candidates should be identified. This does not necessarily imply new hires. Your strategy should start by describing, in general, how you would like to fill staff openings. Many theories reveal why and how Companies exercise HRM practices, but validity of this contention is doubtful from many points of view as situation in each case is quite different. So this study paying attention on the identification of more basic, surface-level explanations for the lack of use of sound staffing practices, rather than investigating theoretical underlying causal factors. Once the surface-level reasons offered by HRM practitioners are identified, it should be possible to work backward to deduce the core explanations. This approach may be more inexpensive because the reasons and underlying explanations may differ from one type of staffing practice to the next. A review of the relevant academic and practitioner literature yielded a number of possible surface-level explanations which were grouped into five general classes:

Lack of acquaintance or consciousness,

Viewpoint that the practices are not useful,

Legal concerns,

reserve HR capital constraints

Other factors.

Lack of acquaintance might explain the limited use of experiments and validation studies. These practices are often the subject of articles found in academic HRM research journals, but they are rarely mentioned in softer practitioner journals. Duncan, as well as Gannon and Noon have suggested that HRM practitioners rarely access academic research literature. Furthermore, the literature related to staffing and validation studies is very complex and scientific, and is not easily understood without suitable training. However various research literature explain best theory and practice of human resources management regarding staffing and providing job specification to all the employees according the core values of the organization and objectives of the management whether they are short terms or long term. The achievements of the objectives pave way to productivity. In other words survival of the company relays on the appropriate staffing and best HR practices. Legal environment of the organization is obstacle against best and intellectual human property to be hired as it fear that the use of a practice could lead to prejudice job tests. The organization's legal environment or the composition of its staff could influence the types of practices used. Practitioners may misjudge the dependability and soundness of cognitive tests because they are either ignorant of or do not believe the behind academic research literature. Some may also wrongly assume that cognitive tests will lead to more adverse impact than other predictors. But there is no single selection device that will not have adverse impact against some protected class. For example, a commonly used alternative, the vague interview, has been found to have adverse impact against three protected. Resource constraints might also help explain organizations' lack of use of some staffing practices. Budgetary constraints may prevent the adoption of some practices, particularly if executives are unaware of the potential payoffs. Time constraints may also be a fence Time pressures, information excess, and the disjointed nature of managers' schedules may add to the lack of use of practices. This may be even more of a difficulty when the staffing practice involves composite ideas or execution procedures. Human resource constraints may also limit the implementation.

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